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SXIAS  \\RK;Hr  1)1  NMN(. 








<*  THK 







Under  Govermnent  Orders, 





72^' ^"^^y 

The  chief  contiibufeors  Me  Mr.W.  Bamsay,  O.S.,  who  prepared  draft 
accoonl^  of  Deecription,  FrodnctioD,  Hiatdty,  Surrey  Hietory,  and 
the  D^ga,  and  Mr.  John  PoUen,  C.S.,  the  District  Compiler,  who, 
hesidee  many  corrections  and  additions,  faniiahed  the  hulk  of  the^ 
materials  for  the  Popolation,  Trade,  and  Capital  chapters,  and  a  masft. 
of  detuls  for  History  and  I^cea  of  Interest.  A  manascript  acconnt. 
of  the  district,  written  in  1869  l^  Mr.  A.  Crawley-&>evey,  G.S., 
was  of  great  vtOtafi  especially  in  preparing  the  History  chapter. 
Mr.  Whitcombe'a  Sab-dirisional  Acoouats  and  vety  complete  Barrey 
fignres  for  the  Land  Administration  chapter,  and  Mr.  Stormont's 
paper  on  Agrictdtiire,  are  also  most  valnalole  cofltribations. 

Since  the  district  map  was  prepared  the  official  speUing  of  a  few 
names  has  been  altered.  The  change  is  in  no  case  so  great  as  to  cause 
eonfuBioQ.  , 

'Vecemlor  1880. 




•         K^NOESH. 

OapCn  L— SMcr^tlgn.                             *  p^uu 

PosltatmAnd  Are* i Bonnclarieq ;  Snb-dinnona ;  AqieDt  •..  1-8 

-   HOla ;  Bivera ;  XAfces      ..•                ...                ...  J.  4-11 

Ooologj ;  Hot  iimiigB  I  OlimBte     _  h.               ...  ...  18>1S 

Chftptar  IL— FradoBtioa. 
Umemh ;  Torata ;  Trees  ...  .„  ...      16-27 

Aiiiinal0iBudi;7uh   —  ...  ...  ...     S8>87 

\/  (Ajvter xn.— FopitlcttaB. 

iDtrodmition ;  Tjagtmgo;  Oennu  DetailiXlSTfl)  .»      38 -4S 

Bace  DiTisiona                ...                ...                ...  ...   49-138 

Villages;  Houses;  CommimitieB ;  Movemente     ...  ...  129-135 

Chapter  VI.— Agrienltnre.  o 

Caltivatora  ;  Holding ;  Crop  Ai«a ;  "Soil ;  Irrigation  ...  136  - 139 

"Watef  Workfl ;  Fidd  Toola ;  Field  Operatioiu ;  Crop  pnttarn  140  - 148 

^^  Crops ;  Oardening ;  Oovenuneot  Farm  ...  ...  149  •  181 

Blights ;  Locnste ;  Famines  ...  ...  ...182-190 

Chapter  T.— Capital 

Capitalists  ;    Exchange   Bilk ;     Saving     Classes  ;   Traders  ; 

Acconnt  Books ;  Correnc^  ;  Interest  ...  ...  191  - 195 

Moneylenders ;  Land  Mortgages ;  Bhils ;  ArtisaoB ;  La^oiu-ars  ; 

Labonr  Mortgage ;  Wages ;  Prices  j  WeiRhts  and  Meaenres.  196  -  206 

Chapter  VL-Trade. 

Sec,  I.— Rontee ;  Passes ;  Bailway ;  Bridges ;  Ferries ;  Best- 

hoDses ;  Post  and  Telegraph  Ofacra  ...  ...  206-213 

Bee.  n.— Trade    (247-1880);    Centres;     Markets;     Faiie; 
Village   Shopkeepers ;  Peddlers ;  Carriers ;  Imports  ^d 
Exports  ...  ...  ...        ;       ...  214-223 

Sec.  III.-CraftB;Crftft  Guilds        ...  ...    '  ...224-23? 

a  ^         CONTENTS. 


EM-ly  Hihdn  (1600  B.o.  •  1300  a.d.)  ;  Mii»lniAiiJ189Ji-1760^  j 
Mardtha  (1760-1818)';  Britui  (1818;J880)  ...  286-263 

Chapter  TIZL— Lui  Adrntniitration. 

See.  I,— STArr  ...  ...  ...  ...  264-265 

-  Sao.  XL— BiTiKDi  HiSTOBT :  Earl;  Hindn ;  Moghal ;  Haritiia .  266  •  271 
Sec,  in. — Bbitisb  Maniqeuent  ;  Condition  and  Staff  (1818)  ; 
BeToaoe    Settlement  (1821);  Sammai?  (1618-1852)  ; 
Survey    (1852  - 1870) ;  Surrey    Besulto  (1852  - 1878) ; 
Development  (1846-1880)       ...  ...  ...272-297 

Sec.  IV.— Skasoh  Bbpobts  ...  ...  ...  298-303 

Chi^teT  XZ.-^iiitioe.  ** 

Maritba ;  British  ;  Staff  ;  pivil  Justice  ...  **  ...  304-  307 

Bie^tration ;   Criminal   JoBtice ;  Criminal  Tribes;  Police ;      * 

Bba  Corps ;  Jails        ...                  ...  ...  ...  308-819 

Chapter  X— Berenoe  and  Vinattoe. 

BalanosSheet                  ...                ...  ...                ...320-325 

Local  Funds ;  Mnnicipalitiefl             ..■  ...                ...  326  -  328- 

Chaptn  XL— InitmBtum. 

Schools  {  Persons  able  to  Bead  and  Write ;  Bace  of  Pupils ; 

School  Betam;  Town  and  Village  Education;  Libraries] 

Newspapers          y      ...-              ...  ...                ...329-335 

Chapter  ZIL— Bealth. 
Diseases ;   Hospitals  and  DlBpensariea ;   Vaccination  ;  Births 
and  Deaths  ...  ...  336-341 

Chapter  Zin.-8ub-diviiioiia  —  —  —  342-430 

Chapter  XIT.-Kaoai of  Interart  -^^ ...i3l-594 

8t*t<a  .^ .^ ...  ...  595- ete- 

UrDKZ  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  015-624 











,  Eha'ndos^,'  Ijing  betvreen  20°  8*  anS  22"  7*  nAi-llt  lotitade  aod 
r  42'  auJ  7C'  28"  caet  iongilude,  wiili  a  total  area  of  10.481 
Ituirc  milcj,  had,  in  187i,  a  population  of  l,OiB,IHi  soabi  or 
iiiety.oigliL  to  thu  eqaarc  milo,  und  iu  1879,  «  land  reretme  of 
"lO.OOy  (lie.  31,00,090). 

StrctwhinK  nearly  160  m!Ies  along  tl«J  TApfei,  and  Tftryinff  in 
I  breadth  from  sovuut-y  to  ninety  milvs,  KluUittis'^u  rornw  tm  upland 
bftJMn,  the  moiit  nortlioHy  soclnm  of  tho  l)oc<?(ui  table -land.  A.long 
tins  frliolu  uorthorn  frontier,  the  di!^tT^^t  U  bouuJed  by  ihu  8&1i>udil 
raugo,  a  mountain  tract  trom  thirty  to  forty  niilos  wide.  !■  r>.tn 
tho  north-east  eoraw,  M  far  an  the  Sind^^g&s  «n  tho  Agra 
HMil.  nxc'opt  two  or  throe  of  tho  Boutlit'r?n(Igc^"ilic  ^11  coimlty 
belonjfa  t*>  Hla  Highness  lialfeflT-  furilicr  we«t,  in  ShAh.-ida, 
the  Khitndesh  InMindary  akirtet  tho  base  of  tho  hillH  ;  thoa, 
iuclutling  tho  AkrAni  torritorv,  it  Btrikae  north,  rij^ht  into  the  heart 
of  tho  hilU,  to  wliijre,  lu  ii  dc-op  narrow  chaunel,  tho  Wlrbada  foirta 
ita  w»y  (hrouph  tho  StUpudtU.  From  this  to  it«  norCh-wont  oorucr, 
tho  Nitrbit(n\  rumHins  tho  iiorthom  iK>iiudiii-y  of  the  district.  .Oafho 
cast  andsTiuth-eaat,  a  row  of  pillara  and  sodid  convoniout  streams, 
witbonfany  markod  natural  jtfftpjftrT.  Bopamte  KbAndesh  from  tho 
Centoid  ffovi^M  ,ftn J  Hi'nt'.  To  tho  south  the  Ajania,  fidtoutla 
or"  diiAn^or  mofre  may  nmjfhJy  bo  said  to  mark  the  lino  betwocn 
Elutu(U-sfa  and  tlio  Nii^n's  territory.  On  tho  i!oiitb-wcKt,  the  Arva 
or  Laliiij;,  and  Giilna  hills  itepuratv  Khdnde^h  from  NAaik.  Thenco 
tho  frontier  crosseii  the  Sahyddris,  and  runs  north-west  altHig  a  woll 
.      » 

<  rron  uutctU*  nimilM  tf  thr  W.  Ramiay,  C-&.,  uul  Ur.  J.  C-  Wbiteottbs^ 
AMuUnt  Snrtvy  ^ferlaUmdtat, 

*  Aeowdtiu  toAbul  Ful  (Olwlwb'i  Aln-iAklMri, H.  ffT).  tlienMiie  Klutodoh^s 
dorivrd  Inm  Kltin  tho  llUa  jlTea  Il4i;>  hy  Aluaail  L  of  aujMdt  (1411>14431  to  • 
bftdik  Nulr  tbo  MEOBd  or  tli«  Anikl  Ungi{Bngg>'FeriibU,IV.  2tL1).  TlMfMittlwt 
Feruht* (BndgK,  I.  SC7-309)  «p«*]EM  of  tfcocbwu  «f  Kliiiidwb  tn  huocoowit  of  tbo 
flnt  UtUBlmio  o«fiq«C4t  (lt^,M),  /aconni  iba  viaw  tlMt  tke  nMno  w«a  older  tlun 
UtuklmlB  tiiMN,  uKl  Vim  pouililjr  cluuuFod  by  tbttn  to  aiut  Um  titl«  of  tliu  Famki 
kinin.  Mr.  Sinclur,  C.S..  htt  vagmattA  (lad.  Ant.  IV.  IDS]  £«nA<iJr«V  m  the  UaA 
at  KfUlini.  ui  tlic  oii^iBkl  tana.  Aooontiiu  to  ■oitk  oVI  vom  Khtadeah  i*  tlia 
KkltHluTforut 'if  •!  x<  .' "hlmitlBdoSllicti  K.  a  Uu«thc,  Sulionltuiita  Jad^oof 
Aaulner)  -.  «»i  ^^  .tJi.Arat  Lut  nf  Peopla  asd  FUo«*  :  Wurka.  VTI.  IM) 

mentioni  tbe  Kti-i  uids*  next  iKforo  tlw  poo|i)e  of  Viilarbhu'ox  Btdar, 

^(«(Rop.  BiU.  At.  lajf,  237}  derive*  the  u^flfroaiMaiKl or  iAiW,*  g^ar 

■  ■.0  (MM. 



[Bombay  Qaal 

ipter  I. 


■di  virion!. 



marked  weatom  spar  ot  that  mnge,  as  far  as  the  town  and  Eo 
Songad.  vFrom*Songad  the  TApti  »ivor  and  a  line  of  masonry  pt 
carry  the  bonndary  north-east  back  to  the  S^tpndas  at  the  weiat 
of  the  Akr&ni  territory.  Within  these  limits,  except  that  in  sfli 
places  along  the  soath  boundary  the  NizAm's  territory  runanOT 
the  Aianta  ramge,  and^hat  in  the  extreme  south  a  group  of  tha 
KhAndeiili  vHI^es  lies  isolated  on  the  Deccau  table-land,  Kh^ 
is  a  compact  diBtrict  with  none  of  its  lands  subject  to  any  i 

For     administrative    purposes    KbAndoBh    is    distributed 
sixtipen  sub -divisions,  with,  on  an  average,  an  area  of  C52  ac 
miles,  215  villages,  and  6+,250  inhabitants.     Of  these  sub-divie 
Amalner,  Bhusaval,  PAchora,  and  Pimpalher  have,  each  of  them, 
and  S&vda  has  tw(  petty  divisions.^ 

Khdndt^  AdminiilTtUiee  Dett^,  1879. 


OovArnmoiiL           AlienKUjd. 

Total . 
























Atnnlnflr    ,, 












BhllUrnl   ,. 
























Chop^     ... 





















Er^indot     .. 



































Nodiabod  . 






•  •• 







Vlehorn    .. 













Pit  I'M  a        r 



71    JIO 








.    *H 



l£B        1 









Hlliliidl    „ 



13       ... 










Sbtrpur     .. 



Ida      1 







Talnela      ,. 



IK     .     : 









Vlrdel       .. 



30  {    1 










ibviivn  m 











An  upland  basin,  draining  into  the  T^pti  with  a  gentle  wo: 
b1«^,  KhAndeah  includes  most  varied  tracts  of  country,  wil 
ana  f«rest,  rich  garden  and  grove,  stretches  of  barren  plain 
low  rolling  rocky  hills.  From  east  to  west,  parallel  with  tho  "i 
are  three  well  marked  belts  of  country,  in  the  contro  the 
TApti  valleyj^n  the  north  the  high  and  wild  SAtpudAs,  and  i 
Bonth  and  south-west  bare  ridges  and  rich  well  watered  vi 
flanked  by  the  Ajapta  and  SahyAdri  hills. 

The  TApti  banks  are  high  and  bare,  and  the  land  on  both 
is  seamed  by  tributary  rivers  and  streams.  Now  and  again  fi-oi 

'  The  Arailner  petty  division  is  Pirolu ;  th»t  of  Bhiisdval,  RUnliwl  ;  t 
PAohora,  Blmdgaun ;  that  of  PiinuolDcr,  flixiinuur:  luiil  tliusu  of  Sdvda  KAv 


,  sptir»  of  theSdtpuiUit  sln.^tcIx'toisoU}  Uio  nrcr  bank,  and  od 

ith  riso  somolow  bamtu  hil^  paiigt-ii.     With  [h<^-«u  nKCOjitwiia, 

Jour  ctintraJ   plain    ia,   for  al»ut   150    miles  tniia    UurliiUipur 

N»ndnrtKir,  uu  uiiliP^kun  rirotch  of  dpop  alluvial  soil.     The  oast 

ml  centre  are  rick   ami  wdl  liltud.  "TIm   LoViu  a'a<l  unJ  ' 

I  aad  proeperoua,  HurHKiDded   by  tnaii^  gi-ovos  and  ganlcav 

[Dzr«pt  wuon  baked  by  the  ra^ii^  winds  of   tbo  hot  season, 

BotdK  itrt!  (rr(M>ii  with  vanod  tillagR,     Oil  t>»th  »idvM  of  tin;  river 

ration  ia  widt^-inivAd.      Southward  it  stn-tcbes  to  the  hi);rher 

la  and  bnrron  hill  sides,  and  north  to  tbo  lino  of  deep  forest 

Mt  fhvtV^B  th«  biwo  of  Oxv   SiitptiJjis.     InihjMvjyfi,   tliuuKb  thu 

>i|  ia  no  lona  rich,   parts  of  NaaJnrliSr,  Skitluida,  and  'I'aloda'aro 

rergrown  witli  forest  BOit  bruahwood.  the  climate  ia  unhealthy, 

ad  th«  pcopk^oro  few  luid  poor,  7  • 

North  of  the  Tiipti,  tho  wholo  length  of  tlw  rich  allnrtat  plain  ik 

innded  by  the  flte«p  southern  face  of   tho  SjltpuiUK,  a  bull  oK 

ooutaiu  land  from  twonty  to  thirty  miles  broad.     Modi  of  this  hill 

UDtry,  now  with  only  u  fow  Kcattvrcd  Bhil  h»mlet«,  was  oaco  well 

At  every  (yw  miloit  in  the  foreat  of  yiM  TM|p  aftiniiim  i.f 

with  rcmama  of  sngar  and  oil  mills,     further  west,  Anilia, 

toy  wide  tniHcys  of  the  Ant-r  nnd  thi.-  Aru;jj^Tnti,  i»  dotiyj  with 

bruRhwtiod-corored  rtiin-s  uMBa.  »ell».  and 

tper-storied  hoases  of   wSat  i i  »....    i......    ...:un  considerable 

Thouf;h  HO  mnch  is  doBertod,  in  tbo  north-west  the  cool 

irixtg  AkrAai  nnlanths  are  well  tilled  and  proi^pcroiil,  pooplod  by 

ivria,  bOIuT  anil  hardworking  peasants,  whuMJ  homt:Hloail.t,  cnvh 

it«  plot  of  tieldfl,  arc  aboltorea  by  well  kept  mango  and  rnoha, 

nia  I  at  if ol  in,  groves. 

South  of  (he  rieh  T&pti  valley,  the  connti«r  is  more  varied   thaa 

tther  in  tha  cuntrc  or  in  tho  nortb.     In  the  nxlrcmo  eaat,  the  Piima 

^leVj  K'lween  the  Haiti  failU  on  the  caal  and  mllnif;  liroKe'npnHmil 

ko  toe  west,  fltrecohes  south,  much  of  it,  from  the  fear  tit   wild 

Btfl.^l&sfa)  or  oovcred  with  brnshwDod.      Fnrthor  west,  drained 

ihe  VAyhnrJ  jjm  Girnit^  wid  tho  l^ori.  wide  8t<iny  thorny  plains 

so  in  low  brood-topped   basaltic   ridges,  or  sink  in   rich   valley;* 

'studded  irith  uianKo  m^vcs  and  largfv  proitporona  villages.    Weal  of 

*Lni  Uori,  Uielaud,  ae  it  drnwy  ne<>rcr  tlu'  Siihyadris,  ffluws  wJl'ler  and 

lore  picturesque.  ItanffCfl  of  quaiut'l^j'Vut  hillSf'separated  by  tho  rich 


th^  fiyifi"-  ^trfltcb 
wclil  w  wild  and 

a  watopod  v  "  "  ,:  Pfinjhni. 

MiKt  Mcroa  )i  pliiin.     Tlio  extreme 

Uy ;  the  air,  tlKiu^ii  cuvi  and  pleasant,  ia,  except  in  the  hoi  Hca.-«<>n, 
!uu  with  fevov  ;  tbo  puoplo  are  jxwr  and  nnsettlod  ;  and    tho    lull 
idc»,  Ixiru  in  the  cast  and  well  woodud  in  the  went,  yield  only  scanty ' 
:)pa  of  c<uu««  grain. 

Down  the  western  Sahy£ilri  alopca  the  district  atretcbc«  into  the 
broken  tnu? t  crot^acd  by  endless  lines  of  petty  billii,  umcb 
■I,  with  a  deadly  climate,  a  {KKir  and  wretched  peuple,  and 
tudcbt  tiilage. 

Within  KbiimlL'sb  liuiilj.  iin!  foil'  iigew,  thu  Bitpodfa 

tbu  uorlh,    thu  II1L1I4  hill.i   iu  uiiet,   the  AjUBta  or 




Kpter  1 

D  » 


SAtiiulIft  rnngo  in  the  mttUi,  vid  tbe  BiJiyitlria  in  tbo 
HjlTftm^.  a  Irfond    bolt  of  tDrratftaia  \nif1 
lino  Monjf  Uw  north  biutk  of  tho  Tdjili,  ii 
hills,  riilgc  lichinil  riiljpv  U>  tho  wutnil  civaL  u 
untl  Lheu  »\tipv  ^^ntty  to  tlu>  Narlmda.     Aii>   .  ^    -i- 
riao  from  3000  to  aSOO  imt,  tho  chiisf  are,  in  ibo  t 
I'torla    and    AtotiilliiinuU   lorjking  dowu  on    T&va], 
CO m moil il tug  Iwitli  tho  TApti  and   tho  Narbcidn  vall>'yH. 
farther  west,  and  in  AJcnini,  Tanuimtl'  tho   crani]- 
mngo.     ThJB,  imoo  a  »c-ttL  of  the  niJCTa  ot  Mlodu,  a  long  r  j 

tel^Q-bind,  ii^iV)  (i!bt   liixh  anil  nboat  scictDt^n  sqnuri!  i 
rises,  in  Duitb  latitiuk'  21*  G'i'  and  ivwl  \nngllot\e  V 
twL'uty  niiK<s   noiih  of   KtiltAnpnr  nnt^uiittitj   from  Ubotia. 
Iiin   nidoM,  of   trflj)   and   lautolt   with    I'm!   ircin    cl^v,    tuv  I 
fituddod  frith  karwmd,  Cariasa  corondaa,  and  turan,  8  VKvnbujt  r 
IiiibIkis,   luid  with   wild  mnni^,    Inuiinn,  Mod   j-hnt-nl,    Sji 

{'uuilHilBunni,   trec-if.     The  hill  top  titixitches  in  small  fl&t  [>L 
irokun   by   irropular  linos  of   bills  from    100   to    lo"  ' 

Nuar  iIki  aonth-wpat  comor,  a  Inrifo    laVe    of    bean : . 
luiil  ciHil   w-iitcr,  niKxit  a  milo  and  fix  furlongs  RHOid  tioO 
kniad  and  tbirty-four  feet  deep  in  the  ocntre,   partly   form 
liloppinK  o  Rurffo  botwcMi  two  small  hills,  in  flanked   by  a 
tiAsurod  tiui)ft.i  about  -100  fcot  high.    Tho  dam,  earth    fueod 
Btono,   a  work   of    immense   laboar  and   Btifn;rlh,   ia    oltan 
yurdK  loTigy  forty    foot    ht^h,  niid    about  Iwvnty-ttijrht   fwl  i 
tbe  top  and  from  170  to  200  fwt  bmiul  at  tho  bs">.'     Thf 
the  dam,  with  r^>om  for  a  small  booHO  or  tent,  is  r 
niacli   of  it  shndcd  by  treos  and  cxwlcd  by   tho 
during  (ho    hot  months  blowg  Htrong  and  Kteady  across   tbo 
At  Olio  side  tho  EurpAtM  waters  are,  through   a  rock-cut  pa 
taken  4<J0  yards  to  a  snudlor  lake  almut   thirty  ftrot  biwcr,  aui 
carriod  to  a   prt^-ipioo  from  four  to    fire  hundred  feet-'  ■ 
cU'iiH  drop  of  2  i;J  fwt.*  Bxcopt  sbrimpa,  tbo  lako  iscnl  ■ 
fish.     In  »dditiim  to  the  lake  and  \t»  great  dam  »ro  the  ffittiai 
iniuiy  temples  and  walls,  all  of  tliom,  acoiinltng  lo  the  local  t 
tbe   work   of   tho  wiint   Gorakhn^th.     Tho   walls,   »trflchin( 
miles,  Htilt  wtn-ngthcn  tho  WMk  parts  of  lb*i  hill  top,  but  tbo  tei 
ant  fallen  in  utter  detny.     On  tbo  »outh  aide  of  the  bill  is  n  ti 
fwt  wjuure  rock-cut  temple,  with  an  imago  of  I'Arastulth,  in  i 
honoiu-    crory   October  a  fair  is   held.     Other   remains  of 
scitlpturcH  seem  to  bave  Ixvn  uii<><l  in  building  more  mixlom  ton 
Kxix*[it  Hhila  and  I'ivriia,  of  whom  tlionj  are  some  scattered  Till 
the  hill  ia  without  iuliabitaote.     In  tbo  wet  neason  (July-Octo 
(hu  rain  is  constant^  and  sometitooa  to  heavy  that  for  days  it  1 
cvorytbing  »  few  yards  o&.     In  tho'oold  woather  frosts  aro  oom 

*  TnmimAI,   OT  th«  tvnm't  pUtctn,  takoa  ita  nauo  Irani  (nnca,  Syxjrpfaaa  mg 
)ar):u  *liltuliijmiil  •timk  ^ 

*  UhuIMiiidI  C.  r,  Kt^b)  {IViin.  lie".  Hum.--.  t\.  3)  ulvm  ililGmmt  Sgnm  :  440] 



tiic  hot  SWV9.1I1  {Marcli-Jmio),  tht^Uko,  llio  noifirlilwnrinK  forosts, 
1  a  stfug   Btcatly  soutli-woiii  rfiud  oimhiuQ  to  make  Uili  diiiinlti 

llghtful,  with,  during  May,  a  mean  ton]p<>niturc  of  abont  aeveoty- 

'00  iU^gnMii*.'     Tlio   lutit  way  ap  tho  lull   from  SallAnpar  wsw 

tnerly  paasable  only  to  very   ligblly  laden  beasta  of  burdon.     lii 

"'',  it  vra'5  much  imnrovoa  by  clouring  the  firet  twelve  of  the 

ty-foiir  itiilo.1  from  lliiogar  on  the  Shdhidasidc.   Tho  rcmAining 

reive  offer  no  great  difficulty. 

,o  H^fTi  liillg^   boMpding  tliq  Pnrtia  valley  on  the  east,   nm 

.h-w08t    mid    south-twwt,    aiiJ    for    tiWtit    twouty   milvs   pass 

roiitirh  lli«  Hf>utb-eaal  cerDerof  Kbiudesb.     Rising  gradually  f/om 

T^pti  valleyt  id  thuir  tisbt  twenty  miles  they  are  rather  low  and 

«.     Furtbor   cant,    forming   tho    northern    fronticrr  of   Bonir, 

ly  rise  U>  nearly  -WOO  (eot,  and  linaHy  merge  in  tbo  NABn>ur 

lis.     At  first  ban)  and  rocky,  as  thoy  near  the  sonthern  limit  of 

cfh,  tboir   xidoi^  nnj  iu   pliux>«   ttomuvrhut   thickly   covorod 

brushwood  and  timI>or,  aud  give  aheltvr  to  wild  Iwaats. 

The  f^yaXuk,  also  known  as  theCbAndoror  Ajanta  range,  breaking 
*  sharply  from  (ho  Sahyitdm  in  tho  north'Wi'st.  of  N&sik,  rana 
about  fifty  miloH  eiutl  in  »  series  of  qount  biutalt  piouaoW  luid 
ilge».  Near  ManmAd,  after  a  gontlo  depression,  it  again  rises 
Hjl  tjQlJ  fcut  ahuYo  tlic  plain, and  forms  a  iwmvwhat  monotonona 
l-likt^  IxHiiniary  l)etwoon  KIittndc«h  and  the  Dcccan.  lliou^h, 
ot'pt  forab-iut  fifteea  milea  in  the  w&§t,  ggt  actually  within  ita  limita, 
ir.tTiia'  skirts  tho  iwnr.h  of  KhAndoah  for  ubunt Vtgh^'  iniltM.  A 
luili'.s  bovoud  Ajanta  it  turns  nouth,  merging  iul^i  tho  highlnndt) 
form  \\\o  Bouihem  frontier  of  Itenlr.  As  they  are  a  narrow 
little  more  than  the  bIoop  norlhem  hco  of  tho  Uocoao 
ml,  tho  S^tmAlAa  oonlain  few  forett  trade.  Their  sides, 
cly  bare  or  with  a  few  scattorod  irecs,  Imvo  horo  and  there,  on 
banks  wd  in  tho  licdti  of  8tre«in»,  timber  and  bruiibw4x>d  thiL-kpts 
■gcoiiitugljto  shelter  tigop**  and  other  wild  aiumals.  Of  latfe  years, 
lage  hrtv  spread  to  tho  sides  of  many  of  the  uorthcni  spurs,  and 
siiijio  [ilinxw  annus  i^liKW  to  tho  f<j'it  of  till)  iniiiu  nvngu,  Uewidc* 
I  piiHHiv.-n|uoHe*a  uf  itit  wegCern  peak:4,  the  chief  interest  in  tho 
tniAla  range  aro  tlio  rock-cnt  BuddhUt  tcmplw  and  mouaatcrigB 
Apmta,  I'l'vtni^  an'l  CTiAndor.  Witbiu  KbAndflab  Limita,  bewidea 
sveriil  iiiuI-piiihB,  two  cart  roods  cross  the  hills,  one  throagh  tho 
Wpjanpn  ■  •  '•■■••--•-  -  near  CbtUiBKUOP,  Ewd  tbo  othor  by  iJio 
Ajanta  j  ur. 

Tlio  S^HTAnni  hills   bound  the  south-neat  oomor  of  Kbindesi). 

'Phen,  at  tKe  northern  extremity  of  the  range,  they  torn   shai-ply 

to  tho  cost,  leaving  thti  broii'l  Tfipt)   plain  botwcon  them  and  tlio 

udiis.     Withont  any  well  marked  peaks,  many  of  tho  Sahylldri 

-t  have  curious  and  picturet^qno  outlines.     Tnoy  nro  scattered 

le  Miind  tliu  otlior,  chiefly  nnining  narth-eajit  and  south-west 

at  with  many  tipun  starting  eastwards  nearly  at  right  angles  to 


I  Thm  aw  111  IS.V!.    In  ItlSO  Ibc  hiolwi  ttmpetatura  «h  e!t,  Uk  nusu  77°  anil 
)  dMiy  nu^  16*. 


OhKptoT  L 





Innk  iu\!  imatl.  and  nf  littlo  tub  for  iiriftntion  or  for  otb 

Tboy  luiVb  tbt!  pcculinril;  tlint  nt\T  thu  luU'^  -  ~  '  

milM  before  thoy  full  iutn  tbn  Tuiiti,  thntr  str 

tlie  joftr,  wliile  is  a  middle  bcli  the  nrat-: .  . 

ptUBM  ondergmaad  lonving  tbti  liml  prrf>^  r  .    ji  v.     Tbui 

the  loft  bank  dnuDing  niui'li  Mjdrr  LmL'tn  "f  coutitry 

mm  Mid  cuDMqnouce.     tCicopt  ihe  l'iu'n.-i,  wtiich  fron 

hUa  into  llu.' Tiipti   alwul  gixicva  n  it    tintvn 

and  tbo  Vi^hitr.  about   twenlymili :..  i- waxt  aftcrj 

oonno  of  uaoat  forty  miles  fittm  tlta  S&tnulla  hUU  tunr 
tliQ  left  bank  Htrcams  tuvn  tlivir  Moiirccit  among  tbu  f 
Id  thfir  clmmcU'r  nod  ooun4>  iW  Sahyiitlri  mu-muas 
oomnion.     StarlmiEr  beiumed  in  by  spun  at  i-iirht  anf^left  I 
tiiw  of  the  BahydBris,  tbuy  piutt  un»l>  nnltl,  ns  i1k>  \i^~ 
KhiiDilfHli  plain,  tln-y  arc.  free  tu  follnw  tlio  uaUirol 
uiid  turn  m^rtb  to  tiib  T&nti.     Uf  thcao  th««  are  foi 
the  tiima  falling  iuto  tbo  Tllpti  aboal  twituty-livo 
Viighqr,  tbp  Bori  uKmt  twenty  iii)Ie«4  furtlicr  woHt,  l' 
i«iz  milea  I  be  I'itojbra,  and  tho  Borai  a  Hmallsr  elream 
milea  f ui-tber. 

The  Gibs Aj rising  in  the  westoni  hills  of  thcKalnm*nt 
Niisik,  HU(i  \iiiX  by  Htrcains  from  the  nurthem  alopea  uf 
or  SftplaHhring  range,  aft«r  a  coanw  of  about  150  miloa, 
Tipti  near  Ni'mdur.     lu  cuiirxe  lid*  id  iirarly  CHpial 
and  Kb£iiiSe!(b.     Hasuing  tbroggh  N&sik  aimoat  in 
eastwards,  in  Kbdndesh  it«  oonnso  changm  to  north-f 
JalgsoD,  it  beodii   north  und  (hen  nurth-w^Ht  lloivinK' 
mil  en   with     itiany    windings    ulmoat    paruUet   to    tho 
Kbiindcsh,  Dx<^i>))t  in  o^ieortwo  places  wbt>re  it  is  hemmed  ii 
hills,  th<!  Oimn,  over  a  broad  sundy  bwl,  tiowii  ihrotigU  a 
vnlloy  grndiuilly  Hprwidiiig  iuto  tbo  great  central  plain.     It 
Ixitb  jn  Kfiaik  and  Khiindiwh,  are  much  used  for  iirij; 
Kiiiik  lately  n;i»aired  danifl  and  vlianncls  water  many  ii(_ 
valli-YH,  and  in  Kbindcsh,  fi-oiu  KuhAl  alx^ut  ten  uiiles 
C'b^lisgaon,  the  JAmdn  csuals  etretch  caai  for  about  tw« 
niiivs  on  the  left  tutd  twvlro  miles  on  tbo  right  bonk. 

The  BoEi.  with  a  oounw  of  about  nixty  miW,  rii  ^ 
M^Iegaon  sub-dimion  of  M^sik,  ontera  KbiiuleHh  aljotdl 
qjiluS  north  of  tho  Gima.  For  about  twcnty-firo  miles  it  M 
esst&ly  course,  and   thun,  with  rather  a  suddi^n  turn,  flonj 

^Btv  nKnii£  tanuiftsJtvA    milda    ivli&na    4*Uih4r  anAtl«a»  l^uk^^^M 






In  fttrmor  times,  (bo  DDliro  upper  oouraca  ot  the  Pudjlirn  luiil  its         Chapt^ 
tn'buUiry  the  Kiiii,  wore  ft  succvsrfon  of  dums  and  canal*     lu  (ho       DeKripUq 
jreara  of  misrule  during  the  wirly  part  o(  llio  prcBi'ut  wmtiiry  muiiy 
'ell  out  of  repair;  but  stead;  proffreaa  lias  of  Into  beeu  iiiadu  in 
iigiug  nuarly  k11  of  tbum  into  ordor. 

Iiolkm^  the  Wl  ittrcitni  oF  an;  tiiko  thnt  pasHOB  cost  from  tw 

by&driB,  aboat  twelve  milea  aorth  of  the  P&njhra,  flows  eaat  f<tf 

one  for^  milcsi  and  tWn  pussiDg  m^rih  for  ten  miloa  falls  inuy. 

ke  Tapti  about  twelve  miles  Ixttuw  ThlUucr.     Liko  thv  Bon   and 

r^njhra  ita  waters  in  the  upland  valleya  are  luucli  used  for 
rifJiii""-  ,  '     /   \       " 

rheN^vKgApA.  for  nlMut  (nj^y-Bvd  miles, skirts  thonortlfwttst  oomci  ?- iTAe  JVar 
itl»?  dlfitrict.     Its  chief  conneeiioo  with  Khnnd^sb  ia  that  it  has*—' 
pu  lately  (IWT)  found  nsofiil  iu  corryioff  timber  to  tbo  coast.     It 

thought  ibat  thi.-  (-banii<.d  waa  too  rocky  to  allow  of  ibo  |Kis«age 
linilxr.     Bot  in  April  and  May  1877,    thougli  tbo  river   waa 
jUNimlly  low,  a  flotilla  of  iVio  loga  and    6O0O  rafters  was,  after  n 
|tnth'B  pasaaee,  safely  and  witlioat  accident  floated  from  tlur  norl li- 
lt of  Akrnni  to  Itroacb,  where  it  fetcbed  more  than  three  times 

atopuut  wpent  on  foiling,  draKyi^Ki  Hfld  lloaUuK  it  down. 

aix  flooda,  in  1822,  1829,  1837,  1872,  1875,  and  1876,  antae 

I  haw  been  obtained     In  1822,  at  nn  OBtimntcl  Iohs  of  £25,000  titt.] 

2,50,000),  »ixty.l)VO  Tiljiti  villaf^  wcm  ontiivly,  and  (iffy  wuro 

|)art]y  washed  away.     In  1829,  iti  Nandurlwir,  for   three  miles   on 

gtb  banks  of  the  'Kpti  the  conntry  waa  flooded.     'I'ne  land  waa 

ler  water  for  t}irco  days,  and   much  of  it<  wna  injunxl  by  a  thick 

sjl  of  aaodaud  ^mve).'    In  IH37,  in  tlieBamellood(2{)th  Augunt) 

did  fiQch  doma^  in  Surat,  several  villages  built  on  the  lower  or 

'miil  Ixiukof  tlif  TAptiweix-  swept  away.*  The  deatructidu  nf  lifo 

arty  wa.t,  and  those  of  tbo  inhabitants  that  had  the 

ilo escape  were  left  de*titwt<.'.     As  nlitio^t  all  tlie  villagoa 

^^  ■  bank  fuffon-d  and  many  wore  entirely  swept  away,    Iho 

new  vilTa,r«i  were  in  several  cases  built  on  the  black  soil  of  the  hiffher 

l,.«i-  ^i.j,.h  had  not  been   flooded.     In  lH7i,  on  Suwlny  the    l5tli  '*?* 

',  the  districts  iHirdenug  on  the  Girna  and  the  I*^jtira 

I]    from   a  severe  flood.     At   Dhniia,   on  the   Paujhra,   tbo 

l.«g&ii  to  fall   stMidily   about  noon  on   i''mlay  (lio   |:3th,  fuid 

^■Ifaiied  heavily  the  whrjie  of  Satunlny  and  the  greater  port  of 

P^^Biiy.     Before  Sunday  momini;  the  river  wan  in  very  bi(.'b  f1o«d, 

Fnreppiug  oviT  tb«    AjfTii  n^ad  bridge,  carrying  away  llui  s<)iiu  wtono 

r>:»r:,i>ot  and  the  whole  of  the  roadway,  and  in  Dhulia  destroyinc 

oiuM-s  chiefly  in  tbo  division  of  tbo   town  known   as   Brigg«* 

•  1  .u.     A  re«t-tioQan  eloao  to  the  bridge,  built  at  a  cost  of  £200 

(Re.  20<H^),  was  entirely  destroyed,  and  another  was  mnch  damagtMl. 

The  vilUgo  of    Dovpur  on  the    otlivr  xido  of    the  river    uulirely 

diBti|ip«ared,  and  one  inan,  a  fioaivi,  was  drowned.     A  telegraph  post 

ittar  tho  luiuk  "f  the  river  on  tbo  Dhulia  Bide,  wiw  wiwhod  away  and 

comtnuniialii-n  stopped.     At  si-ven  in  the  morning  the  flood  was  at 

il«  bigbca^  standtng  about  forty-five  feet  above  the  level  of  (lie  river 


■  Bom.  Gov.  s«L  XCIII.  ICS. 


(Botnbftjr  OMettter, 

liaptor  I. 





bttnk  arc  smatlj  and  of  iiiilo  u*  for  irrigation  or  for  othor  piirpospa. 
They  liaifb  tUo  peculiarity  ibni  iidhr  liw  liilU  und  afpuu  fur  aovoral , 
mitoH  bvfuro  tliuv  fnll  iuto  tJta  I'ltpLi,  tlieJr  Mreftmn  Sow  througboutd 
the  jroar,  wbilo  iu  a  mitldls  belt  the  water,  during  the  fair  sikmuu^ 
paBseB  underground  leaving  thi?  1k:»1  perfectljf  dry.  'Hie  Mlroami*  oq 
ihc  left  lioak  draining  inueb  wider  tnicl«  of  country  ai-e  of  greater 
Kisc  and  oonaeqnence.  KxLiept  tho  I'urna,  which  from  the  Boiilh>ea»t 
falls  into  the  TApti  abotit  «ixt«cu  milcx  after  it  t-uters  iho  dUtri^t 
and  the  V^jthur.  about  twenty  niileo  further  weal  after  a  windit 
course  of  about  forty  miles  from  the  Siitm&la  bills  near  Ajantn,  s 
tb(i  Ivft  liHuk  i^tTfamii  haw  lliuir  AourccH  atuoitg  thu  S»hyAdri  billsi 
In  their  clukmct«r  and  oouKte  the  S&byidri  streams  have  much  U 
common.  Starting  hemmod  in  by  epora  at  right  angles  to  ibo  matri 
line  uf  ihu  Siilt>'(fllri»,  they  piuw  ea»l,  ontil,  un  the  lii)l»  »iiik  into 
Khtodi»h  pluin,  they  are  free  to  follow  tho  uatund  line  of  drnina 
and  torn  north  to  the  Tapti.  Of  these  there  are  four  chiuf  ittrcuin 
tho  Gimft  falling  into  ttie  Tiipli  ulxml  twcnty-fivo  mites' l*Uiw  tl 
Vii(t&ur,  the  Bori  aboot  twenty  miles  further  weat,  then  after  abon 
BIX  miloH  tho  t'Jtn^hrn,  and  tho  Bomi  a  cmaller  stream  about  twct' 
inilciH  further.  — — — 

Th^-G'-BH**  riaing  in  the  weatorn  hills  of  tlie  Kalran  Rnh-diviaion  i 
Mtuik,  anttled  by  streams  from  the  northern  slopes  of  the  ChAndor 
or  SapUuihring  mogv,  after  a  countc  of  about  1 50  miles,  full.s  itfl'i  tho 
T&uti  near  Jj^nder.  Its  course  lies  in  nearly  c^ual  parta  in  K&xik 
a»U  Khtindesb.  Passing  through  Ntiaik  ouiHwt  in  a  Htraight  line 
eiUftwards,  iu  KhAndeah  its  oourM  changus  to  north-oMt,  till,  near 
Jalgaon,  it  bends  north  and  then  nortb>weKt  Sowing  for  several 
miloti  with  many  windiugs  almost  parallel  to  the  Tdpti.  In, (jxivpt  iuojieor  Ivro  phtcxs  where  it  is licmmwfl  in  l\y  rwfcj 
hiiis,  tho  llirua,  over  n  Ims^ul  fliunly  \Kti,  fi<iw»  through  a  woU  tilleJ 
valley  gradually  sproiuliug  into  tho  great  central  plain.  Its  waters, 
lx>th  4u  N&iik  and  Kbiudbuh,  are  much  used  for  irrigation.  In 
N&sik  lately  n?[iaire4]  dams  and  chaunels  water  many  of^t«  uplanil 
valloya,  aud  iu  Khiin<le.4h,  from  IttdiAl  utxtut  ten  miles  north  of 
Chiilisgaon,  the  J&mda  canals  sireteb  east  for  about  twenty-seven 
miles  on  tbc!  left  and  twelve  miles  on  ihu  right  bank. 
I'he  BoEij   with   a   courw  of  about  sixty  mileii,  rising  in 

M&legaou    sub-division  of  N&sik,  enters  Kb&ndcsh  about  fif 

iqiles  north  of  thv  Girua.     For  abont  twenty-five  mile«  it  kwps  i^ 
eaatdVly  course,  and  thou,  wiUi  rather  a  sudden  turn,  Bows  nor 
for  about  twenty-five  miles,  where,  taking  another  bond,  it  aet« 
•  the  nnrlh-we^L    fulling  into    tho  T<tpti  about  twenty  miles  belt 
the  Gima.     Like  the  Oinm,  iu  its  uphtnd  valleys,  tJio  watern  of  i ' 
Beri  are  much  used  for  irrigation. 

The  I'AnjHmriacg  in  Pimpalaor  from  tho  crest  of  tho  Sah5_^ 
hills,  and  after  H owing  eaftt  for  idiotit  twenty-five  mih's,  is  fr()m  tlip 
West  jiiiuoil  by  tho  Kin.  Thon,  l>i;twiM>ii  ruuges  of  wild  lnwidt  hills, 
it  keeps  east  for  al»ut  tweuly-five  miles,  passing  Dhulia  ou  ib.; 
right. »  Almnl  five  miles  below  Dhulin,  it  takes  a  aharp  torn  to  t  )k 
north,  and  for  the  twenty  of  ita  eighty  miles,  runs  noirL, 
falling  into  tie  TSpti  near  Thalner,  about  five  mUe8  west  of  the  Bun! 

jBomtHiy  A 


bed.   About  ihrec  hours  1nl«r  irbogan  to  fall  »rn\  by  noon  mm 
water  in  fho  towu  luid  oubnidpil.  "  Ou  the  Gima,  raiu   iHiRn. 
midntfilit  of  tliit  18th   (Friday)  and  continwd  ti)l  t-^. '•-■■■■ 
ni^bt  of  tli»  1 4th,  when  a  7ioli<nt  faurrivano  Mct  in.     A : 
tho  morning  of  tho  U,th,  r.h(>  Girna  begsn  to  ovi<r!' 
in<.'n»«od  till,  atxiut  baU-past  nine  that  niRht,  ! 
feet  hiffhor  than  it  hml  ever  Ihx-u  knuwu  U>  risv.     I' 
diunnux'd    by    thd    flfiod,  fifty-six    were   allogetbor    <1 
the  whole  number  fifty  wero  on  the  I'lttijhm,  thirly>lwi  uf 
Dhcilin,  six  in  Virdol,  and  twelve  in  Anmlner,    The  remaint 
wviy  ou  the  Otma,  forty  of  tUein  in  Pfit-kors,  thirty-Eix  in  En 

and  twenty^ix  in  Ch&Iiagoon.    A  vart  amoniit  of  y~ ^' 

moTnblcnud  immo^-nhlv  wfttlost.  NumbSm  of  dams,  In 
water  channeU,  liStn, and  sevenil  lar)fe  pondf.  walcriq^  Iti'ju.'^ 
Belds,  wore  either  coinplclt'ly  dt-stroj-ed  or  badly  divma^il.  E: 
of  duDUige  to  «i?il,  It«m-!«,  i-ni|M,  mid  ]n>h\ic  wfirks,  the  fl< 
calculated  to  liETc  caused  a  loRti  of  more  tbau  i)*iU,U0O(RE.  I6,i 
Beeides  Bhils  and  other  forest  tribea,  5493  families  wi 
destitute.  For  the  first  fire  or  hix  dwy-M,  ihoy  were  bu 
private  charity,  those  in  and  around  Dliuiin  recoiving  eomo 
the  shape  of  grain  from  the  hoUuicv  of  tho  KhiindcKh  riod  funi 
ropor(«  of  diHtrMS  began  to  oome  in  from  diiTerent  parta 
district,  apuhlic  meeting  was  held  at  Dbulia,  and  nrvli 
conimiltou  rormod.  Govprnmout  placed  at  the  Collector's 
£2000  (Ra.  JiO.OOO),  £500  (Ha.  WOO)  to  be  disinbufed  f: 
M500  CR:^.  15,000),  to  which  a  further  sum  of  £IO,(KIO{R».  I, 
was  afterwards  oddod,  to  be  giren  in  adnutces,  taii'tri. 
subscriptions  amounted  to  aa  much  as  £3543  lOa.  (Ra. 
Of  this  sum  iHiSO  10j>.  (Ra.  34,805)  wen}  distributi-d  nmoitj 
fauiilivs.and  £60  (Rs.  COO)  were  spent  in  cljaritv  bv  the  Oollec: 
£G97;i  18*.  (It«.  60,7310  were  udvanc«l  to  11114  persona. 
6th  Jujy  1876  a  sudden  Iwal  rainfall  so  swollml  lh**»  A 
a  tributary  of  the  Titjiti,  that  it  flooditd  thu  town  of  Shirpi 
water  in  plaoeii  Ntniiding  "ix  Uict  doop,  injuring  fifty-two  ho"" 
destroying  property  of  the  estimated  value  of  £3200  (Ra. 
On  the  r,th  Suptombwr  187(J,  the  back  water  from  a  heavy 
the  'Mpti  overflowed  its  tribotapies,  the  Gima,  the  Anjaui, 
Amnt^vati,  causing  much  damage  to  crops. 

Savo  in  XixAmpur  in  the  west  wliero  lhf>ro  is  groat  scarci 
dipnoi  is  on  the  whole  fairly  iiupjiliud  with  auiwre  water, 
of  the  chief  streams  flow  during  almost  the  wholu  year,  bU! 
^renuStfor  drinking,  as  near  villager  and  towns  thuirboda 
as  latrinea,  and  their  water  is  often  polluted  by  the  soaking  of 
and  othi^r  fibrons  planta.  Fur  thi' storage  of  water  there  wa 
1876,  aeoO  pouds  and  reservoirs,  of  which  f.>ur  were  lal 
Considerable  size.  Much  hiL-s  Intely  boon  donu  by  sinking  «< 
improve  the  Hupply  of  drinking  wot<:r.  The  1B(9.80  n^tu 
28,137  wolla,  028  of  them  with  and  27,209  without  etc 
ninet^r-seven  water-Jifta,  dhtkiuUt. 
— . ■ -__ 

'  Tlda  WM  what  rcmaiiwd  at  n  tormar  gnnt  by  tlia  Uto  Uf,  g|MbUK)i  • 
Jijitiltii,  uf  Bonbay,  for  tlic  rdtd  of  Uiaiae. 




xcopt  tlie  Tapti  and  the  Puma  wboae  banks  are  too  high,  frOin 

Mt  all   of   thu   wt-stom   streAos  nrigatioQ  is  carrieil  od   to  a 

iilerable  extoat.     IMmti,  futndharAii,  have  iMni   IniiU-  in  great 

bors  especially  in  Pimpalneraod  Dhnlia.  lliev  are  cliiolly  found 

IV  upper  portums  of  the  strcnms,  as,  near  UieT4pti,  the  river  beds 

me  Icio  (l«cp  for  ihvir  con.tLructioii.    Three  largo  lakes  huvv  lycea 

It  or  restored  for  irrigational  purpoaea;  one  at  uarUUa,  two  milea 

m   EdlAlnd  in  BliuMLval,  vovoring  an  aroi^  of  4-10  acros ;  anotlior 

<wn  as  tha  Uukti  lake,  three  miles  from  Dhulia,  covering  an 

of  510  acres ;  and  a  third  at  Uliasva,  a  mile  and  a  half  from 

In,  coTvnng  an  arvs  of  420  ocros.   ll(!«id(;s  thuKo  there  is  th^old 

uilur  lake  with  a  Roialler  one  near  it  called   Varibhokar,  four 

,cs  north-west  of  DhnliS,  and  the  remains  of  two  other  ponds, 

of  tlii-tn  l^nwn  a»  Boyd's  pond,  in  tho  Ohdlin  village  lands. 

i!  upper  Mehruu  lake,  built  by  the  Jalgaon  municipality  at  a 

t  of  £7400  {Rb.  74,000)  and  covering  an  area  of  about  151  acres, 

ipItL'N    tho   town    with    good  nod    plontifu)    wnt«r.     All    those 

ds   are  formed  by  earthen    omiinnkuienla  and   provided  witb 

ices.    Of  village  ponds,  those  at  Pdrola,  DhanwgaoD,  Nandurb&r, 

mdapur,  and  Mbaarad  arc  most  n^marksblu. 

II  tho  varieties  of  sqU  that  come  under  each  of  the  three  ordeni, 

k   kali,  red   mtil,  ancf  atony  barad,  are  found  tn  this  district. 

'central  belt  of  Uio  wide  1«pli  vallny,  about  half  of  Uio  wholo 

«,  eonaista  either  of  a  black  ullnvial  clay  highly  retentive  of 

'  itare,  or  of  a  loam  overlvintf  a  atratum  ot  yellpwiBh'clay  of  good 

iu    On  thi:;  deposit  soil,  which  for  richnosa  cauoot^  surpassed, 

icMt  i»  u-xtciidivciy  grown,  in  «omo   plucea  from  ywir  to  yi»r, 

itbout  the  aid  of  manure  or  change  of  crop,  y Skirting  thia  rick 

t>M^i  along  tlie  baao  of  the  Satpnd&s  wb(>r%thi>  K-vol  is  Komuwhnt 

r,   tlio  w>n     i»   inferior,   and   in    the   higher  ridgea   almoat 

iii-iiit|)earB.    Along  the  baul^  of  the  river,  whoro  the  land  is  much 

jont  tnr  doop'ravinca,  the  soil  is  mixed  or  ovvrlaid  with  IJmc^  noiluica, 

land  in  sonM!  placos  the  surface  soil   is  eniimly  waahe<i  away,  willl 

excsptioaal  palches    or   strips  of  rich  alluvial     di-posit.     On    the 

■oato-fiaat,  rod   soil,  including  brown  and  grt-y,  pni^duminatcs  with 

■Mt.4i£a  of  coarse  black  overlying  Iran,  deterioraiing  towards  the 

^Lih-weat,  where  it  is  found  of  less  depth,  most  (u  it  light  and 

^Rablo,  much  mixed  with  gravel  or  lime  nodules. 

,  Compared  with  other  Bombay  districts,  Ehindeab  ta  remarkat)Io 
jfor  its  Urge  tfacta  of  arable  waeto.  Tim  chief,  of  those  Ao  Pil 
<,mtnoog  tbo  SdipudiU  to  tlic  north  of  KAver,  Amba  in  Shirpar, 
Dltwui  in  Cboiioa,  and  Nav&pur  and  other  tracts  in  Piuipalnerv 
Ostoe  highly  tilled,  they  are  now  oovenxl  with  brushwood,  and 
liave  become  so  nuhi^nlthy  that,  from  Sopt«mbor  to  February,  hardly 
aoy  ooobnt  fi!  '         '    ''■     ''  rtiat  mb£a  can  live  in  them. 

TheDeelog^  -i^  been  esaniiiiL'd  only  as  far  south 

as  ihc  Topfi.     This,  a  mrip  of  varying  brc:vlth  botwpeu  the  TAjili 
and  tbu  Sitpml&o,  is  chiotly  covered  by  aUnvinm.     Trap,  lb(^  only 



■  IbMnln  of  Un  Uu»k«u^  8vrr*y  ut  ladJ*.  VI.  Put  Itl.  124, 182-  18B. 

*   V  •  IBomlMjQia 

13  DISTHICys. 


iI>Ut  I.         other  formation,  fonns  tbe  hilla  and  sbows  here  and  there  a 
uiptioB.        deeper  ravinoa.     The  streams  ruiAung  from  the  SAtpnd^  hxi 
infra-trappoan  pebbles.     Trap  probably  occurs  hero  and  the 
.*''  the  bed  of  the  TApti,  as  in  many  places  to  the  soath,  trap  rock 

at  no  great  distance  from  tha  stream.  Though  allaviom  atre 
fur  some  fifteen  miles  north,  the  rock  appears  near  BbasiTal  i 
the  railway  bridge  crosses  the  TApti.  About  five  miles 
BurhAnpur,  and  about  a  mile  north-east  of  the  village  of  Choll 
there  is  a  singular  compact  patch  of  limestone  about  fifty  feet 
It  shows  no  signs  of  ory stall  ization  and  appears  to  contain  nof< 
At^no  end  there  is  a  white  Handy  rock,  like  decomposed  g 
standing  on  end  as  if  part  of  a  vertical  bed.  But  as  it  contains  roi 
grains  it  is  probiibly  sandstone.  'ITiis  iBasa  of  sodimentary  n 
evidently  a  portidh  of  some  infra-trappean  formation,  very  pro 
Lamota  or  BAgh,  either  brought  up  by  a  dyko  or  included  in  i 
flow.  Tho  traps  in  the  low  rises  stretching  across  from  Burh 
to  near  Raver  appear  to  dip  north  at  abont  5°.  In  the 
valley  and  near  Daulet,  north  of  Chopda,  they  appear  to  bo  horiz 
and  the  same  is  the  case  to  tho  westward  as  far  as  the  Bomba 
Agra  road,  whore,  on  the  top  of  tho  ascent  leading  to  Siudvs 
beds  stretch  in  distinct  horizontal  terraces.  About  SultAnpn 
alluvimn  runs  far  up  in  a  deep  bay  among  tho  hills.  Tho  tra 
Turanm&l  are  nearly  horizontal.  But  contrary  to  the  general 
the  trap  ridges  lying  further  west  are  rarely  flat-topped  and 
very  craggy.  North-west  of  Turanmftl  is  a  low  east-north-ea* 
aud  this,  turning  north.north-east,  continues  as  far  as  tho  Udai 
where  the  dip  is  about  6°.  Along  tho  north  boundary  of  Kh& 
tho  traps  have  generally  a  low,  not  very  regular,  northerly  dip 

To  the  Bonth'  of  th^  Tdpti,  the  strangely  tilte<l  peaks  abor 
Bahy&dris  and  the  steep  and  deep  defiles  running  into  the 
very  curious  and  imposing.  The  columnar  structure  of  tho  roi 
peculiar  especially  on  the  range  separating  Nfeik  from'  Kh&i 
llie  hilly  portions  are  covered  with  a  stratum  of  dark  basalt 
felspar,  hornblende  and  iron  ore  are  also  present.  In  the  rangi 
passes  by  the  town  of  Nandurbflr  there  is  a  striking  peculiaritj 
runs  east  and  west  for  about  fifty  miles  and  is  composed  of  a 
of  serrated  peaks  and  ridges,  in  some  places  disappearing,  in  c 
breaking  off  into  parallel  ridges,  yet  on  the  whole  maintain! 
course  and  peculiarity.' 

Springs.*  In  Kh&idesh  there  are  fourhot  springs,  three,  UnAbdov.  Suni 

and  Najhardev  in  Chopda,  and  tho  fourth,  Vadla  in  fSliirpur. 
UnAuduv  hot  springs  lie  abont  three  miles  north-west  of  Adui 

'  GononJ  Report  of  tho  Survey  of  IndU.  1877-78,  108. 

*  Noar  the  woU  known  hilt  of  Bhimergaii  are  tvro  poaka,  RauUa  Mii[  Janl 
their  origin  tlio  story  ia  that  tvro  brothera,  Kunhis  by  ca«t-o,  oiio  il.iy  wiir 
the  tiohl  taw  a  woman  coming  townrda  them.  Kach  said  that  alie  \iiiB  liia  vr 
tho  diaputo  waxed  hot.  When  tbo  woman  camo  near,  thuy  founil  iho  wastliuir 
So  asBamed  were  they  of  having  called  their  aiiiter  tboir  wife,  that  they  rua.l 
in  the  TieM,  and  jumping  into  it  wore  both  burnt  to  iloath.  To  cnnniU-tn  the  a. 
thfe  Biiiter  jumped  in  fttter  them.  In  honour  of  thin  Bn|f-d«v"tion  tbu  iw„  pc.^t 
irec  sprang  up,  '  From  niatorialfl  supplied  by  Mr.  J.  I'oUeu, 



CbapUr  I. 



miilOlo  or  Ft)l)nuu7  to  tlie  middlo  of  Jane.     Fmm  Tnmtjroll 
(MMiitioa,  nmll^bBTBcter,  llii'  i:Iinmlu  ritrirs  grei^'  ^umilf 

thi«  dulrict.  Id  tbo  wBitUrrn  biiU  and  funi«t->.  i  .  .  .iFiJ!  b) 
BOQtb-weat  motuuon  is  beaTy,  and  in  Uie  S&tpudoa  tbt- 
coiuide ruble.  But  oror  mach  of  the  oeotn;  sod  soiii^  '— 
iK-Aotjr  and  ancvruin,  tiud  lu  few  seMoni  it  is  in  uJ  I  porta  ^ 
'I'hrouglioul  Kbftndesb  it  ib  lea  tiuM  in  the  SouUun  I 
Conntry,  and  titllo  if  at  bU  gnxlvr  thxn  io  tbu  Oeccan.  1 
reinoTiM]  from  ibe  extremes  of  scnn.'v  and  nf  ubundAat  I 
bad,  during  the  tvreDty-nine  jraera  ending  \ft7'J,  an  arc 
uf  21-78  inchoD,  tho  amonnt  TarpRg  froia  10*04  in  1871 
t87S.    Tlio  foUowin^  tabtt  gives  the  yeari;  teturus  : 

ZMmGh  Kai^air,  list .  im. 










IM      ... 



IHl      ... 



nn    .„ 

UM      ... 



UM      -. 


i*n    „ 


iMa    ... 



IM      ... 



un    _ 


UH      ... 



UN      - 





■Ml      ._ 



M*      _. 



WM     _ 


UH      ... 



H«      ... 



UN      ^ 


mi   ~. 



um    ... 



IWT      „ 


UH    .> 



UN      ... 





UH      ._ 



UM      ... 



ll«      .^ 


tM>     ., 



IflO      ... 




Excrjit   friira  Dhiilia  rain  rt-ltima  are  not  availublo   apti 

Mr.  Chanibera  Huiiplies'  tlio  fdUowiug  avvragos  tor  tbu  vim 

endioK  1871 : 

Slubulak  Itai^ati.  1861.1S7J. 







AMHiMt         _          

BlWU           ^ 

^••lnl*l     ^ 





n>irin>i    ...     _     _ 
JtMBS        _      „      ... 
NdMn        .„       _       ._ 
CMUmim    .       _       ... 

I'fao  cold  season,  from  tbo  niiildle  of  October  to 
of  February,  in,  except  ou  cloudy  days,  pleasant  and  br 
phuliu,  iu  the  vigbl  yean  nodiug  1879,  IX-cember  and  JaDiuU 
ilio  *ct>ldest  montlis  with  average  miuimums  of  52°  and  4 
minimnniB of  40° and 41°.  From themiddle  of  Piibmnry  to  tbe 
of  Juno,  exoopt  tbo  wo«t,  tlio  whole  of  Kh&udvxli  i»  sal 
an  uxtremv  of  dry  beat.  At  Dhulia,  daring  the  eight  year* 
1879,  May  was  tho  hottest  month  with  un  nrcmge  maxin 
1U6^  and  an  uxtrcmv  inaximum  uf  111".  In  the  Sfitpnd 
beat  is  somewhat  tempenMl  by  the  foresfat,  but  bohiw  tint  S£, 
especially  in  the  east,  tho  'T&p\i  valley  '\&  llie  hottest  i 
tbo  district,  aomctimeii  still  and  stiBing,  at-  otbvr  timet 
boming  winds  blowing  far  into  the  nigbi  with  tbo  Ihcrmon 

'  l.liaa>b«n'  Muloorahf;  ItH,  219. 






*  KnXKnKSii  has  littlo  'minenil  wealth.  Trap  rock  is 
everywliera,  nad  though  much  of  it  "is  friable  iwid  useleBS  t 
road-moD ding,  there  is  pk-iity  of  Btoiio  goi>d  eoQugh  foro 
building  inirposea.  Tlio  tteat  qiinrry  iu  the  district  is  one  in 
of  the  vighur  rivor  near  Bhiisaval.  It  is  convenieDtly  plac 
has  been  much  usod  for  railway  works.  There  is  no  good  lii 
handy  for  working,  but  iu  all  blikck  soil,  except  in  the  deep 
landa  of  the  Tapti  valley,  the  small  nodular  limestono  kit' 
kiinkar  ia  abundant,  and  yields  excellent  lime.  Gravel,  cs 
ordinary  road  purposes,  is  found  all  over  the  district.  C 
brickmaking,  occurs  in  all  parts  of  the  district,  but  the  Kl 
potters  and  brtckmakers  arc  not  remarkable  for  the  oxcell 
their  work. 

KMudftsh  is  one  of  the  largest  forest  districts  in  the  Pret 
Its  Government  reserves,  stretching  over  2326  square  miles 
per  cent  of  the  entire  area.  Ho  chiefly  iu  the  hilly  coantrj 
west,  along  the  S&tpuda  hills  in  the  north,  and  in  tho  rough  la 
the  south-east  corner.  Besides  these  nmin  ranges,  Khtlndcsh 
in  the  central  plain,  is  full  of  low  hills,  unauited  for  tillt^ 
these,  at  present  bare  even  of  brushwood,  have  been  made 
the^rest  department  to  bo  re-clothed  with  trees.  'Of  the 
forest  area,  1G12  square  miles  have  boon  declared  to  be  reserved 
and  714  protected  forests  under  chapters  II.  and  IV.  of  the 
Act.'  Arrangements  are  now  in  progress  for  increasing  t 
nnder  conservation  by  transferring  to  the  forest  department 
the  waste  lands  which  have  hitherto  been  held  available  for 
and  to  meet  the  demand  for  land  to  cultivate. 

>  Except   the   Forest  SeotioD   coDtribnted   by    Mr,    O.     K.    Dcthnm 

ConBerrator  of  Forests,  »nd  the  Wild  A DiniaU Section  cniitri'iuttNl  by  Major 
District  Superintendent  of  Police,  this  chapter  is  the  work  <if  Mr.  \V.  Ranis 
'  Under  tbe  Forest  Act  (VII,  of  1B78),  Government  may  {Hti:tion  Sf  cniis 
{or«at  land  or  waste  land,  which  is  the  propurty  of  Government,  or  01 
Oovernmant  hat  proprietary  righta,  or  to  tlie  wliole  or  any  iiai-t  of  1 
produce  of  which  GoverDment  la  entitled,  a  rcaoned  forest;  and  (Govern 
(section  2S)  declani  to  be  a  protected  forest,  any  forest  laud  or  wn«tc  land, 
not  included  tn  a  reaerred  forest,  but  which  is  the  property  of  <iuvuri 
orer  which  Govammcnt  haa  proprietary  rights,  or  to  the  whole  or  uiiy  { 
forest  produce  of  which  Government  ia  entitled.  Reserved  forastu  arc  ui 
coiiiervancy,  and  as  a  rule  are  not  burdened  by  right*.  The  chapter 
protecttd  forests,  while  giving  power  to  reserve  any  class  of  treea,  provid 
other  things,  for  the  exercise  of  rights  to  grass  andwood,  for  permitting 
cut  timber  on  the  license  syatein,  and  foi  the  olcftringkuil  brealung  up  1 
cnltivatioD  and  other  pnrpotes. 



I  the  opitntug  of  the  Onmt  iDdian  P«uiu8ala  Railway  (I860), 
hodesh  timber  supplies  woi«  ao  diiiUuit  from  nny*  f^eat 
ud  bod  to  be  brought  Ihroii^^h  so  difHt-iilt  a  couolry,  tbftt 
n  in  little  doroaud.  With  (he  i)|M.tHiiig  ■>{  (he  railway 
^Dgied.  In  mnlciQ^  the  line,  mach  timber  wm  wanted, 
ioeeat*,  bonded  uvur  to  cuiitractonij  w<;rci  doBtroyed  withoub 

'S,  Kh&ndBsli  And  ALmedna^ror  were  made  tbe  join)  rhargu 
ncipwin  ofliwr.  Ftir  Kluliidi'-sh  uu  office  and  executive 
ment  of  two  clerks,  three  in-ipeciom,  three  hwnd  fonrKtcm, 
m  foresters,  at  a  total  monthly  poxt  of  lUb  [lln.  ;i&<>},  wui 
itjoned.  lu  1870,  Dr.  ItnttiiliK,  whu  in  hif  towr  tbrougb 
wa»  unable  to  visit  KlUudesh,  couHued  hia  nn>p(>Mil.i  ^^^  tho 
in  that  a«li!itrtct  forest  ufiicor  should  bo  itppoiuted,     8inc4 

Khindoi«h  forests  have  fonnod  a  M-juirnte  chnrgu.  The 
etttublipihmoul,  at  a  mouihly  cost   of   £75   H*.  (K&  751), 

four  writers,  ihroe  messen^rs,  fonr  ranj^-rs,  oloven 
,  nnd  seventeen  forest  guards.  A  Hu|)plemouuil  t«iu[xirmry 
nient  is  abo  entertained. 

1870,  tha  work  of  ntarkinp*  oat  forest  reserves  has  been 
nrcNtutd  00,  tTp  to  the  close  of  tho  liwl  iteaeon  (1878-79), 
gBflerveii  with  a  t*ital  an>»  uf  l,028,t}23  acres  have  Iteeti 
^■3  marked  bv  pernmneDt  boundary  pillars.      Besides  these 

ttevpral  Hinall  isolated  ("ihhul.  Acacia  unibi<ra,  mw»dow8, 
a  Jt&muer,  llhiisixml,  and  NAsirabad,  Hav»  been  dtKnari/uted, 
the  toCa]  forest  area  to  1,01^1,881)  acres  or  lit  12  sqnai'e  miles. 
B,  w'Iki  always  prefer  the  life  of  ro%'ing  woodtnon  to  that  of 
usbuiidni«n,  are  the  ohief  tlifHciilty  in  the  way  of  forming 
^aacrved  forests  in  the  S^tpnd^.  Ig  the  tracts  chosen  is 
Bbf  tho  district  there  is  little  or  do  tilUg«. 
ther*ienmreaticm  has  been  effeotod  Kince  .March  1879,  when 
btion  was  puhli.nhed  iu  the  Goyemmenl  Oaastte,  declaring 
an  milea  to  bo  reserved  forest  and  714  eqiium  miles  to  be 
I  fon*-«*  andor  Act  VII.  of  1S78.  A  settlement  officer  i« 
iiged  in  inquiriiiffinloanddiatyMiin^of  thenrfhta  which  exist 
ands,  in  ascertamiii^wbatpnvile^s  it  will  be  necemaryfbr 
.ro  of  the  people  to  p<frmil  U>  be  cxereiited  in  thcso  huids, 
BriDff  what  portion  if  any  of  the  lands  declared  to  be 
[  forest  can  bo  removed  into  the  catefj^ry  of  rverred  fores^ 
ilermininjf  how  far  it  will  be  jw^siblo  to  include  iu 
>  lauda  which  hare  hitherto  been  held  available  for  grazing 
■ovide  for  the  spread  of  tillage. 

1871),  of  tho  1,003,190  aen-H  tinder  forest  conservancy, 
were  included  in  firHt,  and  273,412  iu  second  claaa  reserves, 
aintng  33*j6  acres  were  small  bdbkul  meadows.  Under 
mit  conveyed  in  the  late  Governor,  Sir  Richard  Temple's 
-Vth  Jiino  1S78],  and  acting  on  the  auggeiitions  of  the 
"areat  committee  which  met  in  Poona  in  the  latter  part  ol 
8,  the  following  additions  and  chaogea  have  beenjuSde. 
reserves,  all  htihkul  meadnwit,  and  all  second  clasa 
kloD^  tho  lower  slopes  of  the  fi&tpadis,  have  bc«u  outifiud 




.  18 


duptAr  n. 




%is  rmmrved  foreits.  It  U  intended  lliatftlKnit  ^A,t 
reserred  and  prot«ct<>d  (nnwtk,  wnat«  land*,  and 
should  be  added,  niid  24,2^3  acrea  of  oocopiwl  land  takeii| 
purposM.  More  land  is  available,  but  tbo  unil^'ing  vil' 
Pimpalnpr  and  Nandiirbtir  Bofa-divimona,  where  forut  tniul  ai 
(oaDd,  cannot  al  present  be  takra  up.  The  grass  meadM 
ffreatlf  in  size,  Taloe,  and  geneml  sinToiitidin^.  Sonw  ■< 
3e6iied  isoUted  tracta  of  go<>d  land,  in  vywj  way  fit  &jr  ■ 
timber.  Othen  are  Tillage  uplanda  bn'keu  herre  and  there  ^ 
lau<lM.  The  latter,  of  no  great  ralae  and  liithvn<»  nut  iindtf 
manaf>«nient,  have  boon  pro)>osud  a«  protected  (oreRtii.  h: "''' 
aSid  unmrreyfid  TillageK,*»ume  truota  hare  been  in 
■an ctioned  reserved  foreets.  As  tbedt'eaof  thoeeunleinc  tiur 
ioreets  cannot  1m  fizud,  thoyharo  not  bwn  tndudtwl  iu  tha  g 
return.  Man;  single  survey  numlion*  and  koiaII  waste  patcfast 
river  banks  will,  as  reconunended  tiy  the  foreet  cotumitbM 
be  chosen.  It  is  also  intended  to  chooeei  and  recununa 
DotiGcaiion  a«  protected  foniTste,  timbor-Dorered  land  IjiAjr 
the  base  of  the  Sitpoda  hills  in  BiLvda,  Chnpda,  and  81 
Until  nil  thuso  changes  have  been  made,  the  final  total  bn 
caanot  l)e  Accurately  fixed. 

Thoagb  want  of  ci>nt<«rvan<-y,  oombined  with  the  pecolisr 
of  the  hill  tribes,  has  greally  reduced  the  sapply    of  tU 
valuable  kinds  of  timber,  the  Kluiodesb  forests  wttl  in  tine  1| 
valoable.  ^At  present  the  hotter  twrta  of  timbor  are  almo-tt  M 
obtained   troxa  the  borrilory  of  the  Mehvijt  chiefs  in   the 
Bortfa-west  of  the  district.     The  forests  of  Kh&nde«h 
unable  to  supply  even  tlw  VkmX  demand. 

Th(!  twenty  Khdndosh  forost  r«»crve8  may  Iw  ronphly 
under  three  groups.  In  the  north  a  Meries  of  forest*  stn 
along  the  Hun  of  the  Sittpudds  from  Akrtini  in  the  ecttrtna* 
westto  Siivdft  in  Iho  enst :  in  the  i»oiitb>eui<t  and  sooth,  parts 
north  slopedi  of  tliv  tS&tiniit&:<  and  some  outlying  low  hij)  rang 
river  bonlca  j  and  in  tlie  west,  the  rouph  hilly  iract*,  where 
aorUicru  extremity  of  the  range  tli«  Snhyiidris  sweep  eai 
acroea  the  KluVudc-sh  plain.  In  the  north  or  SAtpuda  jn^uf 
between  the  TApti  and  the  Narbado,  are  seven  fortnt  re 
Except  scattered  open  plains  or  bare  patchoa,  some  of  them  a 
extent,  the  whole  of  the  hiti  range  is  one  vaat  forest.  Par 
ar«  m  wild  and  luni-ly  that  they  cannot  bo  explored  withoot  h 
A  Blrnngor  might  i>o  I(>«t  for  days  in  the  maze  of  waving  hil 
.  with  tliick  scrub  and  brushwood.  In  so  rough  a  conntry  onl, 
of  the  trees  n-pi>y  the  cost  of  carriogv,  and  almost  all  tb 
vnluablo  have  been  cut  by  Bhils  and  others,  partlv  for  sale,  pal 
their  own  ase,  and  aometimea  to  clew  the  ground  for  tillage. 
The  carekM  and  tutn-slematic  cutting  of  sleepers,  dnr 
making  of  (he  Great  Indian  Peninnala  Railway,  did  much  U 
the  value  of  tho  forexls.  Still  almost  every  trew  known  iu  \ 
rndh  ^is  found  in  the  Sitpuda  hills,  and  when  better  m( 
coinniunication  have  been  opened  and  oontiervanoy  has  seeured 
growth,  these  foreets  will  be  of  very  great  value.    Il  is  a  pec 

\oa,i  M 


napter  II. 





©ttT      I 

of  tho  range  tire  toreet  aim  is  ooafined  to  hill  slopes  and  intersi 
rariiMa.  The  tletailn,  l>v^niu^ fiv)m  the  nonh,are : (I )TiUN8'Pn 
32,063^  acres,  in  the  petty  division  of  Edlabod,  Uof  along  the  ' 
hillH  north  of  tho  Purna  and  strotcho«  to  the  Ber&r  Erontior. 
ooDtains  three  dltttincl  forest  bells,  the  Gbodasgaoa  hahttut  w 
friaginff  the  I'artia  banks,  the  Oondhni  anjan  forv«t,  uod  the  t 
tttrip  of  woodliMid  skirting  the  hillm  sa  &u-  ns  Mirdi  on  thg  " 
frontier.  The  whole  of  the  resOTro  ia  backed  by  NemAd  forc«l«,  niosi 
GoTpramiint,  exoopt  tho  northern  portions  which  are  partly  held 
grant  by  Masalm&n  Bhil,  or  TtidTi,  chiefs.  Its  poHition,  near 
n<fer  and  between  tiro  railways,  makes  it  a  Tory  valuable 
Tb«  chinf  tix'os  arc  bdhhu!  iind  anjan.  ,(2)  Oondbi,  17,7y7^ 
lies  in  JfUoneron  the  StltmtLla  slopes  on  the  soath^eastem  frontier  of 
tho  district-  It  is  rich  in  toak  rafters  and  prot4M:tt  tho  headwate^^ 
of  tho  lUg  river.  (3)  FAtha,  32,132^  acrt^  the  south  of  Ch&li^l 
gaoa,  lies  along  the  north  slopes  of  the  S^tm&Ia  hills.  Tho  chi^^ 
treo  is  anjitn.  This  rcsorro,  though  much  dntnngijd  in  former 
years  by  reckless  cutting  and  unchecked  gnuting,  contains  r  toi 
valuable  supply  of  firewood.  Besidra  Iheee  then  are  two  outlyi 
forwt  traoLi.  (1)  BiBBOi.  GeoTEs,  H^tid  nores,  moKt  of  (hem  on 
banks  of  rivers  in  BhusiTal,  Jimner,  and  Nasirabad,  a  very  viUnobl 
property.  (2)  JdvXrdi,  .^U^lRJ  acrm,  in  a  trrelem  troot  in  the  petty 
oiviaioD  of  Bhadgaon,  though  grierously  ntiimsed  in  former*  y^wi^^ 
and  still  vciy  Ihiidy  clud  and  in  wont  of  nursing,  has  a  strong  grow^^| 
of  young  aujaH.  ^( 

In  Iho  west,  the  spur  of  the  Sshyidria  that  mna  to  the  sontb  of 
Dhnlia  is  reinarkahio  for   the  frw  growth  of  anjan.     At  present 
somewhat  bare,  it  giveii  every  promi.'m  of  yielding  valuable  timber. 
Attomptt;  are  being  nade  to  plant  this  range  of  hills  with  ivtik, ' 
as  yet  lh<^  rc«uH  is   nnoortain.     The  only  othor  large  and  unbrofe 
forest  tract  is  in  the  low  country  to  thu  uxtrvme  wost  on  tho  bo' 
of  tlA  Tilpti  and  Ne«iu,  near  tho  GiUkw&r  and  Mvhv'iUi  l«rn 
Porftictly  flat,  the  soil  ia  a  rich  alloTium,  and  though  thoy 
suffered  somewhat  from  ovorcrowdiug,   ^te  Ireos  are  largo, 
good  timber  still  remains,  but  tbo  rich  soil  und  oxcoltcnt  grazing 
haw  bct^^ii  an  attjaction  to  vettlera.     Beginning  from   I.«tling  ouar 
Dhulia  and  jpaasing  north-west,  the  eight  reserves  among  tho  western 
nplands  ancl  hills,  are  Luling,  Bomi,  P&n,  Amli,  Sontb  NavApar,  Nosn, 
IFViMi,  and  Devmogra.     (1)  LALmo,  7009^  acres,  bo  the  wont  of  the 
higB  road  to  ^tlllegaon,  about  seven  mili>g  south  of  Dbnlia,  stands  OD  a 
high  plateau  with  st««p  sides  on  the  north  and  sontb,  and  on  the  east 
•  and  west  bi»^er«d  by  de«p  gorgiw.     Ercopt  at  KiiUKvvnr  where  there 
aresorau  (*al)hul  groTea,  the  only  tree  is  «n_ji»ti.     (2)  Boiui,  17,-18"+| 
acres,  in  Niiuimpur  to  the  nortb-weat,  a  good  fuel  resorvo,  is  spociiUly 
Toluable  front  its  nearni-s.-^  to  tbv  trvelosH  Httb'divisiorinof  Vimel  ana 
Dhulia,  whose  Inrtre  fuel  demand  it  can  well   aupply.    This  rescrva 
includes   a  coii«iJitri.blo  area  of  tilled   land.     (3)  PAx,  2fi,'t8tM 
atcres,  also  in  Ni«tmpur,  is  a  valuable  fuel  reserve.     Kxcept  in  the 
TaMeys,  tt  is  at  present  ;H>orly  wooded.     Kfutir,  tho  chief  tree,  grows 
to  a  EsjT  auce.     This  will  in  time  ba  a  wry  valuable   forest.     (4) 
Ajili,  &3,772-A  acros,  on  the  hills  hetwoen  I'impalner  and   NavApur, 
protetit«  tbo   headwaters   of  the  K&a  and    Pilnjhra  rivers.     Fair' 



{nru  of  it,  mpocuUl;  at  tlio   foot  of   ch«  bill^,  are   rery 
Inable.     The  chief  lre<eA  nru  toulbaod  tiva»,  Ualberg'ia  ujignfliiiti?). 
SooTB  NAvXroK,  16,^44  acree,  lies  atbair  ilw   bouadory   hiUa 
_         aa    BaroJu   »ud    Khindosh.      It    i*   fiurly   w.»ilt>d,   ohicfly  nf"****' 

witb  AAoir,  the  finest  i»  KMndesh,  mixed  with  teak  and  a  ^*"^"*^ 
»pi-ijikliiiif  of  blackwood,  Dalber^^ia  Ucifolia.  TIm  spnmd  of  tillage 
over  tho  lowlving  Uiiid  litu  maiJo  tlie  oulliue  of  tlie  reserve  irregular. 
EHoreu  villuj^s  included  iq  tiie  reserve  are  leaaed  on  tbe  Inmp  goto, 
uicti,  t«Dure,  which  carrJvs  with  it  the  privili*^  of  ^tbering  moha, 
Buwin  latifoUa,  berriett  and  firewood  aud  of  graimg.  (6)  Nbso, 
10,333  acrev,  also  in  NavAmir  on  the  banks  of  the  Nesti  river,  h«a 
-jome  of  the  best  u-iifc  in  Khiindesb.  (f)  TAiTi.  1KI20^  acrea,  *n 
NarApor  close  to  the  Neau  wj^rve,  haa  alxiudant  and  well  grown 
kKair.  (8)  Dbyjiookx,  31,0{W^^  acres,  in  Kandorb&r  oloM  to  the 
Tdpli  and  bordering  on  G^ikwi&r  k-rrit'Ory,  ia  a  Sue  compact  block  of 
denite  furcst.  A  moat  valuable  and  promiaiug  reaerve,  it  has  a  good 
stock  of  teak  mftertiund  suplin;^  mixed  mthb&nddra,  Lageratnemia 
parriflora,AAaiV,  and  blackwiiiid. 

Furllier  to  th<.'  wost  lie  the  half  independent  lands  of  the  MohviM 
and  Wng  chiefs,  nt  jinfiKal  the  great  stunjUtiiwe  of  Klulndeah 
timber.  The  Mebv^a  cbiefa,  left  free  to  dispirse  of  their  forest 
umduoo,  export  great  quantities,  west  to  tho  ooaat,  and  cast  to 
Khaudeah.  The  I>4Dg  forests,  lua^od  to  the  British  Goveniment, 
ntuuuu  gruut  stores  of  Umber,  supplying  tho  timhur  mnrta  of 
southern  (rujanit  and  Kalhiawir.  By  surr eying  it  and  o|>«:ning  a 
roml  to  Bals&r,  the  re»cturi->!:t  ol  Ihi^  lU'Ht  diflicult  and^  unhealthy 
conalry  are  boooming  gradually  better  known.  Besides  these 
ri  ■  ■ ' vii'ts  of  riirt-st.  !;ind,  cvprywhun*  in  KhItud<^'>h  ivns  largo  areas 

■>i  .  -uy  ground,  al  pre*teut  yielding  littJe  but  grass  and  thorny 

shruba.  • 

Till  qnito  ^lately,  within  the  SttpudAs,  the  Bhils  wore  allowed  Tuhi 
to  cut  timber  freely.  When  forost  conservancy  was  iotrodnced, 
it  was  found  tluit  mimcthing  luu]  to  be  dona  to  checlc  the 
desiruction  that  was  guj^g  cm.  Mr.  Horaley,  C.8.,  who  gave  the 
sabject  mual  CIlru^tl  attjtDtiou,  introduced  the  Bhil  ticket  system. 
Id  Bvery  S^tpnda  aub-divi»ii)u  a  rogisU^r  was  opened  in  which  the 
name*  of  all  who  gained  their  livelihood  by  woodcutting  were  entered. 
Each  woodcutliir  wn»  given  a  wooden  ticket  or  paaii  bearing  a  serial 
nomber  oorrespondiucr  with  hi.i  nuniher  in  the  register,  nnd  under 
osi^n  ruUyf  and  conditions,  this  ticket  gave  him  the  right  yt  out 
wood  in  thi>  S»tpttda  reserves.  At  &ni  thin  system  worked  ^irly  well. 
But  in  IU7<.>.  the  couceaition  to  Ilia  Highness  Holkar  of  391^ 
square  iniii:s  i.f  valuable  forest,  at  onco  crippled  the  syaleni,  aa  it  sd 
reduced  the  area  that  thi:  foroxtn  wore  umdtie  to  supply  timber  enough 
to  moot  tbe  demands  of  the  ticket* holders.  Tho  number  of  tioket- 
holdera  was  reduced,  and  they  were  not  allowed  to  cut  any  more 

Of  forest  tribes  the  Bhilaare  the  most  important.  They  are  found 
more  or  le»a  thniugliout  the  district.,  but  are  moat  nnmerons  ig.  tho 
S&tpoda  hills.  Besides  Bhila  there  are,  of  Sitpiida  forcartr  tribes, 
BbiUUfut  with  some  strain  of  Raipat  blood,  Vanj&ris,  and  in  tha 


{Bombar  OasettMT, 



flatOMt  of  DEMlgaon    and  the   mounUiinans  coantry    of   Alrr4iii|^ 
'inia^    Td  tbe  we«t«ni  hills  »re  K&tkaris,  G^vils,   and  !kIaTchi 
nod  scattered  over  tlia   whole  diHtrict,  aru  Vndara,  PArdliu, 
PhiM  Pirdhiii, 

The  rates  of  pay  for  forest  work  rarj  ffroatlj  ia  difTi^rcnt  plaOtt.1 
Th«  geuerd  «3rBLein  is  task  work  nt  th«  rale  of  about  10*.  (Ks.  SI  " 
100  rafters.     Only  iin;n  an  um|>!oy«d  in  format  work.     labour  ie  rc 
scarce.    The  Bbils  dixlike  regular  work  and  ihink  it  bcnuath 
to  eara  ordinary  labour  wages. 

Poreat  rcoeiptit  have  rittoa  fmra  £.'i7S6    (Rs.  S7,8e0)  in    IS70  Ie 
£8618  (Rh.  85,180)  in  L87a     Ouriag  the  eamo  limo  chargers  hai 
iifcreaaod  from  £1574  to  A4587  (B«.  1^,740  -  Rs.  43,870),  leaving  i 
unchanged  revenue  of  about  £S98I  (Rs.  39,310).     The  details  arc 

KUaJak  PerM  Stveamt,  1870.  tms. 















isn-71   _ 




vBvn    ... 




IMI.T>     ^ 




utt-n   ... 




tm-n    .- 




iw;-M    .. 




WM-H    - 




int-it    ... 




UH-n    ... 







Id  1878-79.  of  the  whole  roocipte,  £2609  wvre  th«  proceeds  of  a 
tax  on  forttign  timber ;   £3134   were  recovered  from  the   emlo 
building  liiubor ;  £I8C5  from  the  sulo  of  biunboos  and  firuwood  -,  aa 
£910  trom  minor  produce. 

In  spite  ofitti  large  forefltaron,  and  of  cheimprovemontaintrodDCi 
dui-ing  the  last  ten  ^ears,    Kh&adosh   iwob  more  timber  than 

Sows.  M<Mt  of  tlio  imported  tinilwr  oomes  from  iho  IMngis  and  the' 
uhvfU  atatea  to  the  north  and  uorth-weat  of  the  district,  anti  from 
NoiuAIl  iu  tlie  eiutt,  brxmgbt  chiuHy  by  Vatiitirts  on  bullock  back. 
The  largest  timber  marts  are  at  Faixpur  iu  the  eaot  and  TiUoda 
and  XanilurbAr  in  the  west.  Dcsides  the  Vanj^ris,  the  chief  timber 
dealerH  are  Muaalm&na,  oettled  mostly  ul  Taloda  and  Nandar! 
Until  lately,  the  whole  exports  6rom  the  we.iteru  fore8t«  went 
land.  As  forest  pruducv  passed  throngh  the  GiiikwAr'g  territon',  t 
trade  was  much  bAUi[>ori>d  hy  lolls.  To  livv  il  from  thU  bardi^u, 
1^7  the  experiment  was  tried  of  Hoatiug  a  timber  raft  down  t 
N»rb£d».  This,  cousisting  of  500  logs  and  6O0O  teak  rafters,  cnt  r 
the  most  difficult  iiud  n'ililcttt  hill.t  to  the  vv^t,  of  tho  <li«trict,  wti«,  on 
the  lOtfa  of  AprilfStarted  Erom  Bhusa  on  the  Narbad.t.  It  was  put  under 
the  charge  of  a  European  officer,  and  in  spite  of  the  nnnsually  low 
state  of  the  stream,  rcachod  Brooch  in  forty  days  without  misha; 
ITii*  cxperimunt  has  since  been  twice  repeated,  each  time  with  a 
profit.  Ijam  year  (1870),  all  timber  cut  depart  mentally  was, 
different  parts  of  the  district,  sold  by  public  auction.  Thi 
was  fairly  sacceesfnl, 

Local*conditiou<t  and  the  privileges  enjoyed  by  the  wilder  ti-Jbi 
prevent   the   minor  fore&t  produce  from  yielding  much  ruvenue. 

!io  re«i 

IBombar  Qu/tttm,  I 





but  ofttublo  vrli«n  cooked  or  proocrvoi).     It  is  niao  hmmI  m  mnkinffl 
ink.     Whe  bnrk   is  very   aaLriagcut    &ud   lueil   in   taiiuiug.     £,1 
Murinda  citrifoliit,  though  if  allowed  it  i^rowe  into  n  tne,  is  clu«t|)rj 
ciiltiTatcd  ax  n  [Anal  for  ite  Ayt.     Il  it  Iuft  for  Uiree  yatn  in 
f^ouud,  nnd  then  dog  out  at  oonaiderable  expense.     Botb  the 
and  the  bark  vield  hu  ezcotlent  dye.  The  wood  is  tucful,  but 
Hftsily  bfl  fonud  of  sxtty  s^ir-v.     Anjan,  Hitrdnk'kiik  binitla,  u  b'^niii 
tjv«,  witb  a  very  rou^b^laok  bark  aod  HmaU  pale  (freeo  leave<t,  gt 
to  a  great  size.     Itabwndain  parts  of  the  &Up»dd>i  nod  id  tbo 
to  the  aotitb  of  ])hidia.     Tht-tjinbrr  imixccllttnt,  uf  a  dark  rpd  i 
uid  tak«H  a  good  polish.     'I'be  bnrk  yieIdH  a  Mmna  tibre,  wkicb, 
olit  any  prepamtioD,  can  b«  twisted  into  rope.     Git*lc  are  very  fandl 
of  tbo  lcuv«H.     Babhtil  or  fidbhnl,  Amuna  arabica,  lb»  oommooMt 
and  mottt  K<!uerally  uacful  tree  in   Kh)indi\ih,  is  very  faanly,  andi 
ffrowa  rapidly  in  black  soil.    As  ashmbit  nsedto  ixiver  all  tbewasuj 
Jaods  of  Khiindoah.     It  f^vn  to  a  i-uDsiddmbl*!  hikc,  nod  baa  an] 
vxot-llcnl.  hitrd  wood  ;  bat  th^  limber  ijt  generally  croiiked,  and  Inngl 
at raiuiit  pieces  can  seldom  be  obtained.    I'be  wood  is  oscd  for  oveirl 
iina^inamo  bonsv  nod  fitfld  pnrposOj  an  well  an  for  fnvl.     The  bavl 
is  vnlnable  in  tanning,  and  yielo^  a  good  yellow  dye,  and  itji  «np  »i 
luieful  gnm.     The  leaves  are  the  chief  tood  of  goats,  and  Ute  lung 
seed  pods  are  eogurty  dovourod  by  shi^i-p,  goulK,  and  cattle. 
Bamboo,  kalak,    Bambnsn   vnlgarlH,  only  the   small  kind   i*  fouudl 
in   Kbdindesb.     It    abounds   all   over   the   S4t)iDdjU    and   in   thaj 
woittorn  forests.     It  in  chiolly  nsi.-d  as  batt«nit  and  rHft«rti  for  bonae- 
bnilding.   Bel,  ^gle  niarnieloH,  u  highly  ornamentnl  In^-,  is  fovai 
in  small  niimbors  all  over  the  district.      It  has  an  excellent  lio 
wood,  but'  in  seldom  out  by  the  natives,  as  it  is  sacred  to  Sbiv.    lb 
fruit   makOH    ik   plea»anl   preserve,   and    haa    valuable    mudicini 
prcjpertieR.   Prepare<^  in  aoine  waj's  it  acts  as  an  aperient,  in  oth« 
as  an  aatriof^'ent,  and  is  nseful  in  cases  flf  dyiwntery   or  diarrhoea. 
The    root,   Imrk,  and   loaves    are   also    uiied   iu   miikiug    ruolinf; 
remedies.     The  leaves  are  used  as  an  offering  to  8hiv,  and  the  » 
yiold     a    varnirth.     The    Hasian,    vat   or  raJ,  Ficus   iudica,   one 
of    (he    commonest    of   Kb^dcNli   Ireo^,   gn>ws   n'adily   in   light 
soil.     It  is  hold  sacred  by  the  Uindoe  and  never  cut  or  turned  tu  aO] 
UKO  save  for  shelter  and  shade.    It  grows  readily  from  cuttings,  ans 
is  well  fuiled  for  i-oad  sides.     Its  juice  is  iwmetimes  ufcd  to  nrdace^ 
inflammation.     The  timber  in  of^tle  value.     The  fruit,  said  Co 
itttpoisonuus  for  horses,  is  much  eaten  by  birds.     From  the  leaves 
leju^plate!!,    palrdvalit,    are     made.      Biiftva,    Casaia   fistida,  not 
common  in  IChflndesh,  is  one  of  the  most  ornamental  of  forest  truvs, 
throwing  out  in  the  hot  weather  tassels  of  beautiful  banging  yellow 
flowers  much  tike  labumnm.     It«  long  hanging  pods  aro  easily 
recognised.     The  wood,  though  clotte-gmined  aa<l  hard,  is  not  tniicb 
Dseo.    The  bark  serves  in   tanning,  ihe  root  yields  a  purge,  and 
tiie  seeds  ara  oiirronnded  by  a  pulp,  which,   as   an    aperient,  has 
apW-e  both  among  Indian  and  buropean  drugs.     Bherda  or  beJuta, 
Terininiilia  bt-llcrica,  a  larg<f  forfiSt  tree,  is  rare  in  Kb^ndesb.     Tho 
w^id  is  oiift  and  sapm,  and  not  of    much    value,  b<-iiig   readiljf 
destroyed  by  insects.    Its  fruit  formsone  of  the  myrobalaos,  whioli  f<n 
Ihuir  dyeing  and  tuniitBg  properties,  uro  exported  to  Europe.     Tbdl 

•  [Bomb&yOuetteCit, 


the  kanu,  yields  good  timber.  It  is  not  pTentifu]  in  Kbfindesli. 
Arjtm  «•  kahfl,  Terminalia  nrjiilJa,  one  of  the  finest  of  forest  trees, 
growH  to  a  great  »ize  gL-uonilly  on  the  banks  and  in  the  beds  of 
rivers.  Its  wood  is  of  excellent  (jnality,  but  from  the  amount  of 
sap  is  hard  to  work.  Large  trunks  are  often  sawn  into  single  solid 
cartwheels.  The  wood  grows  harder  by  seaadniDg.  Ku»utnb, 
Schleichera  trijuga,  a  large  forest  tree,  with  an  e^pellent  tou^ 
wood  used  for  sugar  mills  and  oil  presses,  is  a  favourite  tree  with 
the  lac  insect.  Maugo,  uin/m,  Mangifera  indica,  one  of  the  best 
knqwn  of  Indian  trees,  is  valued  chiefly  for  its  fruit,  and  is  seldom 
cat.  Its  wood  is  excellent,  hard,  and  deep  coloured,  and  as  it 
t^es  a  bright  polinh,  is  Veil  suit*.'d  for  furniture  and  carriage 
building.  The  wood  yields  an  excellbnt  thareoal.  Mango  groves 
are  most  freely  scattered  over  some  of  the  n<)rtht'rn  sub- divisions.  ] 
The  soil  there  is  remarkably  suited  to  tho  growth  of  the  tree- 
After  planting  tho  seed  at  tho  beginning  of  tho  rainy  season  no 
care  or  trouble  is  bestowed  on  it  except  placing  a  few  thrans 
round  the  young  plant.  Watering  in  the  hot  months  is  unnecessary. 
Moiui,  Bassia  longifolia  or  latifolia,  is  found  all  over  Khandesh. 
Its  chief  value  lies  in  the  pulpy  bell-shaped  flower,  which,  when 
dried,  is  eaten  by  Uie  natives,  and  is  distilled  into  tho  common 
spirit  of  the  country.  'Almost  every  animal,  ivild  or  domestic,  eata 
the  fresh  flowers.  It  is  an  important  article  of  trade,  and  during 
the  hot  months  is  thg*  chief  means  of  subsistence  to  Bhils  and  other 
hill  tribes.  Tho  wood  is  hard  and  lasting,  but  the  tree  is  too 
valuable  to  be  cut  for  timber.  The  seed  when  allowed  to  form,  is 
enclosed  in  a  thick  walnut-like  pod.  It  yields  an  excellent  oil, 
good  forfuod  and  burning,  and  also  for  skin  diseases.  The  leaves 
and  Kark  make  nsefu]  embrocations.  Altogether  the  moha  is  one  of 
the  most  valuable  orKhaudesh  trees,  but  as  it  grows  in  the  wildest 
forfesta,  most  of  tho  produce  is  lost,  or  supirorts  wild  animals  8nlj, 
In  country  a  few  good  moha  trees  are  a  #mall  fortune. 
Mohan,  Odiiia  wodier,  is  a  very  common,  but  according  to  general 
opiuion,  valueless  tree.  In  Burma,  it  is  said  to  grow  to  a  great  size, 
and  yield  a  close-grained  dark  red  wood  useful  for  cabinetwork. 
In  Bombay  its  timber  is  utterly  'despised.  The  trunk  is  said  to 
yield  a  medicinal  gum.  Moka,  Sctwbora  swietcnioides,  notcommoa 
in  Klmndesh,  has  a  hard,  tough,  box -like  wood,  used  by  weavers  for 
their  looms  and  beams.  A''dji  a  or  hondnr a,  Lagerstroemia  parviflora, 
A  sW^ight- growing  rather  rare  tree,  yields  good  timber  said  to 
be  used  iu  the  Bombay  dockyard  and  the  Madras  gun  carriage 
^  factory.  Nimb,  Azadiractita  indica,  tho  Indian  lilac,  one  of  the 
'  commonest  of  f^rden  and  roadside 'toees,  ia  chiefly  ornamental  and 
useful  for  shade.  The  wopd  is  sometimes  used  for  building.  From 
its  boiled  leaves  and  fruifc,  a  'cooling  drink  useful  in  fevers  is 
made.  Piingiiraf  Erythrina  sa1>eroBa,  is  a  rather  rare  leguminoufl 
tree  of  no  size  and  of  little  vahie.  Fimpal,  Ficus  religioaa,  is  held 
sacred  by  Hindus,  and  never  ent  by  them.  It  readih  fastens 
its^f  inj^Hs,  and  destroys  thetn'  in  the  end,  as  no  one  will  remove 
it.  Itr  leaves  are  a  favourite  fb(5d  for  camels  and  elephants,  imd 
are  much  liked  by  the  \a/t  insect.  Growing  rapidly,  it  is  suitable 
for  roadside*.  ■  Except  as  fuel-,  the  wood  is  of  no   value.     Rohaa, 



lida  M>i-ifi>^,  srowa  on  Lh«  Ajnntn  nncl  Sntpmln  hilU;   the 

is  tmid  to  be  of  esffilliiiil  •jii^ity  for  all  iii-d<H)r.w()rk,,l>ul  tmt 

md  cspoBure.     'JTio  bark  yieldi  a  coolitj^jr  driuk.     Kaudalwood, 

^iK^'in,  SaDtflliim  nihiinij  tlio  woll  known  true  yietditij;  tbu  HWi-vt 

il1rti|f  IV         -■■ri  oilj  jft  vt'ry  sciuw  in  Kh^iudi'Jth  nntl  ii^vtir  growd 

y  ni^  ,  B<wiwplliii  iburifcra,  a  v<»iy  cummoD  tree  ou  all 

rap  fjill-.  :  Ilia  by  ittt   nhito  aud   si^ly   bark,   in  nn|'p»«od 

<■  havL-   \  '■  fiiinkiucousc  ol  tho  HUci€Qt»,  i»iit  in  Kliiirnlc»h 

:liii  tiudi  SI  1^  mitvcxiriK'tiid  (■'<»"  it.     Tliv  wood,  full  <>[((um, 

liuniiM_  /.is  utM'd  fur  torches.     Tho  (li)wi>r«  aud  seed  nut 

coicn  by  the  \i\i\lf^.     Ilie  gnto  oxudos  in  abiindaoce,  but  tio  aso 

DIB  tit  lie  miidu  uf  it.     Bholnr,  Cordiir  latifutia,  is  a  mm  trov  iii 

niK^Kli.     Klsi'wbitro  ir  griiivs  t«  ifomv  Kiw,  ami  lias  im  exouHi-Mfe 

itiith  wood,     [t  lieara  ao  cdiblo  plum  w)ii>m-  i>'>f(  pulp  i»  a  vsiuable 

~~ly  ID   luiiR  diseases.     ShirtJili,  Albizzii^  lebbek,  a  species  of 

I,  laviTV  unHiiii'-iitiil  with  larjrc  leaves  and  lipbt^olourwd  Iwrlc. 

Aod    i'IIkt  itllii'il  viiritttit's  ikre  f'lund  all  ovi<r  India,   bill   aro 

ivituiiinD  in  like  Kbiudesh   furesitji.     ll.  itt  muoh  pliuited  aloii;^ 

ides  and  in  gnrdoiis.     The  wood,  of  excellent  quality,  is  used 

all  piirpc«H>H.     Swlultt,  aiij,  or  i»'i»,  Tormioalia  lomentoMi,  w  a 

fitK>,  i>tr»i}j;lil,  and  lii^h-groiving:  fon'^t  tri'C.     Sbrlteriid   Erxini  Iho 

mill,  the  wood  is  excellent  for  bouM-.biiildiiijjf,  yleldiujf  better  ptnnka 

B!  !■  rafter*  ttimi  (K-rhaps  any  tree  biit  leak.     Simal,  Ht'ipWx 

Hi  nil,  is  11  liii-fT"  and  tbfirny  tree  ""^th,  n  briglll  r*'d  Biwvr 

ami  a  nufi  down  it^d  for  Htulliiig  pillows.     'Pbe  n*u<.<d  ihou^li  i^ft  Ls 

•aid  to  make  {^x>d  packing  cni^iri.     It  in  not  much  umhJ  in  rCiiADdciib. 

yields  a  useftil  njaiii,  and  the  roota,  when  boiled,  jfire  a  mmmy 

tAnoe  UMud  lUt  a  tonic  in  niudicine.     Wild  Date,  ahindi,  Pli<L-nix 

OBtrifl,   prufen'in^   ttio  fOA  vmsi   is  not  eoinm'in  :iuywlia«  in 

h.     Neither  it^  fermeufed  nor  its  dtslillud  juice  is  nuioh 

MntH  ftre  made  of  the  ktavt-a,  and  the  '^Iciii  enn  bit  iimtd  a« 

ln<ui,>)i.      Hliii'kw<H>il,  j>i.v»  or  i^!i/um,    IMIlieri^ia  lulifnii*,   ia 

V  iu  KhAudi-.-ib,  and  gmws  lo  no  siKe.     S>Litmiiul,  Prdbopia 

rn,  a  thorny  tree,  ia  not  common  in  Kbiinde&h.     The  timber 

to  Ik!  good  for  all  .—  '"■--■-  purposes.     Its  pods  contain  nu 

frnit.     Tiiiiiiirind,  rh  <  n/i',  THinarinduH  indira,  a  large 

wing  aud  vi^ry  hanti^(lIoe  troo,  U  found  ueai-  idl  villag«a 

ma  and  fields.     It^  excellent  hard  wood  makes  the  best 

for  uil  or  ftiigar  mills,  and  is  useful  in   »  viirk-ly   uf  n-iivA. 

ill    is    Kiiiw^tiineM    «Mteii    raw   bui  {{tinerftlly  cooked.      Th£ 

I*almyra  Palm,  tud,  UornsHus  flabelUformia,  thriving  beat  near  tho 

coasl,  is  very  niro  in   Khindehh      T.  ^k,  mg  or  ^ffivifl,  Twrtonik 

frrandis,  formerly  oovored  tho  ."-  fulU  with  iplendid  fontata,  • 

It  rvancy  has  been   lakim  m  [lint'Land  iu  time  new  foresta 

w :  :  up.     Unt  tboUfili  lisUc  nf  riinalt  sze  is  even  now  abundant 

*i  hills  near  NeniAd,  in  rt?  of  the  Stttpiid^i^,  in  the 

Is  [*  fiib-division    near  :  ,  anil   further  west  on  (bo 

1'  ■  iJdikwarV  tcrriUfry^  niany  yearti  must  pass  beforO 

'■■  I  bo  able  lo  stipiily  the  inarkot.     The  largo  Uiivea  oE 

re  much  naed  for  liniuf  coofs  ondor  thiitcfa.    ^ihe  V^ood 

-  a  vetj-  poo<i  oil,  eonewhui  Rimtlar  U>  thai  of  bimeed. 

1  .  attpix'ies  of  Albizm,  cumiouQ  in  tHnuo  part* .of  Khilndceb, 

Chapter  n. 



ptiir  II. 




[Bombay  Omutten, 



lins  a  good  wood  for  ordinary  piirjKises.  Ternhhurni,  DiosjgroB 
iiioutaitf,  th*  wt'U  kuown  clioKy,  is  pretty  coiiiiiioii  in  Khandesh, 
but  lis  it  grows  crooked  aud  hardly  ever  of  any  greM  size,  it* 
wood  ia  litlle  uHfJ.  It  lioars  li  targe  mveetiwh  pUim,  very  pleasant 
to  eat.  Tirng,  DiilbiTfjia  iijaineusis,  ouc  of  the  most  j^neraily 
useful  trees,  yielda  a  beautiful  timber  serving  for  field  tools  of  all 
kiudH.  Ill  KhJiudeKh,  probably  from  its  hariug  been  so  uinoh  cat 
before  the  days  of  cuiiMervaiity,  it  is  not  very  common  and  seldom 
^ows  to  any  grout  sisie.  I'liihut,  Ficiis  gloiiici"ata,  a  very  oomnion 
but  vrtlueh.'ss  tree,  bears  bunelies  of  HavourlesH  figs  on  its  stem  and 
bougiis,  Tho  wood  witbstands  the  notion  of  water,  and  though, 
like  most  of  the  fig.  BpecR's,  generally  accoiiuted  sacred,  it  is  in 
some  places  uRcdfor  shoring  wells.  Vitrul  or  mahiiriiirh,  Ailanthas 
excelsa,  a  tall  and  showy  tree,  grows  near  villaf^s.  Its  wood  is 
accounted  of  no  value.  Tnlan,  liutca  froudosa,  one  of  the  common'eat 
Khandcsh  trees,  is,  at  the  beginning  of  the  hot  season,  a  mass  of 
bright  scarlet  flowers.  The  loaves  are  much  used  as  plates,  ukd  as 
the  young  shoots  are  eaten  by  camels  and  other  animals,  the  tree 
Boldom  grows  to  any  size.  In  Khaudesh  the  wood  is  not  much 
used.  Elsewhere  it  is  said  to  be  strong  and  tough.  It  makes 
excellent  cliareoal.  From  the  stem  is  extrjieted  kinognm;  the 
flowers  yield  a  valuable  dye ;  and  the  root  and  bark  an  excellent 
tough  fibre.  The  juioo  is  also  used  iiiediciually.  It  is  a  faronrite 
witb4ho  liw  insect,  aad  tho  choicest  lac  is  found  upon  it.  The  seed 
nut  is  useful  as  a  pui-gatiTe  and  as  a  vermifuge  to  horses. 

None  of  tho  breeds  of  Kbdndcsli  domestic  animals  are  of  any 
special  excellence^  Of  Horses,  Mares,  and  Foals,  the  1878.79 
returns  show  a  ttjtal  of  14,087  head.  Though  the  local  breed  is 
now  poor  and  suiall,  Kh^ndosh  horses  were  onco  estoomed  the  best 
and  strongest  in  th§  DecfBm,  At  present,  the  only  animals  of  mnch 
Talno  are  a  small  but'lTardy  breed,  of  ponies  raised  by  Thilfais,  a 
trilie  of  wanderingiierdBuien,  cliief^'  inhabiting  the  wesCof  Kh&ndesh. 
Mome  of  these  go  excell^tly  iu  tho  small  cun-iclca,  tonga*,  used 
ill  the  district.  Of  late  years,  Arab  stud  horses  placed  at  moat 
mriirihitdai's'  heail^nartors  have  doue  somothiug  to  improve  the 
breod.  But  as  a  rule  tjio  Kliandesh  iieople  pay  tittle  attention  to 
horse-breeding,  and  are  far  behind  thoir  uoighbours  in  Nagar  and 
I'ooua.  ' 

Bullocks,  returneaJBt  31'1,'fOO,  are  not  as  a  rule  of  ally  p«at 
^aln».  There  is  a  very  good  breed  known  as  the  Thiliii-i,  somewhat 
small  but  strong  and  hardy,  fast-trotting,  and  very  teachable.  It 
,'baB  suffered  much  from  injudicious  crossing.  Weak  and  stunted 
bulls  are  allowed  to  roam  at  large  with  the  village  herds,  and  even 
where,  as  at  tho  Government  farm,  a  good  bull  is  at  hand,  little  care 
neems  to  be  taken  to  obtain  hia  services.  Want  of  fodder  in  the 
hot  dry  weather  goes  far  to  injure  the  breed ;  only  the  more  wealthy 
cultivators  give  theii'  cattle  anything  like  proper  sustenance.  A 
pair  of  good  bullocks  costs  frofti  £1  to  £10  (Hs.lO-Rs.lOO). 

Oows,  returned  at  222,215,  are  poor  and  ill-fed.  Little  care  ia 
taken  Rf  the  breed.  Klii'vndesh  suffers  terribly  from  rattle  yiscaSSb 
apparently  of  niauy  typos,  and  showing  vai'ious  symptoms.     Most 

ai  u  uuu 

h  ased  for  carriage  or  pack  piii^aes.  l"ho  finest  bufEiilooa  are 
id  in  the  wilder  parts  where  grazing  is  plentiful,  ospoeialty 
■  rivers.  Bat  there  ia  not  a  hamlet  jvhero  buffaloes,  somtstitttea 
onsiderable  nuiobera,  are  not  found,  t'emale  buffaloes  cost 
1  £1  10».  to  £3  (Rs.  15  -  Ha.  30). 

he  roring  Vanjaris  sometimes  bring  fine  cattle  for  sale  from 
uld  and  Malwa,  aad  thus  enable  the  local  farmers  to  improru 
r  etock. 

oakeys,  returned  at  7852,  are  found  nearly  all  over  the  district. 
y  are  uaed  chiefly  by  potters  in  carrying  clay  or  bricks,  and 
3hoia  and  others  in  carrying  grain.  They  arc  a  hardy  breed  uf 
aals,  picking  np  their  food  as  boat  they  can. 

[ei^a  of  Sheep  and  Goats,  returned  at  198,625]  chiefly  belonging 
)hangarsj  are  found  throughout  the  district.  The  breeds  are 
r  poor  and  stunted.     Coarse  blankets  ve  woven  from  the  wool. 

he  monthly  cost  of  keeping  a  horse  varies  from  Il>8.  to£2 
.S.Rs.  20);  of  a  bullock  from  8».  to  £1  (Ra.  i-Bs.  10);  of  a  cow 
i4s.  to  10s.  (B8.2-Rs.  5);  and  of  aahocpo^goat from  6d,  to  28. 
las  4 -Re.  1).  Except  milkmen  whoae  Bh^butfaloea'  kaop  coats 
a  from  4a.  to  £1  {Rs.  2  •  Ra.  10)  a  moot^  cultivators  seldom  spend 
e  than  49.  (Rs.  2)  on  a  horse^Jt^  2h.  {Re.l)  on  a  pair  of  bullocks. 
poorer  clhsses  spend  little  or 'Nothing  on  tbeir  Cattle,  grazing 
a  on  village  lands  and  hills  free  or  (j/^  paying  a  nominal  fee. 
Qgh  aometimea  kept  by  bankers  for  carrying  bullion,  Camols 
almost  unknown. 

ogs,  and  sometimes  Cats,  abound  in  every  village  generally 
kout  any  recoguised.  owners. 

owh  are  reared  in  large  quantities  emrfwhero  by  the  lower 
jea,  and  especially  by  the  hill  tribes.      There  are  no  s]^ihl 

uties,  and  no  trouble  ia  taken  to  prevent  promiscuous  breeding. 

1    (.1.-  p_..    '..    _ *    1.        ei.i.  _.i.-_i 





[Btmbfty  Qa 

Kliiin^psh  tlify  were,  (Idrinj^  tlir  i  *       nhiry,  fv!  I 

Tim  t'Uit'f  wild  uniiiial  siiU  fini(»i  j  i  is  tbv  __„_ 

FvILh  ti|fri8.     Id  the  di^urbod  Uiikm  at  [bi>  be^tiuaiu^  of  iLe 
century,  targctr^spaasvd  frum  tilljkffciutof<jro»t,Bad  tigers. 
and  <Ieslru}-v<l   m  tlie  wry  heart  of  tW  iliitlHcl.     In   1822 
buAi<1i«  killuU  500  huriian  bcio^  and  2il,U00  head  of  cattlu. 
di^Htnictiun  was  ane  of  tho  tnost  presmnff  noces&itieiB.  nud  in 
JaueaudJi  '  iiymir  (Id22),a8  nmuyiM  tixtvi' 

iDHpiloofi      <         ^iif  Sir  •lauiBH  Uutniiu  iiud  hi- 
and  otlmr  largw  beswts  of  prej"  continued  so  Dumercii»  that  iht* 
them  kept  waate  and  dosolntv  some  of  the  richral  tracts  in  KiUoJ 
KVeu  as  lut«  au  tho  nyitintw  (I867-IS59J,   Klidndvsh,  more  ihao^ 
alin<.iitt  uii>- pnift^f  weMurii  India,  continued   a  e>tn>ug:h<ild    Eor 
lieaKtH.     S<i  daueroiu  and  doHtmctivo   wore   ther  that  a 
diviaiii;i  '.  !  1    rj>s  wi-ri'.iwt^l^-:  ;  '  :     ■    rs,  sol  njiart  to  ; 

Sunorr  |      ki'.     Siiice   1^    -      .     iti-  the  t>uf»'riat 

<if  Poliw    Mnjor  p.  Fniliyn,  tho  deHtmeliuu  i.f  liffora  biw 
njMu^e.     Of  lalo  yoars,  to  tho  etibi-ta  of  tho  district  oiKoers' 
been  ad<)Qd  a  rapid  spread  of  tilhi^T  and  inc-rv^-iuM  of  population. 
Tho  tigi^r  is  uo  longer  found  in  the  pliuiit}.     Amuii;j>  tht--   S^Uputf'" 
in  Ihe  north,  oiamff  the  Neuifid  fronlior  afad  the  Uatti  hiUs  in 
cast  and   the  Bmtu-i>aal,  in  the  SatmdliU  in  the  south,  and  in 
Danfi^  and  otbt>r  wild  wo8tom  tntc-ln  he  i<till   rvanui.     Kroik 
Itix  nnmliur  i*  dis;linin^.     The  lo^  of  <:attle  i»  iD0On!<iil<inil)lu 
the  loss  1^  human    life  trifling'.^^    tho  five  years  emlin^  1S7 
itixtecn  hniiuiu  iK'ingH  i%nd  3Ul  fao^  of  cnttio  wero  killed  by  thai 
The  r^l  iim»  xhoWtA  (all  in  the  nuuilicr  of  ti^^rs  ftlain  from  itn  u vvra( 
of  nearly   tifreen  ill  tiie  &ve  years  ending  1870  to  t«)a  in  tho 
yeara  ending  1879.' 

The  I'AS-TtTEB.  hibta  oit^himta,  Folia  parduo,  is  gonorally  said  to_ 
Lc  of  throe  iliiitinct  upoeicB,  two  Itv^)  and  one  sniall.     Of  tho 
large, kimlH,  due  rivuU  the  tij^i-v^i!!  iu  aiae,  nud  aa  He  will  at 
Quprovokod,  is  otgitally  or  cwn  ntpro  dnngcrone  to  man ;  the  ut 
uuMller,   Atouter,   and   with  a  round   bnlUdog'it   hi^aiS,  has  a  k 
darker, -and   louf^r  fur,  with  spota  ninch  utont  crowditd  and 
black  ii1<ju<£  tho  riiV>%'  of  the  back  and  up    the  le^s  about  as  h^ 
tho  she  til  den  md    thighs.     The  third   vnriuty   is  u  very 
'  . ^^ _^^_^ . _ ^ ^ 

•Piad>(lfiKi)>n  Kort'«V<^m^  ^111.  277.    Ii>  1630^  ^wtl  Kkin  Ktrtwal  . 
10  tlif  (iiijiirlt-Kl>Aiirlf»li   [iKuiiiT  nail  itt|>tBrul   130  il«|iWt>!H  li>   lli«  (ialUn' 
fonobi,  irf  wbiali  wvinity  wvnj  >tnit  tA  l^llii  iVVaUnn'*  (luJM^l,  71).     WlMJicr 
irtni  fonrxrl^v  foiuiil  in   Khimt'iili   ••••iiib  •li'iiHful.    I1i*  AjMil*    jiaintinipl 

Inldligimoe  1$4,  in  AMitU<:  Jiiunial,  N«ir  Serial.  Vll.)  luualioa  niiwIiMilnd  " 
[iHDtiox  in  KliteiI«)Ji,"flv>n^*a*oc«iiatof  tfa«  d«*lnicti>in,  iiiUirM(lan(13tli-l 
May  iKlll,  u(  lliiva  UnnaMMl  a  ISoimm  iMwttio  old  tuwn.of  I'AUn.    'nip  siticlti  I 
■ifirH>3  "  An  UM  Kldnitvflhl,"  bnt  fnm  rcfonnuna  in  it  to  Ahn  uui  8i<lli|>ar  th*rt  i» 
IH>  •l"ulit  tbitt  Uiv  olil  b'lrii  iir  Ptitwi  ii  nut  l'it«n    Uiiar   (.DiAliigpoii.   Init  tho    uiii^til 
ua(iet*l  »( <>  •tbciilC   *»ly   niiliH   noitb'Wint  vf    Aliniiilnhati.     SpcuJal    iii>it:ini-^ 
bavv  Imni  nuwlu,  )iut  Uivtk  wiiuU   Munt  tu  i<v  wi  nivitil  rd  Ixni'^'n'liiiff  iu  ' 
(dnca  til*  Iwittnaitit:  ol  Hnlwlidle.  '  Mr.  I.'liri[>lin'*  IlijN.rt,  SUtli  Aui;.  LS:.>-J. 

'  TIio.«lBWil»  »n):  ISa.1,  *  ISiaS,  «i  lB«i7.   Cs  ISiiS.  I-.':    IMS,  3;  ld7o, 
lS71,8nS7S,S0i  tSTS,  Hi  1971,  D;  tS7»,0;  IgJO,  7]  16i7,2i  1878,  Ifi: 

only.  The  WiLU  Cat,  ru'n  vnUtjar,  Felia  ohuus,  met  all  over 
iistrict,  ia  coinparativply  liaruilesa,  and  ditfera  in  size,  colour, 
length  of  tail,  only  slightly  from  the  house  cat.  The  Lynx, 
I  caracal,  a  rare  animal,  ia  occasionalfy  fonmi  among  rocky  hilft. 
Tery  ahy,  and  ia  seldom  abroad  after  daybreak.' 

le  Etkna,  fvras,  Hyrona  striata,  onco  very  common,  ia  now 
y  Been.  The  Wolp,  Idndga,  Oauia  pallipi's,  formerly  caust-J 
1  havoc  among  aheep  and  goata,  and  is  even  known  to  have 
Bd  off  young   children.     Like  the   other  fl^-eaters,  ho   has 

forcea  to  give  way  before  the  spread  of  tillage.  Still  ho 
rj  destmciire,  and  though  he  seldom  attacks  humau  boinga, 
an  immense  nnmbei;.  qt  sheep  and  goata,  and  two  or  three 
her  will  often  pull  down  a  good-sized  young  ^hifFalo  or  heifer. 
Q(f  the  fourteen  years  ending  1879,  4138  wolves  were  killed,  tho 
y  nnmber  varying  from  COS  in  I87'i  to  seventy -one  in  1879.' 
lea  the  above,  the  Jackal,  kollia,  Cania  aureus,  and  the  Fox, 
id,  Vulpea  bengalenaia,  abddAd  in  the  open  country.  ^\e  Wild 

kolsunda.  Coon  rutilans,  ia  also  found  in  the  gitpuda  hilla, 
ing  in  packa. 

e  Induk   Black  Beab.   dsval,  Ursus  labiatna,  is   found   in  all  Bear. 

'orest-clad  hills  of  Khfindeah.     Formerly    abounding   in  the 

'  hill  tops  of   Pimpalner  and   B&glait   in   the   south-west,  the 

>er  of  black   bears  has   during  tho   past   twenty  years  been 

,  reduced.     Though  not  generally  dangerona  to  life,  he»ia  at 

.  very  mMchievous.     Sugarcane,  when  he  can  get  it,  is  one 

1  &vouriCe  articles  of  food,  and  he  deatiDja  much  more  thau 

tfi.     The  flower  of  the  moha,  Basaia  latifolia,  tree  is  hia  chief 

lance  at  the  beginning  of  the  hot  season,     Thia  flower,  which 

Lceathe  common  apirit  of  the  country,  aeems  t^affect  the  bear 

a  kind  of  intozjdation,  as  he  is  know^  to  be  most  dangerous 

kt  season,  anff.«ipt  to  attack  man  unprovoked,     A   vegetaria^ 

t  lairegarda  ants  and  some  other  insects,  he  does  no  injuty  to 

1 .1- 



[Bombay  Diuettter, 

.32  DISTPigTS. 

A  piiro  vrf»ctnl»!o  enter,  ho  is  most  dainty  in  his  tnntPB.  Ho 
must  Imvf  th?  very  Ix'st  the  laad  iift'ords,  aud  while  ch(Miaiii(f  the 
(Uintii'st  morsels,  destroys  much  more  than  he  eats.  .Sognrcsae, 
ftwuot  jMitato  aud  other  ivots,  and  juicy  millet  and  Indian  com  stalk) 
arc  his  favourite  fond.  A  few  years  ajjo  herds  of  wild  pig  were 
found  everywhere,  hut  their  nuiiihers  are  now  much  smaller.  From 
the  horder  hills  they  Btill  sally  at  night  to  ravage  the  crops  in 
the  neighl)<>urho»d,  but  they  arc  no  longer  so  destructive  as  they 
onco  were.  With  the  aid  of  their  dojfs  and  ajH-ars,  the  Bhilshni^ 
and  kill  them  for  food,  aud  the  clearing  of  the  forests  has  tsa/is 
their  deatrnetion  comparatively  easy.  Twenty  years  ago  in  tha 
country  cast  of  the  PnniS.  river,  then  belonging  to  His  HighnM* 
Sindia,  herds  of  some  hundreds  inifjjlit^bo  seen  marauding  in  open 
day.  Night  and  day  the  cultivator  had  to  watch  hi3  fields.  Thoogk 
comparatively  few  are  left,  herds  of  fifty  aud  upwards  are  atiil 
occasionally  seen. 

The  Bison,  gara,  Gavreus  gaunis,  is  fouud  only  in  the  S&tpndft 
and  Hatti  liills.  The  shyest  and  wariest  of  fon-st  animals,  its  chief 
food  is  grass  and  youug  liamhoo  shouts.  The  Stag,  sdmhar,  Eos* 
aristote lis,  is  found  in  all  the  hill  couulrj' on  the  borders  of  the  district. 
It  feeds  in  the  plains  aud  fields  at  night,  and  seeks  the  hill  tops  at 
early  dawn.  It  seldoiu,  if  ever,  lies  in  the  plain  country.  The 
Spotted  Dker,  ch!l<d,  Axis  uiaculatns,  is  now  raro.  Ho  ia'never 
found  far  from  water,  and  generally  in  thick  forests.  In  the  conntrj 
east  of  tlft  Purna  spotted  deer  were  formerly  fonnd  in  immeiue 
numbers,  but  most  of  thorn  were  shot  or  driven  away  while  the 
railway  was  making.  They  are  still  in  small  numbers  near  rivers 
in  the  Satpuda  hills,  and  in  the  west<?rn  forests  along  the  TiptL 
The  Barking  Dekr,  It/iekre,  Cervuhis  aureus,  and  the  Focr-hornxd 
Antelope,  also  called  hlij'krc,  Totracems  quadricomis,  are  occasionally 
met  with  in  the  Satpuda  hills.  The  Bloe  Bull,  niliidi/,  Portax  pictns, 
was  once  common  ovorywhero,  hut  is  now  coniined  to  the  few  strips 
of  forest  land  left  between  the  Katpuda  and  other  hills  and  the 
open  plains,  aud  to  the  low  country  ou  the  west.  He  seldom  enters 
the  hills  or  dense  forests,  feeding  chiefly  on  palas,  Bntea  frondosa, 
or  other  troos  in  the  fiat  country.  The  Indian  Antelops,  kalvit, 
AntilojM)  benoartica,  frequents  the  open  fields  and  devours  the  corn. 
Disliking  forest  country,  they  were  never  so  plentiful  in  Kh^cdesh 
as  in  the  Deccan  and  Gujartit  jjlaius.  Very  few  of  them  ai-e  left. 
The  •Indian  Gazelle,  cftm/Mm,  Gazella  benuettii,  loving  the  shrub 
brushwood  and  roeky  eminences  of  Khiindesh,  are  still  comparatively 
.plentiful.  The  Uommon  Hark,  torn,  Lepus  ruficandatus,  found  in 
considerable  numbers  all  over  the  district,  completes  the  list  of 
four-footed  game  animals. 

Of  Game  Birds  there  are  among  Rasores,  Pkafowi.,  Pavo  cristatns, 
living  in  all  woods  and  shady  gardens.  Grey  Junule  Fowl,  Gallaa 
Bonnerati,  and  Srurt  Fowl,  (iailopordix  spadiceus,  found  only  in 

(ft  ^ABTRiDOEs  there  are  two  kinds:  the  Grey,  Ortygomis 
ponticoriana,  found  over  the  whole  district,  and  the  Paiktkd, 
Francolinua  pictus,  widely  disti-ibutod  but  less  common. 

tSombiy  Ou«tt(trJ 



ipttr  n. 



uloMgllio  Sittpndiis.andreoogiumMebj'its  moKioiU-ry  - 
hoar^a  mil*  'iti.    CirowtaA  gmlUiioa,  and  <»w  nf  ilu:  Sju 
slsobixm  DMtintil.    The  tfanw  well  Imown  KJtos,  l)ie>CoiiiiU(iu,  MUf 

f>viiiiia;  llm  Brmhtnttni,    Htdmtiiiir   iiidu.t;  and  Iho    Hiat^-L'^i""^-^-^ 
lanuB  Duilaiioptentfl  «re  all  found,  tho  Br^bmaui  heiixg  v. 
i»nNit.     Tlw  Wliite^jrod  Bn»»ird,  Puliomia  toom,  in  very  . 
&ad  the  Uoney  Uuuiard,  Peruia  ptilorfafuoos  or  cris(al»,  it  ooi-. 

Of  Falcohs,  a  larffecIiMts,  there  are  thn  Peregrine,  Falvo  porogriii 
rare ;  the  Keatrel,  Tinmmculus  alaudarios,  much  mure  commcia;! 
tho  SluibwD,  Paico  perc^DRlur,  tbu  liuggnr,  Fulco  jtiggor, : 
f>eautiful  Turututi,  Fulco 'cbiuuera,  common.     Of  (ubbius, 
am  two  or  three   kinds  with  marked  light  grvj' jilumage. 
Hawks,  ihe  Shikra,  A.itur  InuliuH,  and  the  tiparrojv  liuwk,  Acci{ 
lUBUs,  are  well  known. 

Tlivro    aru    m»ay    Owifl  in  the  formt*.     The  Brown  FJeh 
Ketiipa  oevlonenaiR,  and  the  Duskyhomod  Owl,   Dnbo  conji 
are  both  found.     Tho  Rockhornvd  Owl,  Bul>o  bungalvDEiA,  it  i 
found  alon^  all  the  rtrera.     The  beantifnl  Spotted  Owl,  HymiD 
ooelliitiim,  Hi  very  common  among  mango  gixtros,  and  Ihe  Sit 
Owl,  OLus  brac-hyotna,  ia  a  wtnt«r  vUitant.     The  Screecih  Oi. 
jaTani<B,   i^  rare.     Both    the    little    Owlete,    Carine   brama, 
Glaucidium  ra^liatuni,  aro  found,  tho  latter  only  io  foroiit  diiflriots. 

Of  SwA^ULOws,  in  the  cold  weather  the  Common  Swallow,  Iltranda 
roalica,  i%  everywhcrv,  and  uru  or  two  Murtinn,  tho  Bank,  Co^lfl 
ainunitiM,  and  the  Cliff,  Cotyle  concolor,  are  found  all  the  yv 
ponnd.  The  pretty  Rodbackod  or  Moscino  Swultiiw,  I]iniiit: 
orythropygia,  is  not  uncommon.  But  its  smaller  oouffemT,  Utrundd 
fluvicola,  is  veiy  rara.  The  Common  Swift^  CypselluH  affinis,  is  widi 
diittnbutvd.  'Fhe  Alpine  Swift,  C.  metba,  is  rare,  as  i»  thr  Pa 
Swift,  C.  batassiensis.  The  beautiful  Crested  Swift,  (lendrochelid 
coroDstus,  ia  common  among  tho  Sulpadibj. 

Of  Niobt-Jaks  (he  cliiof  are,  the  Common  Night- jar,  Caprimnli 
wiaticus,  callod  the  Ice  Bird  from   its  (itiicklr   n.-pi'ak-d  note,  b 
a  stoue  boanding  utToss  in*.     It  is  purely  a  night  bird,  feeding 
motha  and  beetles.     Especinjly  when  »o«n  early  in  the  morning  ' 
when  Rtarting  on  n  jonrnoy,  the  natives  consider  it  a   bird   of; 
omen.     C.  murathunt»iM  and  C.  monticolus  arc  also  found. 

&f  Bbe-satbos,  MeropB  viridia,  is  in  every  field,  and  M.philtppinu 
14  uu  Oulober  visitant. 

Of  Roucns  there  iu  tlio  Indian  Boiler,  Coracias  indtca,  called  b] 
EaropeauH  the  Blue  Jay. 

Thero  are  several  KiNaFiaiiERS,  Tl»e  ■VS'hilebrea*ted,  Hiilcyoi 
amyrnmtsiF!,  with  bright  i^kybluo  bnck,  is  commonort  ;  the  ^malle 
Blue  Kiuglisher,  Alcedo  bettgak-nsis,  is  also  found.  Tho  l^r^ 
Alexandrine  or  Stork-biUod  Kingfisher,  Pt-iargnpnia  gurial,  liven  a 
some  of  the  larger  rivers.  The  Pied  KiugtishiT,  CJorjle  rudis,  t^ 
very  •ommon.  and  may  be  seen  hoi-ering  over  every  pond  and  utros 

01  HoBWBlLUJ,  BuccrolidiB,  the  Common  Grey,  Ocyocroa  birost 




DtBS«iniirag   p»mdiseaii,   U  (irulMbly    lomid  io  the  Bitpodm 
wmtf  ry  (oreeto.  . 

Of  the  same  trilR'  arc  tho  three  well  known  families  of  Tl 
BoJliuls,  awl  UabhlvrH.     Of  Thruiiliirf>,  Merolidic,  sTTcml  kmda 
oorotnoD.      Mlied  to  them  are  the  Orioles  fuand   in  nltnoft  ei 
Dwnsp  groTe.     Tbu  Common  Uulbul,  MolpKst«s  hcemoirhotis, 
Uie  Graen,  Phrllomia  jcrdoni,   and   Ian  tiphia,  an*   Ima  w 
distriboted.     Ilio  Babblcni,  Uid»oocirci,  koowa  aa  tho  Seveo  Sii 
■TO  a  wull  markutl  dusky  •feathered  ^mily,  -very  noisy  and  jgft 
in  pro  Dps. 

To  Iho  aamtt  tribe  (DwmBosTrfks)  belong  the  Flycatchpra 
\rarblera,  a  Tory  Ur^  fanJly.  Of  Flycattbera  the  tnort  rvnmrfcah 
is  tho  Paradiso  Flycatcher,  Maacipota  pauwlini,  a  aroaU  bird 
a  biwk  c'n!«Uxl  head  and  vcrj  louff  daric  cbounat  or  amiw-* 
central  tail  f«atIiors.  It  ia  aometimea  called  tho  Widow  ' 
The  Wliitebrowed  Fanlail,  Leooooorca  aonHila,  is  found  in  _ 
grove  utt<?rinff  a  few  clear  quick  notoa,  as  if  whlatling  part  of  the 
■calc.  Tho  Whitfspottod  Kantail,  Leucocopwi  leucogatrtcr,  a  annJlff 
rariftty,  in  altto  rury  oouunou.  Tho  Blno,  Cyomia  tickeUi,  and  the 
Bobia,  Erythro«terna  parra.  Flycatchers  are  rawr. 

The  Warblora,  an  immense  &unily,  include  Bobins,  Redstarts,  and 
WagtIailK.  The  North  Indian  Robiu,  llmmnobia  futicata,  and  tha 
Redstart,  Ruticilla  rufivontria,  very  t«me  birds,aro»een  «Tery>rhero| 
iho  Tailor  Bird,  Ortfaotomna  autorius,  with  its  lovely  neat  of  two  or 
three  hanging  leaTes,  aown  together  aa  with  a  noodlo  and  thread, 
and  Iim?<J  with  cotton,  hair,  or  wire,  is  also  common.  Of  Wrea 
Warblora,  Drynioiote,  tliero  are  several  kinds.  The  I^nco  Pi^ 
Wagtail,  Motocilla  inaderaapatenus,  and  tho  Indian  Field  Wagtai), 
Budytin  cinneocnpilla,  are  common  ncMr  water. 

Of  Crows,  the  Common  Crow,  Corma  splendens,  and  the  Black, 
Corvua  cnlmiuutus,  arc  well  known.     Of  Uagpiett  two  kinds 
Dendrucittii  rufa,  iu  tho  ploiu^  and  DendrooifctA  leavogaatra,  < 

'llie  SmiuiDX  or  8tarIingA  are  ropremnled  by  aeveral  niecies. 
The  Common  M)-na,  AcHdolhorca  trisiis,  is  uniTereal,  and  a  Wattled 
Mynu,  iirobably  Ealahes  roUgiosa,  thungh  nu^',  ia  alao  found. 
During  the  cold  seniion,  the  Jvdri  Bird,  Pastor  roaeus,  may  be  seen 
in  large  flocka  in  every  grain  field. 

Of    FixcaKS,    Fringillidie,    aro    the   Common  Sparrow,   leaser 

AjDMsticua,  and  tho  Weaver  Bird,  Plooous  phili|ipinQ8,  with  its  woU 

known  hanging  bottleahaped  uoat^      Sorerol  Larks,  Alftodaj,  belong 

,  to  this  family,  as  also  the  well  known  Amadavat,  EstKlda  amandava. 

Allied  to  some  of  tlie  game  birds  montionod  above  are  tio  Pigetma 
and  Doves.  Of  these  tho  Blue  Rock  Pigeon,  Colomba  intermedia, 
niiich  liko  its  Kiiropean  namesake,  is  seen  everywhere.  The  beantiful 
Bronaewingod  Pijjoon,  Chalcophapa  indi«,  is  rare,  aeon  only  ia 
{orG8(«  alone  or  in  pair*.  The  Conunon  Qreen  Pig<^on,  Crocopas 
cblorigaster,  is  found  wherevor banian  trees  aro  fJontiful. 

Of  Dove«  piT)pt«r  fonr  varietJea  am  pretty  generally  diatribnted  i 
tbo   C!>n)mon  Ringdove,    Turtnr  neonas,    tho   Spott«d   Core,  T* 

(BiHib*;  OuetUtr. 

tor  XXL 




Few  early  DOtioes  of  tli«  people  oT  Kh&nJeah  have  Ikwq  tratvi 
Accoriling'  to  Iasmq  the  SaDskrit>speakiDj;  tribea  passed  down  tlia 
Oujarit  nwat  nod  op  Uio  Tapti  nrnj  Ibroiigh  KUndMh  iotn  the 
Ileocaii.'  Another  wave  of  settlen  would  seem  to  have  piiit-rvl  by 
tfa«  oMi,  u,  aocordioi;  to  local  tradition,  Rajputs  of  dilTi  v^ 

roled  from  AairRad  m  far  back  aa  the  atxt^Muth  Lx-nttu-jr  tx  i  it. 

The  fint  known  historic  reference  to  the  people  of  Kh&ndcah'  nesta 
to  b«  Ptolemy'B  (a.p.  150)  mention  of  th«  FliYljitai  and  Kondali  or 
Goudali,  probably  the  Bbiia  and  Qondit.  whom  he  places  aoalli  of 
tlio  Niirbada  not  far  trom  its  Bourcc.'  The  Bhils,  atill  the  nwtA 
characteristic  and  one  of  tho  lui^ii't  cbtason  in  KfaAndesh,  aeeni 
to  show  by  tho  varieties  of  their  dialect,  Nein^i,  Mai-Athi.  and 
Gujariti,  that  they  havo  Imk-ii  poghi-d  bitck  into  lRlulndi^"*b  by  lat«r 
amvnis,  from  tho  east,  the  siuutti,  and  ihe  wasi.  Many  of  tlie 
changes  tkat  havo  narrowed  the  limits  o)  the  Bhil  country  bars 
taken  placo  Hinco  Ploleray  wrnt«.  Bnt  in  his  time,  as  at  pru^est, 
Khtodeah  waa  probably  one  of  the  leadini?  Bhil  settI<>inentB.  Of  the 
Gonds  traoGS  renain  in  aGond  tribuof  hvrdemun  fuand  in  ChdHisgaoD 
and  in  a  Gond  »ub>(lirision  of  Mbdrs. 

Siaco  Ptolumj  's  time,  the  first  great  diaage  is  the  popolation  of 
KhAudeah  seems  to  have  boon  the  arrival,  A^iarcntly  iip  tho  Tipti 
valluy  frura  GujaMt,  of  a  detachment  of  the  great  tribe  or  nation  of 
Ahire  or  Aldiirs.'  The  oriu^n  of  the  AhirB,  who,  besides  in  Khtiudesb, 
are  Found  in  tho  North- West  Provinces,  Bengal,  Cctit.nd  India  and 
tho  Central  I'rtivioco*,  in  Cutoh  and  KAthi&wir  in  GujarAt,  and  in 
KAttik,  Ahmedni&gar  and  other  parte  of  tho  north  Dvccui,  is  doahtfat 

'IliB  gnktec  part  o(  th«  nutorMU  Un  Uiia  eb«pt«r  lisra  bMn  noHortil  nid 

aSoonata  i«VNed  Inr  Hr.  J.  FoUmi,  C.  S.  t  for  the  wild  and  wanilvriv  triUa  Major 
O.  Plobj^n  b  111*  ekief  oontribatar  i  and  mnch  holfi  eapadally  lor  Vasdj^  nod  Vtwa 
hat  bMM  rKortd  troni  Rio  Bahitlur  MahAilEX-  QaTJiid  Riaada.  SnbordiBate  JndAo  «l 
,  Shulia  and  K««  Sihth  K.  B.  Mardtbc,  SulurdioAto  Judj»  of  AmOmt, 

'  Indiacfan  AltarthiunAiuirfM,  L  181 . 

■TheUalitUiintlH.  B.  Wilaoa'a  WorK  VIL  1«4)  pUc««,  noit  to  ttia  paofd* of 
VubkiUia  or  B*dar.  KJimkI**  or  ShaiuUa  who  may  poanbly  hairn  givM  thm  naoia 
to  KJiindaah.  Ektadaah  h>a  aUo  licaa  tbon^t  to  U  tha  KliiaTav  (otMt  of  tb* 
HaUbhttat,  vklok  wia  burnt  down  and  bronAt  nadar  tillaim  br  Arjitn  tbt  brotlwr 
ofRriah&B.    Thaw  idontifioUloM  uu  doubtfoL 

•  Bartnia-  PtolMojr,  Map  X.  and  2M.  Wilaon  (VII.  139)  U  ol  opinion  tfcat  tb*  BUb 
ara  ladiided  niider  the  Pnfaada  whom  Plolonnr  plaM*  (uither  to  tlia  woM.  AnDlhsr 
ol  PI«Joiny^  tnbta  the  Tabwri  havo  boMt  rakmad  to  KhtUtdcab  and  MpfMaad  tain 
tJia  Buddkurt  aaoettM  o(  llw  Aianla  ud  ottint  Sitanila  tavo  tempUa.  Ynle  in  ladL 
Ant.  I^.  282. 

*  Ikiiiie  ol  tlia  Ahti*,  apparently  Ut«(  anii'al*,  <aaio  froai  uurthen)  Indix 

[Bomter  Ouettaet. 


I  r\/ij'iut^i 

About  tliiit  time,  and  on  till  the  uriTal  ot  khe  Uns&lmiiu  (131( 
wems  iprobablii  that  nliil»  tbi>  nyY>pri  Yfcl«?»  beM  Kluuitlosh, 
MntbQjm|M.  of  wboK  nmval  do  tra^titiD  mntainM  but 
wurtnowntol&ve  come  from  the  Bonth.  firet  notUod  to  tho  ■ 
DurinfT  thif  liitU'r  piirt  of  iho  (oortMnth  oentary,  hy  tbe  e»tjib 
(1370)  of  It  line  of  ArabkiDg^  anewforeiffneleniBnt  waa  uiii 
into  Kbind«flh.     About  imatxao  time  tW  dinlrKrl  vnw  vuilsd  i^j 
■0  MTura  a  fninino  ibnt,  accordinj^  to  Feriabta,  its  wbolc  piHipl*,  I 
except  a  few  Bhils  and  Koliii,  disappuarod.*  Undvr  tbe  Fintki  IcioaiJ 
EblindMfa  row  Ut  lutii-li  w(>aitb  and  proaperitj,  and  its  ! 
received  maoy  additions  both  of  noighboiuiog  Hindtu  aii<l 
&fnisft]m&nfl.  * 

tin  1600.  -nhen  it  paaae-d  to  tIwEinpcTOTAfcbar,!piHivof  EbADJka: 
were  faighlj*  tilled  and  well  peopled,  Hud  it«  Bbib.  6ond«,  and  K"abi« 
Vfere  npeciatty  noticed  as  hHrdworkera  and  ttutifnl  subjects,'  Umlof 
tbe  Moffbais,  daring  tho  ncvi'iiU-viith  oonlnry,  i»n)«pcrity  continued, 
llio  (iiflturbiuicea  in  tbe  Deccan,  tbat  ended  witb  tbe  fall  of 
Abm«<luagar  (lt>38)  and  Hijiipur  (l&8l)),  muxl  have  drivpn  nntnlm* 
into  Ihp  more  peaceful  district  of  KhAndesb,  and  dunug  all  bis 
reign,  AorangKeb  (t6tt0- 1707)  wm  converting  Hindns  to  Lal&m  and 
Unsalm^na  woro  Dixiking  front  nortb  India  into  KkfLndeah. 

UndiT  tbe  Manlth&s  (1760-1817^  tbe  Ilindua  again  rose  to 
importance.  But  any  additions  from  tno  aoutb  utu»t  hnro  l>c«ti  mure 
than  mel  by  ibe  losses  in  the  diflturbances  that  marked  tbe  cltxiie  oi 
the  eighteenth  oontnry.  The  terhblo  faroJno  of  16*^  laid  the  district 
waste,  leaving  for  tbe  time  bnt  a  few  ilhils  and  Kolis.  A\'1iu»  the 
famino  was  over  some  of  the  old  inhnbilonts  retamed.  But  so 
diatarb<.-d  were  all,  estocpt  some  favoured  parti  of  llii-  district,  that 
snmbers  iitiU  ataid  ^tn,j*  In  those  tronbled  times  three  bodies  of 
foreign  mercwriee  rose  to  importjtuce ;  Arabs,  north  India  of 
pBrdcBhi  ferkhmans,  and  M  vsi>ror  Kamteak  troops,  apparenlly  partly 
Uindu  partly  UnsalmAn.  ^Vitb  tbo  establishment  of  British  power 
(181/  - 1820)  these  three  classes  of  mercenaries  diaappearod.  Pari 
^  of  tbe  Arabs  were  sent  to  Arabia,  snd  tbo  rest  fonnd  their  way  to 
Bfiaidarabad  in  the  I>eccan ;  almost  all  Die  Kaniitlak  troops  returned 
^to  their  own  land  ;  and  most  of  tbe  Pardefhi  Br/khmans  M^tttod  as 
husbiindmen.*  Ou  the  establtshmviit  of  order,  tbe  old  inbnliitants 
returned  in  nomliers  from  Berdr  and  Gujarat,  and  crowds  of 
sttmngent  f1ock«<t  from  the  Nixiim'a  and  Sindia's  dmiiinions,*  Sbil! 
tbe  conntry  waa  very  empty.  The  1321  oensos  tthowed  a  populatioB 
of  only  418,021  sonUor31|  to  thefl(}iiare  mile.  In  1837  it  wnsstiU 
'  miserably  popnlated',  largo  tracts  being  held  by  Bhits.  The  popnlatton.^ 

f    t  lUiw  or  Uuitli*  Rs}pata. 

*  Two  gT(Mt  KlitodMli   tuuDM  ue  mported.  «n«  aboat  ISTOl  tba  otiior  the  cmtl 
Dnr^Usvi  fAmina  Iran  13M  to  I40I.    AsImbuiIm*  im  nmunu  ol  the  Daigs-I>«Hj 
foiauiB.  it  imhh  probable  tliRt  Pniihta'a  I3T0  Uibiim  *hB«M  lie  pkocd  Miaa  I  ~  ~ 
ytanMw.  ■  GUd»ia  i  Aini-Akbiji.  H.  64. 

*  Hu  ptMUtt  •paoi«]  pmfiwnlT  aiKi   papnloiisiinM  ef  Sti^A  h  btllavcd  t«  b*  < 
to  tlM  pratMttaa  KSordad  kt  tlui  Urn*  |UW3-18l8)bT  Ih*  powvroC  the  NinUlkBr] 
and  lUfilk.    Bom.  Go*.  SeL  JCCIU.  203.  * 

*  C^MM  Cut  BricndflSl)  taUS.  SO.  157  (I8il  ■  l«2ei. 
'Mr.  ^pliii%IU7Mt,30Ui  AngwItSSieui  Ici<Ii>  Papan.  IV.Sli. 



I  Mtimated  at  478,457  souls,  abon}  60,000  more  than  jn  18^,  and 
Ima  calculated  that  of  the  whole  number,  Bnlhnians  represented 
per    cent,  Rajputs  3'47,  Shudras  and  Marflt.bds  6958,  low  and 
Bssed  tribes  14"72,  and  Musaimdns  638,'     Fifteen  years  later 
a  fresh  census  showed  a  total  strength  of  686,003  souls,  or  an 
a,  since  1 837,  of  nearly  forty  per  cent.^    Stil!  great  part  of  the 
ict  was  empty,  and  five-sixths  of  its  arable  land  lay  waste.     An 
apt  was  made  to  supply  the  want  of  people  by  bringing  settlera 
crowded  Ratnagiri.     But  the  most  liberal  offers  of  rent-free 
id    and   money   to   buy   bullocks   and  tools,  failed  to  tempt   a 
igle  settler.*      Still  population  was  steadily  increasing,  and  witk 
rise  of  produce  prices  (1856),  the  introduction  of  a  lighter  and 
even  assessment  (1860-1866),  and  the  opening  of  the  railway 
1803),  large  numbers  came  to  Khandeah.     Compared  with  those 
1852,   pturtly  no  doubt  because   they   were   more   complete,  the 
retnms  for  1872   showed  a  total  of  1,028,642  souls,  or  an 
\Be  in  twenty  years  of  nearly  fifty  per  cent.     Since  1872,  tbongh 
idesh  has  passed   through  sevora!  trying  years,  the  population 
.  known  to  have  considerably  increased.     The  east  and  centre  are 
mlons,  but  the  south  is  thinly  peopled,  and  in  the  west  great 
__._J>le  tracts  are  still  empty.     In  spite  of  recent  inci'ease,  Khdndesh 
fOiuams^  one  of  the  thinnest  peopled  parts  of  the  Bombay  Presidency. 

■^  Of  the  immigrants  under  British  rule,  exclusive  of  those  who 
Mme  back  on  the  first  establishment  of  order  (1817-1820),  the  chief 
otaBseB  are,  among  traders,  Md.rY&di  Vanis,  Bhati&s,  and  ^ohorfta ; 
jamotig  craftsmen,  Hangaris  and  Telis;  and  among '^us^uadmen 
J$bA  labourers,  Mar^thas  and  Kuubis. 

"  At  present  the  most  interesting  section  of  the  population  are  the 
Vftni^JB,  the  owners  of  pack -bullocks,  who  since  cart  roads  have 
tmen  opened  to  the  coast  (1834),  and  still  more  since  they  have  had 
to  compete  with  the  railway,  have  been  forced  to  give  up  their  old 
;WKDdering  ways  and  settle  in  fixed  villages.*  Their  leaders,  men 
',«{  capital  who  always  did  some  trafficking  on  their  own  account, 
Jbave  started  as  traders,  and  the  bulk  of  the  people,  who  have 
.vrobably  always  been  in  the  habit  of  raising  crops  during  their  lo«g 

fetlta  in  the  rainy  season,  have  taken  to  tillage.     Some  still  cam 

Aeir  living  as  carriers.  But  none  have  taken  to  the  practice  of 
\<Bnfts,  probably  because,  as  they  travelled  with  bullocks  and  with  no 

imia,  they  had  no  need  of  the  services  of  carpenters  or  blacks  mi  IjIib.* 

This  Vanjfiri  and  Ahir  element  in  the  KhAndesh  people  has  the  high 
nine  of  showing,  what  can  hardly  be  traced  in  most  parts  of  the 
«onntry,  the  chief  process  by  which  the  bulk  of  the  present  Hindn 

Cpniation  was  probably  formed,     A.  succession  of  tribes  of  northern 
rdsmen  have  been  driven  south,  and  by  changes  in  the  government 

Chapter  m 

*  CoL  flvkw  in  Rept  of  Brit  Amob.  (1837),  2SS,  284. 

*  Bom.  Gov.  Sel.  1.  4. 

*  Bom.  Gov.  Sel.  I.  13  ;   Mr.   A.   T,   DavidMoi,  Siip«riatandent  of  SnrvAjr  (1861). 
loB.  Oov.  S«l.  XCni.  432. 

<  Anothn  older  diviirion  of  Vanjim  i>  raUbliihad  m  >  regalftr  part  of  the  Knabi*. 
£m  below,  p.  69. 

a  4il— « 

[Boinb&7  OutttMr. 





or  trade  of  tko  ootintry,  linve   lieen  furved  to  et-ttle.     AiDi)ii(f  tlicir 
Iculcni  would  Ik<  invn  of  c»]nt«r  if  tiot  trminnil  inuldni ;  tbu  uijuui 
tbe  people  would  h»ve  a  rough  knowledge  of  tillage  j  and  as 
triboH  Inivollfd  with  carte   and  slieop,  soiito  amooK  thvtn 
Eaniilutr  with  isu-jivtit ry,  Nmttliwurk,  und  wenrini;.    XTbeti : 
Ute  leodera  would  biKome  iradera  and  laadbordera,  the 
people  would  atari  as  husband m<»n,  and  of  the  rost,  8<^>mii 
to  Ihd  pnictiov  iif  rrnfu)  Aud  (rtfaors  would  continiui  as  berd-i 
carriers.     Among  tbe  luisbandroen,  some  of  the  poorerorlow<  i 
forcud  to  tulctt  up  laoda  in  tho  ouUkirt*  of  (Jiu  sot (UitntinL,  cut   "t!  tu 
qpme extuul from  llicirowi^peopleandfttrulooed  fr\)m  wantof  lit^cur, 
would  associate  with  the  earlier  tribes,  and  taking  thvir  womrn  as 
wives  or  idavee,  would  raise  a  tiiix<.sl  dosif.     Ah  ibe  new  IriU-  sMiWl 
maaj  of  their  apectid  liclidfH  aud  pni^licea  would  coase,  peculinriliM 
of  dress  would  bo  givea  up,  and  if  thoy  had  uot   tbom   ooforv,  Atj 
would   ongtigc    HrAbiunoH   to  i-unduct  tlieir  iMirauiomes.      In  ttmii 
saroeuftflH  of  is'iirk  wmdd  become  a  oloaer  bond  than  a  ooiuiuod 
Hosbandmenwould  begin  tomarry  with  the  older  Hitttlod  hu.-sbA:: 
and  other  rraftxineii  with  men  of  their  own  railing.'     Ba«Ji  'I 
would  comw  to  be  kuown  bjr  Uie  naiuo  of  iu  calling,  and  iht-  li.^—. 
title  n'ould  sink  to  tbe  name  of  a  sub-divieion  or  to  a  Huruiimti.    0( 
tlu*  old  tribe  the  only  apparuui  trucuiit  would  Iw  chose  wb' 
to  the  original  cnlliug  of  henisnienorcan-iers;  theoffsprioL 
olatM  women  proud   of  their  strain  of  higher  bl'md ;  aud   y 
tlie   BrdlnuniiH,  who   known   uinong   (heir  raate   fellows  by 
patrons'  name,  had  come  to  form  a  dUtinct  sub-dinsioii. 

GujarStiis  in  UHe  among  the  higher  cWs  huxlmndmon  t<i  the  north 
of  iB^rS^r  und  it  !!<  tho  languajte  of  trade  throut^hciot  t.bc  district] 
aa3  "ffttiAthi.  tbw  !i{xwch  of  tho  people  of  tfee  Hontb  imd  wtfj»t,  t*  llw 
laognane  of  Uoveriimeiit  ofiiow and  itcboolii,  ami  i*  f^THdiiaily  gaining 
tho  nacondnnt.  But  in  thoir  liomaS  tlie  bulk  of  the  ptxipUi  speai( 
a  dialect  known  as  Kh&pdo»hi.  Ahiaini.*  or  lilted  Oujuri,  a 
ourioua  mutture  of  frujarAtl,  Mnrftb^  Nomitdij  and  Ilindust^ni. 
Thongb  from  it«  coBStmction  it  loolcs  Iiko  a  compromise  bolweeu  tho 
modom  Qiijnriiti,  Mnr&thi,  and  Hindi,  this  di»lt!Cl  i<<  tbe  oCsjinnf; 
of  eeyeral  old  HrAkrit  varinlitrH,  MAjj^aclbi,  Sanrflahtri.  Shatirseai,  Lati, 
MaMriishtri,  i'atshrichi,  and  Apabhransha  or  Bh&klin.  FI^<<e)>1'af0W 
bailndsAnd  vongs recinlwl  by  the  Khiudcsh  BhiilA,  tlr  irely  a 

spoken  language.     It  dniciirds  the  cerebral  I  and  sii  -  for  it 

lDe*pa1ntal  semivowel  y ;  thiis  black  is  kdi/a  notftaf<i.  Hbacitibltng 
MarAthi  and  Ou}nriiti  in  tho  more  gon«Tul  grammatical  fonos, 
Ahirftni  presents  soveral  peculiarities  in  declension  and  conjugnlion. 
The  plural  is  fomlBd  by  adding  the  suffix  «,  not  at  in  Gujar&ti  and 
MonUhi  by  a  change  iu  tho'word  itself;  thua  bhU,  wall,  becomes 

'  TkU  i*  tli«  [iT<iba1>l»  rxpluution  of  Uwt  Urea  anmhtr  of  cnb-ilivUloni  kiaMiR  tiia 
nsttani'iiclim'4  ill  KhniKlMh.  Slsnir  of  tbnn  tho  Tuli*.  Slti>  and  Koalitii,  l^ihln, 
Kamt^rw,  Vf  '-  MHtn  )>■*«  tli*   atock  niuntxiT  iH-«lr(i  uid  t.  liolf.   the   htH 

hmi^itjif^rr.i:  1  <-T  intt-iint  clwa.  ""' 

'  Tfc*  rum^  ..,..,»...  ,1  |it-Alxiblv  ilenvml  tram  llutof  ihc  Alihiii  mciitioood  by  tbe 
l»ta«l  fVlLknt  HTwniauiani  u  ■  tliiJ«;t  apokcn  bf  cowbmxU  «n-l  I'tlvtn  ia  tbe  txniatij 
DMrtlMwartcrocoutatxnit  Oui»r*t.   Prof.  E.ti.  BbAndtriuu',  M.A.,  H(ai.MJt.A.8. 



wulU.'       Ouos   are   funned    hy    naffixes.      TbuR,    fur  tho 

ivo  und    d«tiv»  le  U  added  ;  ^r    the   huh-iimeutal,  nif  rari, 

^ortbe  ablaiive,  thin;  for  Itie  goniltvo,   n>(,   ni,  na;  nni]  for 

ttivp,  ma  and  maziir.'     Miii^i'uliuQ  and  aeutcr  unuus  ending 

11^   a   iuto  e    in   tlu-    [iliirnl    when  coev  ttirminations  are 

Feminine  uonns  preserve,  however,  lUo  finul  a  iii  tbo 

before  caaa  tormiDations.     Masculine  nonna  ending  in  ••>  *i  ", 

3o  nut  under^j  uuy  cloio^,  and   tliv  c<w  tommiatious  nro 

to  tbe  Sual  letter  of  tbe  original  word.    A  notable  exoeption 

hhingtfbi,  ft  Ihv,  wlik-b  cbungfK  its  to  to  tya  before  any   cas9 

jnna  Am  ailixtnl  to  it.     Another  exc<^p(iuu  in  u  m  ju,  loiuv, 

comes  juva  and   ke*ps  the  doiflilo  ptaral  form  jitva^  ih 

M>  Lunnittatii^ns  iirv  iJlixt^'d.     Pninoiiiis  Iiolh    porsonal   and 

are  the  same  aa  in   Mar&thi,  bnt  their  ease  foruH  differ. 

for    the    difference    of  cnao  forms,  tho  first   and   second 

J  nrontJuni<;  form  ihoir  phintU  in  tho  samt-  way  ai  tlio  Mariitbi. 

utiier  hand,  ibe  third  personal  pronoan  and  tbe  reWivea  insert 

'  the  plural  before  the  case  tenttinatioDB.*   Tbe  domoDstratiro 

P>piilatioa.  I 

I  n  poRilur.  WtHA  tbe  Skiwlmt  plunJ  temuiiattMi  t  wm  tot,  acoii*  of  Ui* 
n  wore  iAIwhI  to  luvc  rcooorM  to  ■  new  OMdcof  exfiraaaon.  Thu  Banfili 
iinlily  byoliliai;  >  dduii  cxproHivo  uf  'all'  'Bcofla^oa.'  or  'a  «!«■».'  mA 
.  jT^nn,  omI  <^ii;<i.  uiJ  \3nj%  by  ilBxiDK  Uio  wurd  mdiHi  mauiiag  neMBro 
Tlip  Ahirtni  ■  is  thcrtfars  not  nnlikd}-  tlm  old  rrlkrit  toma,  S«a*krit 
lUoiintCi  us.  Prof.  E.G.  BhAocLukor,  M.A..  IIan.M.ajLS. 
Eir  <il  Uie  aooimtire  ooil  dative  ii  thn  Mnritfal  fo.  Ot  tiliD  UMtraMontal 
I'  n'  Mwou  to  l<e  Uiv  Uantthj  ivf.  >nd  tUa  .Suuknt  rna  ;  uul  mrj  oad  diUf  ue 
If  otfTopbaiH  aail  KliWvUliooi  i>f  tlic  nutraiaunta]  (onai  af  tb«  Suukrit 
UHiaiitKai  inil jiati Bititwai,  whioh  tuna  XaXatoAwiaSXvA  inb> WM lermiiMttoniL 
HiTD  lAin  Mttnns  to  be  »  oormpl  [<ani  ul  Uia  Hoaikrit  kflix  liM.  IIm  final  * 
Fa  in  rnkrit.  >ad,  joioml  villi  lbs  proviuiia  I,  •iiun<t>  liko  Ik,  Th*  gsnitivc 
I  Uiu  luintirc  ma  «*  monh  Ukn  taa  cucmiptiiKlinu  CiijHriti  t«nninBtiaiM, 
tiuBil  musirof  tliu  locativo  is  ■  lom  if  Ui<Fenrrnnt  tluJutU  word. 
I  withtn,  tiisidc. 
;  i>  tat  viamiilc  i 



JT^ar.  A  PlArsn-BDiM.  .  \ 













rt     -tI 

,         -IM). 





Ktetnil,  al.  •■, 

■■     'iiiKiAr. 

^,         -ii»Uf 














ni.  »W- 

















[Bombftr  QufttM, 



this  (liffLTs  from  tlie  ilurutlii.  Th«  Itii,  hi,  and  he  of  the  latter  become 
tmu  iy  tliL'  musculiue,  »iid  ha^  in  the  femiuiae  and  neuter.'  l%a 
ititiTnigative  or  indofiiiite  kim  »\\Bvr»  no  change  in  its  crude  fona, 
but  tho  iudi'finile  pruuoininal  particle  kdi/  takes  kami  as  its  crude 
funu  to  which  the  case  termiunliuux  are  added.  Though  curioui, 
the  conJHf^tifiu  uf  vcrhs  is,  with  but  few  exceptiooa,  regular,*  Th» 
preet'Ht  tenae  has  one  fyi-ui  fur  the  eiugulars  of  all  peraons  sod 
unothur  for  the  phiiiils,  the  termiDiitious  being  g  and  tas  respectivelf, 
thus  kar  t^^  do  has  k'lras  and  kartiis.  These  seem  to  be  demed 
froui  the  old  I'lakrit  present  participle  karani,  further  corrupted  to 
karat.  In  Marathi,  also,  the  present  tense  is  formed  from  the  present 
]mrticiple,  but  to  distinguish  the  perHouiD  the  old  personal  termioationi 
are  appended  to  it,  while  in  Kb^udeshi  they  are  not.  In  ^Gnjarati 
the  old  present  ))itrtic'i}ile  is  used  to  form  the  past  conditional,  and 

'  This  hau  in  iicBrer  thait  the  Mnrftthi  hil  to  the  Sauikrit  atan  (tlic  a  beilif  dnfp*^ 

uid  «chaugeJ  to  /i).     It  U  ileuliiied  h  fullowi : 

pnosocss.  MAu,  uAi.  thu, 

lla.l  (MAKVUih),  Illli. 

!^lllKulkr.                  HurHl. 
Htu.                           EIvu. 
Itjdlo,  Tile,                 Hi-i«lr. 
Bctnt,  rl^l.                Hyimil.  villi, 
ViWhIu.                       Vt-U,ln, 
Villi,  yiua,               VA'iiJ.  yiin, 
Yimi.                        Il\iiiina, 

SinKDlar,            Plunl. 

Ilr.                       lafr, 
lul.                      bnl. 
[tbin.                  IMUb. 
Ini,  liu,              tta,  Jitu, 
IiuL                    bnuk 

*  The  [olTuwiug  are  the  brief  Jutuils  oF  the  lesdiiig  IrT^ulor  verba : 



A;  u>  b*. 

lit  Punun 

^Dd      „ 
»rd       . 

So.  to  bAcoiiu, 
l>t  PerBOii 

tail      „ 

3rd      „ 

Ja,  to  go- 

1-t  PttSOQ 

Ind      „ 
Srd      „ 

T*t  tA  come, 
J  St  Pannn 

and     „ 

Sid     „ 






Kar.  to'dD, 

Itt  P«nou 

iD'\     „ 
3rd      „ 





Kirai,        Kartu, 

SI  n  gill  Ik  r,      FJural,       BId^uIu-      PLnzmL 







f  Kyc. 










AbvU.        f  AallU. 
Vlii^lll.       tVhuhil. 
Vlu>'L  V^Un. 




„    -L 

n    -a. 

Jiiiu.  Jint. 

Jiihl.  iUait, 

JiyL  JiUn. 

Y»  Tem. 

Y«hi.  {*->*l' 



finHoipruk  la  ninjuntfd  llkctsrsictiilln  lhH(iui  ivnur  which  btaii>Inii     bolnni,  [or  UuOnl 
piraoir,  and  tdns  ted  lolndt  [oc  the  Mcoud  ud  third  iiengD  linjulii  uid  pluraL 



po  terminations  aro  applied  to  distiiigaisli  the  persons.  The  t  of  the 
participle  is  ho^rever  softened  to  «  in  the  Kh&ndeshi.  In  the  plural 
••rtof  which  corresponds  to  the  fflar&thi  karitdt  the*  second  t  is 
lOCteoed.  The  past  tenao  is  funned  by  adding  n,  the  terminations 
baiiig  nu  and  nut  for  the  first  person,  and  no.  and  nat  for  the  second 
■nd  third  persons,  singular  and  plural  respectively.  To  Mardthi 
Qua  R  is  nnknoirn,  bat  it  is  used  in  northern  Gujariti,  as  in  handhdi^ 
Va  handhaijo  '  bound',  for  dekhdyo  '  seen ',  and  in  some 
Terba  in  the  Braj  Bhisha,  as  kina  'done',  dina  'given',  and  Ion, 
'tekeii'.  The  nis  generalised  from  such  old Prdkrit forma  as  dinna 
'men'  far  'daWa' (Sansk.),iwna'cut'for  Wno  (SanskO.and&MV?" 
'dirided'  for  bhinna  {Sansk}.  ^  ^ 

The  fatore  has  tu  and  sut  for  the  first,  thi  and  shdl  or  ahdt  for  the 
Hcond,  and  i  and  tin  or  til  for  the  third  persons  singular  and  plural. 
Tb6  a  of  the  first  and  second  persons  seems  to  be  the  old  Prdkrit  at 
fRI)  uid  Sanskrit  aya  (^) .  In  Grujar^ti  it  is  preserved  in  all  the 
penona.  The  Marithi  I  is  dropped  or  rather  not  affixed,  except  in 
the  optional  plural  forms  of  the  second  and  third  persons.^  The 
iiregular  karma^i  prayoga  of  the  Marathi  and  G-ujar&ti,  which 
requires  the  verb  to  agree  in  gender  and  number  with  the 
object,  is  found  in  Ahirani.  Thus,  '  a  house  was  built  by  R&m/ 
Samdai  ghar  bdndk ;  a  book  ws^  read  by  a  Bi-^hman,  Brdhmai^ni 
fotki  rdchi.  Adjectives  vary  in  form  according  to  the  number  aad 
gender  of  the  nouns  they  qualify,  but  not  according  to  their  case 
inflections  as  in  Marithi.  The  Ahirani  conjunctions  an  and  n« 
correspond  to  the  Mar&thi  dni  and  va  and  the  Gujarati  Mie  and  ne. 
There  is  a  peculiar  word  for  nioroover,  akhor.  The  adverbs  of 
place  are  :  here,  afhe,  i(lie  {Sansk.  atra) ;  there,  tatke,  tatha  {Sansk. 
lalra);  where,  ieafhe,  kalhd,  and  koth  {Sansk.  kutra).  The  Etdverbs 
of  time  are  :  when  (relative),  javhaya,  jadhayn,  and  jadhaf,  corre- 
iponding  to  the  Sanskrit  yadd  ;  then,  tavkaya,  tadhafa  (Sanak.  tadd) ; 
when  [interrogative),  kavhnya,  kadhaya  (Sansk.  kada).  The  adverbs 
of  manner  correspond  to  the  Alar^thi  forms.  Some  peculiar  Tordi 
««  in  nse  derived  neither  from  tiujariti  nor  from  Marathi.  Among 
these  may  be  noticed  dndor  a  boy,  under  a,  girl,  bdk  towards,  iioft 
hither,  tibdk  thither,  pdn  near,  dkttrd  u  ntil,  and  tndyav  alas  I  * 

Among  themselves  the  Western  Sdtpuda  Bhils  speak  a  dialect  of 
Onjariti,  while  those  further  east  use  a  form  of  Nem&di.  Most  of 
them  know  a  little  Hindastdni  or  Mar&thi  and  employ  it  in  speaking 
to  Eoropeans  or  men  from  the  plains,  to  "whom  their  own  i£alect  jp 
nnintelligible.  A  very  markedloca!  tendency  is  to  drop  every  poAible 
oonaonant.  Liquids  go  first  as  in  Koi  for  Koli,  Md%  for  M^ti ;  they 
■re  often  followed  by  sibilants,  as  in  rax' la  for  raata,  and  by  guttun^ . 
u  Vaijo  for  Vlighdev.  The  lower  one  goes  in  the  social  scale  the 
more  marked  is  the  provincialism.  It  is  probably  due  to  the 
inflaence  of  the  aboriginal  races  among  whom  the  peculiarity  is  moit 

Chapter  in 

'  Prof.  R.  O.  Bhandirkar,  M.A..  Hon,M.R.A.3. 

'  ContritMitMl  hy  Itio  Hiheh  K.  B.  Markthe,  B.A.,  LL.a 

'  Mr.  aindkir  in  Ind,  Ant.  IV.  109. 




iter  in.  Except  of  Bohor^  who  speak  Gajar&ti,  the  home  tongae  of  almoat 

dfttion.        ^^  Kl^ndesli  Musalmtos  is  Hii^dust^i. 

^1^  The  following  tabular  Btatemeat  gives,  for  the  year  1872,  details 

gj2,  oi  the  population  of  each  sub-dirision  according  to  religion,  age, 

and  sex: 

Khdndeik  Papulaiion,  187t.    Sub-dicUioyial  Detail*, 


Ttloda  ... 
tJUtiUa  ... 
fihirpLir    .,. 

Chopdk  ». 
VIH<]  ... 
Amailner  ,,, 

Uiila      ... 

EnniiDl  ... 
l>b  LillK  ... 
JirDDcr  ... 
F'lDlim  ... 

Tilsd*  ... 
Shttiid*  ... 
Blilrpnr    — 

fhopd»  ... 
TirJoL  ,., 
Amfttnar ... 

E-ivdn       ... 

Enn^ol  .r. 
Dhiiltk  ... 
J&mner  „, 
PiDbon  ... 


SlitlitiU  ... 
BhJTpur    ... 

Cbopdii  ... 
Tlrdfl  „. 
Blvdi  ... 
Inndal  ... 
Dhnfli  .., 
JftmDBT  ... 
P*c1i'>rK    ... 


U  IN  DCS. 





I'll  I 



10,4  IS 
11, 7M 










AboTD  11  and  d« 

eicmUni  SO 







IB,  IS) 


ir!,60B    ISJ.BM 






11,  7» 

10 ;» 

Above  9>  fCu«. 





10.7 1« 
IS,  IK 





10,  MB 










i«a,iii  iM,«u  m,x)o  «N,(2»  <fie,Ma 










II, £10 


II. i;] 












41,  lU 
































































31 11 

































13a  1 


11 7t 


































































"  t 


























































— . 


























Kbdndah  Poptilathn,  1873.    Sub-divUional  DttaU* — eontinued. 







Abave  tS  ftiid  do( 

AboTf  30  jpwi. 


















rr ...       ... 




•  * 













lU'"        '.'.'. 




















1 _ 




























>  ' 


















Tout    ... 






























r    WIO 



























SI, Ml 












IS. [07 



11, (HT 






S3,  aw 

il  fill 







il'"        '.'.'. 

















1  ... 






















n  .-.iT 

11, ST! 



34 ,3  S3 

32,  SB" 






1 1  ,oa9 


all,, ^42 























Tola!  ,  . 


1  eSfi'iS 








om  the  above  atatemeiit  it  appears  that  the  percentage  of 
?  on  the  total  population  was  51  ■58  and  of  females  48-4I. 
lu  males  numbered  489,429,  or  51  ■02  per  cent,  and  Hindu 
les  numbered  458,8.j0,  or  48'38  per  cent  of  the  total  Hindu 
lation  ;  Musalmiin  males  numbered  40,lJ0i,  or  51'16  per  cent, 
Musalman  females  38,755,  or  48-84  per  cent  of  the  total 
,lman  population.  Parsi  mafea  numbered  42,  or  6885  per  cen*^ 
Parsi  females  numbered  19,  or  31]  5  per  cent  of  the  total 
population.  Chriatian  males  nurabered314,  or  60'73  percent, 
[Christian  females  numbered  203,  or  3927  per  cent  of  the  total  , 
itian  population.  Other  males  numbered  221,  or  51^87  per 
and  other  females  numbered  205,  or  48'13  per  cent  of  the  total 
r  population. 

e  number  of  infirm  persons  was  returned  at  7298  (malea 
,  females  2626),  or  seventy  per  ten  thousand  of  the  total 
iation.  Of  these  382  (males  279,  females  103),  or  four  per  ten 
land  were  insane;  618  {males  438,  females  180),  or  sixteen  per 
housand  idiots;  1009  (males  681,  females  328),  or  ten  per  ten 




[Bombay  Ou«tt«ar, 



thousand  deaf  and  dumb ;  3757  (maloa  2068,  females  1689),  or 
thirtj-«oveii ^r  ten  thousand  Mind;  and  1532  (males  1206,  femslefl 
326),  or  fifteen  per  ten  thousand  lejicrs. 

The  following  tabular  statement  gives  the  number  of  the 
members  of  each  religious  class  of  the  inhabitants  according  to  sex 
at  different  ages,  vith,  at  each  stage,  the  percentage  on  tne  total 
population  of  the  same  box  and  religion.  The  columns  referring 
to  the  total  population  omit  religious  distinctions,  bat  show  the 
difference  of  sex. 

KMndeth  Pnpulalion  hg  Agt,  1ST2, 







fi  4  ;i 








e   1  i'B.1 










1    to      B      

18    ,   i-in 


Ki-n  ■ 









a  „    11    

ET      1     B'l'O 






|im;     SOtlfr 




)»  „   »    

!I4       lO'iSa 


IT- 'J 




HI- J  J 





30    ,,     30      

»a    3i'iii 








IS- .7  J 



M    „     <0      

70       .'S-M 








11  m 



•0    „     W      

31      O'-i: 


■*-HJ  . 









M    ,.     DO      

7         1-31 











AMV*  ta     ... 

i     1    l-iSI 


S'll  1 


, t 



* , 





w       i 

























30. 1  GO 






The  Hindu  population  of   tho   district  belongs,  according  to  the 
1872  census,  to  the  following  sects  : 

KhdndtKh  Hindu  Salt,  1873. 



From  this  Btatoment  it  would  seem  that  of  the  total  Hinda 
gpolation  the*  ooBflctariaD  olascoa" numbered  889,331  or  03*78 
r  «nt ;  tho  ShaiTB  32,346  o*  3-41  per  ceat ;  the  Vaislinava  21,273 

2-24  per  c«ot ;  and  the  Shntrska  &280  or  Q&b  pvr  cont.  Tfao 
MKlnJU)  |iopalatioD  bolooga  to  tvro  eecte,  Stmoi  and  8hia ;  the 
jlmer  umnbered  73,088  bouIs  or  92*09  per  cent,  and  tluj  latter 
i7l  aotiU  or  790  per  coot,  of  tbo  wliole  Moaalmfa  popnUtioa. 
te  Pitzis  are  divided  into  two  claaaee,  Shfthooahii  uid  Kadmi ; 
D  nombor  of  tha  former  was  fifty-scren  or  93'44  per  cent,  niid  of 
D  latter  was  four  or  6-IjA  per  cent.  Id  the  total  ot  &17  CluriHtiana 
Wn  wore  3  ArmonianB,  70  Calfaoliof,  and  444  Prot«staot>,  inclndinf; 
Bpiaoi^ialiaiis,  72  Pt«»byt«rians,  15  W^lej-ana,  and  SGI  nativA 
iTiBtiaos.  Other  reli^ons  woru  rvproeontod  by  &  Brahmos,  59 
h^  and  33  JewB.  Besides  theae,  326  persons,  under  the  head 
lets,  remained  onclaaaified. 

Aocordinff  to  occapetion  the  1872  Cdosus  diridod  the  wholo 
pnlatioa  into  seven  olaMoa  i 

L — Bmplo;red  imder  GoreraineDl.  or  municipal  or  other  local  autboritlefli 
DambrimK  in  i^\  lti,2-'<fi  toula  or  1'58  per  oont  ol  this  wbolo  popnUtioB. 
L — Profcaaioiuil  penoAA  3896  or  O'U  ptr  cent. 

lT. — la  fcrvicci  or  p«rf»nutng  penonaT  oIBoea.  9104  or  O'SS  per  cent.      < 
V, — Enfcofiod  in  agnoaltnnt  and  with  uiimMl  S16^75  or  SI '09  per  cent. 
-ligrA  in'Mmroeroe  and  trade,  17,706  ur  1*72. 

I  lo^ed  ill  Bkwbuucal  arts,  nunufnctures,  aitd  enginMrJngopentfion*, 

aud  cnomscd  in   tlie  mle  of  article  mannhctnred  or    otbcTWiAs 

mvnared  (or  iwnsumption,  IdSiXM  or^S'Sil  per  c«nt.  . 

L — Uucellaneoiu  peraons  noi  cb«a«d  othenrise,  (a)  vrirea  Wl,d33  and 

duldrMi  3i5,A38,  id  all  M7,&71  or  &3-23jKr  cunt ;  and  {h)  mincfliiimoonm 

^pessons  19,830  or  1-93  per  cent ;  toUl  5ff7^107  or  &5-16  per  c«nt. 

descriptive  purposes   tKe    different    Hindu    classes   groop 

«  nioftt  oonvouiontly  under  llie  heads  o^rdhmans,  WriterH, 

Hosbandinen,  CraftsnieD,   Labourer),  Early  or  Unaottlel'^ 

Doprssled  Clanoe,  and  Boggars. 

Bra'hnuuiS  have  thirUten  divisions :  33,738  BbXbhakb,  including 
whaeths,  Konkanafiths,  and  Karb^d^,  who  are  locally  known  aimply 
Brihmans ;  328  Gauds  ;  1  >  1  U  iijoriitis ;  260  Abhirs  or  R^nvat^a ; 
ilPardeshia;  242  M&n.-4di8;  53  Pokarn^;  108  KaQojA9i208 
laogs ;  981  Gobdts ;  and  1966  Vidiirs,  or  a  total  strongth  of  38,049 
lla  or  3*69  per  oent  of  tho  whole  Hindu  population.  They  belong 
five  dassea,  MarAtha,  GujanUi,  Mdrrddi,  Upper  Indian,  and 
.  Indian.  Marat  ha  Brihmane,  by  far  tho  largc«t  class,  inclade" 
Rths,  wir,b  t!ji.'ir  local  «nb-diviiiiona  of  Yajunrodi*  and 
lis,  Eonkamistbs  or  ChitpavDns,  Karhdd&s,  Uatids,  A-bbirs 
iTabas,  Yidurs,  and  GovHri]lmnK  or  Qolaks ;  of  Gujar&t 
there  arc  AudJch!!,  KbedtLvdls,  Shrim&lis,  and  KZgafs; 
rid  BrihinauH,  Shetaks  and  Adigands,  Parikhs,  D&Tam<Es, 
trals,  and  Khar  Khandclea ;  of  Upper  Indian  Hrahmana, 
rairala,  PokanuU,  and  Kanojis ;  and  of  Sooth  ToSian  BrtUimana, 
laa^  and  SigardvifMa.  Of  the  ecttloment  in  Kbindesh  of 
Me  dtflarent  Brahman  divisions,  no  histories  or  legends  have 
ni  obtained.  It  is  the  general  local  belief  that  the  Tajurredia 
i  the  Ifaitriyanis,  and  probably  the  Goriu-dhans  and  tho  Abhtrs, 






[Bombay  OtMttov. 



ptarlXL       thousand   deaf  naci  dumb;  3757   (males  2068,   females    1689),  or 
,^tj__        thirty -MOTea  per  teo  thousand  blmd>  and  1532  (uialfla  1206,  females 

326),  or  fifteen  per  ten  thousand  lepers. 
h§t.  The    following    tabular    statement  gives  the   number    of    ths 

members  of  each  religious  class  of  the  inhabitants  according  to  sex 
at  different  ages,  with,  at  each  stage,  the  percentage  on  the  total 
population  of  the  same  sex  and  religion.  The  columns  referring 
to  the  total  population  omit  religious  distiuctioos,  bat  show  the 
difference  of  aex. 

KhAiKlftih  Population  liy  Agf,  J87S. 

1  T(u     ... 

lis     t  ... 

a  .  It ... 
11  ;  10 ... 

M    „    U  ... 

w  .   w ... 

N    „    W  ... 
Abon  to  ... 


CHimriASii.            '               oriirR*. 

Tot  11.. 







Si  a 

IS.   5 











1  y™r           

1  to     a     

e  „    II    

la  „   w 

to  „   so    ... 

H)  „   40 

M  „    M     

M    „     BO      

Abon  so    





a]  J I 









IK- a; 

if  1  ■• 






















78.(1  ■" 




















The  Hindu  population  of  the   district  belongs,  according  to  the 
'1872  census,  to  the  following  sects  : 

Shdndah  Hiniiu  Stxif,  187S. 



















11 M 

90.  tU 







worship  in  honour  of  K4]nb&i,  ori^oall}-  from 

__       bt'on  burroirod  fmn  the  Kunbia,  Il-nuek-WnUid 

flrrt  Sunitny  aft«r  the  Ndtjuaitfkiimi  hutiday  in  NhnUtui 
Ai^{nst),n-heiia]l  motDbemof  toe  fainityfaat.  A  |>otof  «-aterj 
oocoanut.  un  U,  is  placod  uu  n  hunp  of  wheut,  nud  n  tdlvor 
~  Lbotfiiddc««  K^ubiU  i»  htid  bofurt!  it.  Lamps  are  lightod, 
a  family  di oner  is  ^vea.  Chakrapuja  isDerformetliDboBonroE 
hid  wfaow  imaf^  iu  Hot  on  on  octitgnmU  twap  of  ricu.  A  iHinp 
'Ugbt  tuid  tol  ucar  it,  aud  IkiUi  tfiS  image  aud  tlii;  huiip 
worshipped.  Dinner  is  then  served,  and  groat  care  is  takeo. 
thu  roniDanU  of  lliis  dinner  arw  bariod  in  a  pit  Diiar  tbo  boiisa 
Qii|.  givou  Ui  HKudriU.  After  diiini^r'tUn  hi-»[)ec!  naa  is  !<bipi.'(1 
tii«  fhtHunkha,  or  stone  in  which  the  ling  is' set,  a  cocoanat  is 
ilaopd  on  it.  as  a  ling,  and  worship  is  offered.  Tho  cocoaunt  is 
hen  hrokuu  nnil  the  kernel  diittributed.  lUuubiU  is  a  favourite 
ICbandesh  family  deity.  Her  niarriajre  and  eacred  thread  ceremony, 
ibo  lath'r  taking  place  aftor  thti  nmrrinffo,  aro  obsorved  as  a 
Wcwflnyt  rmtivni.  On  the  «tuvciitb  di^y  a  ])l»tfonn  u(  kiihiII 
lUntain  sticlu  ia  made,  and  a  wboat-flcKir  ima^  of  lUnubti  ia 
■Isoed  on  thom  and  irorshipped. 

As  a  raU<  the  main  divisions  pat  lofroth^  bnt  do  not   iiiCurmarry, 

■*  the  aub-divi^iiims    bulb   cut  tii^'olber  and  inlttrmarry.     To  tnia 

are  many  csc4>)itions.    Nunc  of  the  Up)ior  Indiuo  divisions, 

ikamss,   SArasrats,  and   Kanrijii^v,  vnt.   U>j^^thi>r,  and  umuiig 

lis,    the    Jfiitfam    hold    nirtrf    fpim    tbo    tvfl.     Of  (ii«   rihicf 

Vriiba  dirisvuiM,  lUo  K'^TikaiiaHtlu,   Oo^baatlLi,  Yajnrvcdis,  and 

iiiia  vat   together  but  hold  aloof  from  tbo  Gauds  oud   Qobiks, 

,  aft  a  mto,  from  the  IhtaitTsynnis  and  IVvrukhns. 

'.;h,  amont;  iho  more  educated,   its   pon-cr   is   said   to   be 

'  «fak,  tic  commnnity  has  siill  OJUsid-.THblc  <^mlr()1  ovor 

lal.     Aiqcng   tho   different  cbntites  of   Uribmaua    the 

_  of  the  conunnnitv  varies  conaidorably.     Among  Martijha 

■ng,    all  tho   main   divisions  who   dino  together,   form,  for 

^  of  social  diKciplino,  onooommnnity ;  while,  among  Gujantli 

:  per    India    BMbmana,   the   community   ia   limited  to   the 

,ijiijaa«i,  in  some  cases,  to  tho  sub-division.     Brvnt-hoit  of  en«to 

I,  ^iterally  in  matters  of  catiiif»,  ilritikJiij,',  and  Tnarringo,  aro 

:i   to  the  mombent  of  tlwt  communilj.  and    a    generat 

'dl  mombera  in  (he   town  or  ncigbbcitirh'i"ii  ik  rallwl. 

meetings  the  mob  nf  members   i»  gt-ncniliy  without  any  ' 

head,  aud  there  ia  littlo  order  and  mncb  loud  and  angry 

If  tbv  offence  is  held  to  bo  proved,  and  the  communitr   feci 

to  enforce  diacipline,  tho  form  of  punishment  ia  genemfly  the 

by  the  o^nder,  of  the  five  products  of  thecow,  pancAnifaryn, 

0  payuwnt  of  a  Goc  to  be  spent  in  feasting  tho  commnnity. 

chief  available  details  of  Brahman  tlivimons  and  aub-divisiona 

ly  bo  (hns  summariaed.  Of  MarAtr*  BtiArfKAMB,  Deahaaths,  fonnd 

11  namlicrs  all  over  tho  district,  so  mo  oft  bom  old  i*oU1or9,  bat 

ibcm  arrirals  unco  tho  establishment  of  tliti  E'oahwa's  power 

as  a  class  well-ld-do,  living  by  prioat^raft,  trwlr,  and 

Btaorvice.   They  are  of  tbriM  aub-divisious,  Aahvulayans, 


[Bombiiy  Oauc 




Yajturedis,    sad    Apwtambu,    o!   whom    Uie  AxhvaUyBiM^ 
ApHjAoiaboS  InterDmny.      'fhs  Vajurvedis,  found  in  oil  parts  i 
dittlrict,  chiefiy  as  village  priests  and  astiviloii^cTB,  arc  beheved  to 
amooK  theoldoi-t  Bribnum  wttlorH  in  Kluliidi*«b.     Of  tbei<~  ^'•-''i^-r-i 
mix  jKntty  diriftifjus,  duly  tliree,  the   M&dhyiindiiie,  the  Hn^ 
and  Lbe  KauuadiA,  none  of  wbom  intermarry,  arc  found  in  K  hny.-.-.i- 
Of  tbeae  the  Maitr<iynnia.  M;tl1od  chiclly  in  Bba«lgnon,  Amalner,  asd 
Kandurbiir,  liavc  oonsiderable  local  inlerifBt.     Much  darker  thai 
uthur  Itr&bmaQs.  and,  &t  Icoat  in  AmaliiLT,  not  allowtMl  to  dinftl 
ConkonaiithH    and    Deahasthit,    tboy    iivo   l>j   beffging  and 

haiDndrr,  and,  in  Antalner,  by  trade.     They  belong'  to  the  cWak 
l)ranch,  nhaklui,  ol  the  Yajurveda,  and   follow  the  MtbtavNuIn  ns 
their  religioutt  guidft.     KunkaoaKihs  nr  CbitpATanH,  fonnd  itt  small 
nuinbent  all  over  the  diatrict,  some  of  them  old  settlers  but  moBt  of 
tbein  established  Hince  the  times  of  tbo  Peshwa,  are  aa  a  <!las«  ^'  '' 
to-do,  living  by  prioflcmft,  l)mlavr,,nnd  Govi'mment  stTvice.     'I !. 
two  Kiib-diviiuous,  the  Kigvediit  or  Aiihraiivans  and  thv  Apastambas 
or  Uiranvakeshis,  do  not  intennarry,     Karii&d&ii,  found  in  »nwn 
numbers  tn  most  parlM  of  tho  dtHlrict,  are  believed  to  have   m< 
come  a$  ttcrmnts  to  the  Pe^hwa's  go>'emi>tODl.     Chiefly  Goveniiiit:^ 
aervanta  and  moDeytenders  they  are  well-to-do.     They  are  meml 
of  the  Mar^tha  Bruinuui  community,  iDtermarryiDg,  tooagb  this  i 
formerly  not  the  case,  with  Deahwtlh   Unilimans.     Devnikhils, 
small  Qufnbera  over  most  of  the  district  and  believed  to  bare 
from  tlif  Hiitith  Konkun  with  th^Veshwa,  are  mostly  in  (lovvmr 
service  or  priests,     'riicy  <lo  not  marry   either   with  Desbasthv  > 
Konkanaaths,  and   KonkaDastha  show  much   hesitation  in 
with  them.     GovardhanB  or  OolakH,  fonnd  in  large  uumberg  ehteli 
in  Dhulia  and  V  iniei,  are  old  aettlvn,  living  as   hereditary  vjlla 
accountauts,  aiitroftiger^,  and  a  few  aa  clerkx.     llivy  arc  mtppoc 
to  bo  of  irregular  dcscout,  the  progeny  of  OkJBnlhman  woman  hj 
n  B|^mim   who  is  not  her  husband.     TbcTCare  vf    two  clnaMs, 
BAolftlak   and  Kandgolak.   the  former  denoting  children   of  a 
woman  whose   huaband  wa«  living,  the  latter   the  children   of 
woman  whoHO  husband  was  dead  at  tbr  time  of  her  union  nilh  tl 
father  of  h< t  chililreu.     The  two  snb-diviatona  dine  with  each  olhe 
QautU  or  Bbenvis,  fonnd  in  mnall  numbers  over  the  district, 
4aid  to  be  settlers  of  the  Peiihwa's  time.     Thty  lire  as  traders 
Government  servants.     They  are   sejtarated  6om  other  Br 
■  li][  tlioir  prnclico  of  eating  fish  and  mutton.     At      " 
I^rAhinons,  with  a  t<)tal  strengtji  of  2f>0  Kouls,Rroloiiu3ti"Prak(i 
Nandurbfir,  and  Tnloda,*      Accuniing  to  the  lotal    legend    the 
Abhirt!  were  originally  fishermen,^      One   day  as  lAkshman 

'  Vram  natoriila  annnliod  by  Mr.  J.  Davidaoa.  C.  f). 

*  Tb«  lUOklb  uo  :  ITa  aonU  bi  Praklalu) ;  aftjr-at-s  «o«U  di«ttiWt«d  wvar  l_. 
[amiliM,  tiMrtMc  nf  Uiua  In  NAoilurlAr,  and  eno  cuh  In  tkw  rlUwM  of  Kald*  i 
IMIiKi  :  uid  thirty  Mini*  Ja  Talodk  iinil  Kukarinueila. 

'  TbI*  ■tnn;  i>  givm  by  the  Praklcki   KAovnCtta  vhn  own  t«  ihcir  ttinit  abo  ca 
Abfain.    Th*  NaadnrUir  RinvatAa  neither  aUl  thcmub-<9  AbMni  (ko-  aduiowl^ 
Uiia  alocy.     They  aiy  that,  dirtrotaed   by  «  (uninr,  Uiey  qmhc  {ttm  Sura*  uid  i 
M^ghbDurhood  aho«t  IW  y«M«  itp>. 

IBotnbay  GowttttrJ 



TTppor  IndiK  ftnd  tpeak  HindiisUni.  They  Mt  at  tlM ' 
Bf  bhn^Mudeahi  Bnthtnaos,  bi4  the  lotur,  tboagli  tbey  tako  waUfr.l 
'will  not  (nkc  ffXKl  from  thorn.  Thuir  wum«D  woor  uttiUker  tbe 
Manltba  liaii-sloeriHl  botlice  ooveriitg  biitli  hack  umI  liiMiiin  nor  tin) 
}uJAr£b  opeo-backed  hinehli,  bat  a  abort-Bleevml  jacket,  kuHIa, , 
Bnbrcly  ouTeriuj;  tfao  upper  part  of  tbo  body  »nd  laMoood  by  cxritoa  i 
1>iitU>ns.  AfUir  uhildbinfa  Iboir  womfin  nru  hold  impuru  fur  twim^. 
two  days.  From  the  tint  to  the  sixth  day  after  daltvery  thuy 
employ  ds  nudvrifu  a  Cb^bhiir  womaii,  nui]  frvm  the  Beventb  M  ' 

Eiu  twulfih  ft  Mhar  wonuin.  llioy  bum  thoir  ddad,  Imt  chiblran 
odor  throu  aro  buried.  Retnrniag  from  the  bui'uiuK  gniuiui,  aji 
to  nUAivvM  go  to  t  hv  hooM  of  tha  doccased  and  place  a  pot  fllkd  { 
ilh  WMur,  ifanmlfOa  the  xpot  where  the  diwd  body  Uy.  NimtI 
this  pot  is  placed  tlio  axo  with  which  the  wood  for  baminf;  tbu  doaJ ' 
body  was  foiled.  Wh«u  (his  is  done,  every  oae  prowot  takes  a  ntin  , 
tiw  bntncb,  di|s  it  ioto  the  not,  toaches  the  axe  with  it,  and  »priaklM  1 
water  three  times  ovur  his  foot.  On  the  second  dny  a  feast  is  given  [ 
to  tho  watdicrinnn,  tlhclthi.  THo  iiiaiiwhuhasp«rFormod  the  fuoond  i 
ceromonieii  (HiLn  ouly  oaoe  for  ton  dnys,  and  lhi>  food  '  '■'<\nr 

be    cooked    by  himaolf   or    by    hia  mothvr.     Ou  t}ie  t^i 
«Ara<UAa  i»  porformod,  and  gift«  uo  givfci  to  the  special  class  ofJ 
Brib mans  called  Mabibr^Qutaa.    On  the  thirteenth  dli|r  the  rahttiana  I 
go   to  the  temple  of   Ganpati,  and  the    person    performing   Um 
^-ooremoniea-isprvsontud  with  a  lurbao   by  hts  ^par  rulatioog.     I'hisj 
Bturbau  ho  at  unoe  folds  and  puta  an,  and  a   Bnlhmaa   onuinto  his] 
^ftnioboBd  Ohd  the  browa  of  the  other  monrnen.     On  the  same  day  a] 
gODOml  {eaiit  u  given  to  all  n.-litliou»  and  caMepeopht.     Widows  aro  { 
noi  ^owod  to  marry.     Their  heads  are  not  Mlmv^^tl  inmi'tdiatcl^ir  nft«r  l 
thoir  husbands' death,  as  is  the  case  with  Dislii    Krahmnji  widow*, 
but  when  tbey  go  to  samo  holy  p1aoo  like  Nosik,  Trimbak,  Uonares,  ■ 
or  PrayjiR.     They  are  not  allowed  to  wear  itie  JHckut,  kndta,  nor  1 
hiutgles,  nor  tu  uinrk  their  foreheads  with  a  red  spot.    .Widows  with 
Bona  Biay  wear  bonglcwj  if  they  are  given  Iior  by  relatioua  on  the  i 
tliirt<^-n;h  day  after  death. 

Writers  iuctnde  1642  Ksbatris,  205  Prabhus,  and  lo3  E&yata. 
There  is  no  local  writer  class.     The  I'mlilius,  fnim  Thiiiin  lUid  Kolaba 
in  the  Koukiio.nru  si.'atti.'red  over  the  diHtrictalmoiSt  all  iiifiovernntunt 
rficc.      Kshittris  or  Thiikor*,    from  Upper   Indiu,  with  a  ti}(al' 
trength  of  lf>'l'2  men,  are  found  in  Cb&lisgnou  nud  Piicbon.     Tbeyi 
ai%oksoYensub-divisiona,  Somavansbi,  llaghuvaniribi.ChandravanMhi, 
Y&dawanshi,  R&jkumar,  Tilukehnndibtiyns  and   Eatb&yoe.     They  i 
do  not  drink  liquor,  iHit  eat  HtUi  and  tlie  Qi^ah  of  goats  and  haras,  i 
!rhayare  loadholders  and  writers.    They  wear  the  ucred  thread,] 
but  are  inTosted   with   it  only   a  little  before   marriago  at  tbej 
bride's  houae.     After  repeating  somo  su-rod  versos,  mantnu,  five  j 
BnQintaaB  take  tJie  thread  and  put  it  rtiuiid  the  bridogroom'a  iu»ok^ 
acoordingtoaoaremony called  durgajiinea,    Theirmamage  cnxtoma 
are  rather  peculiar,     'lliey  never  marry  both  their  Bons  and  their  I 
daughters  into  the  same  sub-division.     The  role  is  that  the  daughter  j 
shoold,  if   pofisiblo,  marry  into  a  higher  Kub^diritdon,  whileasno 
aay  niurry  into  a  lower  one.     Thus  the  SomavanBhia  marry  tboir 







BfaitiC  1  y»tf,  I'toi  'sJ     _ 

BhidbbuQJ^  205,  aad  K«Uib  tit) 7,  or  a  total  stren^tiinf  .'i't,l45«oaI> 
or  3'57  per  oont  of  tho  whole  Hindu  popaliition.  Of  \''£iua  there  are 
four  nma  divmotm,  Khindmh,  Oojar^t,  MArvKt),  and  Ltngiiynt. 
Kh^deefa  Vfaiia  hsre  six  chief  sub -divisions,  IMaakkis,  QumbttdR, 
Nevis,  Eithftn,  Viiliuijuit  or  KinilEnriit,  uniJ  CLitodis;  tiujutt 
VinU  have  nitie  sub^divisions,  Porrtldii,  Modhf,  I^iUlit,  DosiTali, 
JhArolfe,  Tiyadfo,  N«^&ra,  Khad&jaUs,  and  Shrimps;  JAirviA 
Viain  lukvo  fire  siih-<)ivi»iunD,  AgarvAlu,  Oitvidii,  Meshris,  Thikon, 
and  KhandanUs ;  and  Liitg&vaU  hare  four  sub-diTisions,  Panel 
Bixivonte,  ChiliTanta,  &Dd*ftlulvnDt«. 

Yinifl  ore  widi;ly  distTibuted,  tho  Khindesh,  litngdjati  and 
Vinis  io  almost  ull  ptui»,  and  tho  tiuiaril  VAnis  tu  Naodur  _ .  ^ 
Bhirpor,  ShAh&da,  and  Cbopda.  Of  the  history  of  the  diSemnt 
diTinoDS  Cow  dotaits  hare  b^-on  obtvinod.  TracoM  in  th«ir  boma 
laoguace,  and  wme  peouliariLioa  in  their  dresn,  jHiiiil  to  a  Gu^r&I 
onipa  tor  the  Lfidaaklcfa  and  most  other  Eh&numh  sab-diriuom. 
At  the  same  tiine  thojr  must  hare  bvun  long  noltlod  in  Khindeah, 
a«  their  mannerii  and  appearance  differ  very  slightly  from  other 
long  settled  high  costo  Hindu*.  Tho  Qiijartitia  probably  cama 
later,  as  in  their  homea  they  keep  u>  tlioir  nwu  liuiguagfi.  The  date 
of  their  settlement  is  not  knows,  bat  some  at  least  of  them  came  to 
Kh&ndosh  boforo  the  Mog'hal  conquest  (1600),'  liiugiyats  wvra 
probably  Jater  immigrants,  as  they  ahew  their  Kinarese  origin  by 
the  nite  of  the  word  Apa  its  a  term  of  respect,  by  einf^ng  Kllnareso 
hymns  to  their  gods,  and  some  of  them  by  speaking  Kinareae. 
"Hie  bulk  of  the  Mdrvftd  V&uis  are  atill  later  comers.  Almost  dl 
hare  settled  since  tho  establiahnwnt  of  British  rrUe,  and  a  few  hara 
still  their  homes  in  AYnrrjd. 

Except  that  the  Gtijaratis  are  biiror  and  tho  MftrvAdis  larger 
and  more  vigorous,  VOjua  do  not  differ  mu^h  from_'  Brfrmans  io 
appearauoe.  Tho  Lingivats  speak  ifar&Clu  ai  Itomoj' and  some  of 
thorn  know  Kiinarese.  With  tliiB  oxocptiun,  oren  in  the  LlidsAkko 
and  other  KhAndesh  sub-divifiions,  the  home  tongue  of  taont  V'auis 
is  a  oorrtipt  Mar&thi  or  Jklai'v&di.  Almost  all  livu  in  wull  built  bri^^ 
houaea  with  tiled  roofs.  Millet  and  wheat,  and  rice  fur  »iueh  as  et^^ 
afford  it,  are  their  staple  articles  of  food.  All  claases  of  Vinis  are 

langtiyats  and  Khindcsh  V&nis  dress  in  MarAtha  fashion.  Among 
the  L&dsakkds  and  the  Oujardtls,  the  Mar&tha  mode  of  dress  is  daily 
,  growing  commoner.  Among  Gnjiirht  V<lnie,  men  ara  gradoally 
taking  to  the  Har&thi  ronnd  turban  and  liing  loo(i«  coat,  and 
their  women  have  mostly  adopted  the  long  MsirAthi  robe,  and  the 
bodioe  coTenug  the  back  and  upper  arms  and  fastoncd  by  a  knob 
below  the  bosom.  As  regards  oriuiinouts,  the  men  hare  given 
Dp  tho  silver  vraistband,  ktttviora,  and  the  women,  except  in 
P^rola   and  DharangaoD,   have  taken  to   wonring   Maricha   head 

>  Hm  De*4i  faaul;  ol  Ktadurbir  hs*  titlo  dM4*  Inia  Akbu  an  J  AuiuigMh, 

I  Bombay  Guutterr. 



insk  wine.     Tbejr  ilreu  in  MorAtlia  fiutuon,  both  men  and  ' 

we«rjpg  HtninfC  coarM  cloth aD4'^P^''^^f7  ^^^i7  I'UUton  their  •■ 

Buqr  uid  hnrdviorkiii)^,  in  tW-ir  cSxrtii  to  mitke  nii: 

no  pains  uid  (It^uy  Uii'tuiielves  aiiutrtit   ilII  ulBasnrvs. 

ready  to  travel  and  mottt  careful  and  pntuunt  in  tbcir  iray  oi 

basiDecs.     At  thv  HUinr  tinw  tlicir  uiiilerband  and  heai-tlctui  d<..i 

iiaveeAraedlhem  tbc  name  nfUcril's  children,  bJliifMcAi/rraya.     Moot 
of  them  are  town  and  villngc  shopkoopors  nud  inouo^'lundorff,  and 
K  fpw   BTO   htmbnndnion.      JI117'   t^ach   tliuir  bovs   some   roadtoff. 
wriliu^,  and  arilhtuetic,  and  are  on  the  whale  WL>ll-li)-do.     M< 
their  dutooiB  aro  the  same   aa  those  of  tiojarit   Vaiii*.     Bi- 
prupoMtl*  btpgin  one  or  tn«  yean  bufoiv  tnarnage.     l-'or  tlx-  1 
ceremony   of  aakin^,   migni,  on  a  Inckr  dav,  abont   tifty    .i 
bridef^Toom's  rplatioun  and  finends  mod  nt   the  lindv'n,  pras(nit 
with  ailk  clotltv*  :iad  omauHtiitx,  pt^rform  Home  relifn«>us  ceremonij  _ 
and  end  the  day  with  a  feaat.     Early  marnBKi<8  are  the  rali*,  {ar 
ffirls   between   nrc   and   ten.  and   for  boyn  butw^eu    fifteen  and 
twDnly-five.     On  th«  day  tixi>d  fur  lite  marria^,  from  fifty  to  one 
hundred  friends  and   relattoDs,  with  their  wmnen,  obildrei' 
sonrantA,  arc  asked.     PUyeri,  vaiatttris,  mwkvU-vrn,  handuJ- 
and,  if  moiiti-t  permit,  dancing  g:irl»,  am  bronght,  and  fireworks 
let  oft.     The  marriaee  ceremony  genepnlly  takes  plnrv  at   simi__. 
Thv  bridoeroom  is  droeeod  in  tlw  u»»iil  long  noat,  amjiirlha,  ^nS 
tnrban,  and  the  bride  in  a  rich  silk  cloth,  pttamhar,    Tbe  bride- 

e'ring,  kntijfatfan,  ceremony  does  not  diffisr  from  thnt  in  tiM  nmon;; 
rfihtnaiffi.     After  it  is  over,  Lak^hmi  in   worshipped,  the   regular 
oovomoaiM  are  p«7rformcd,  and  afl«r  the  ««r  orriee-pouringniremnny, 
in  wliii^h  the  tnmily   deity   t»  cntirwly  cofcri"!  with  riiv,  tf; 
ends  with  afeaM  when*  U-iif  plates  and  caps  aro  supplied  by  the  1 
They  bum  their  dead,  shrouding  their  women  m  one  of  thou-  v^^ 
silk  marriage   cloths,  pitambam.     On   their   fun<9ral  rit^  littlu  H 
spent.    The  widow'n  head  is  shaved   and  re-marriage   forbidden. 
in  teligion  tJtey  aro  Vnishnars.     Their  family  deity  ia  Vyuiikatesh, 
whose  chief  place  of  worahip  in  Vynnkoji'!*  hill  near  the  Tirupati 
railway  station,  cightyfoor  miles  north-west  of  Madras.     They  at^ 
ke«p  in  their  bousos  the  imagM  of  Khunderio  and  wonbii)  oihfl 
goda.     They  hat  on  the  elevonthn  of  every  Hindu  mouth,  the  di^M 
laicrod  to  Shir,  and  generally  on  all  Fridays.     Their  holy  bo-^ks  alH 
translati(iD»  of  Huch  Piirdnic   writings  as  HaripMh,  ShivliltimrttM 
and  Uukmini  Svayamvar.     The  community  wa«  formerly  GOntrolleV 
By  6vo  bttadmen  called  Shelide.     Now  their  headship  is  gone,  and 
no  respect  is  tthowu  to  Uieir  privileges  ;  questions  of  Murial  disdiJia|| 
.  are  Bottled  by  a  meeting  of  &0111  fifty  to  a  hundred  castemen.        B 

CHrropift,  apparently  from  Chitod  near  Bhop&l,  found  in  Xatnirabtfl 
and  Jalgaon,  are,  even  umung  Vanis,  so  noted  for  greed  tfa^^ 
Chitod-mindod,  ehttodmati,  is  a  oommon  torm  for  a  miser.  Th^f 
are  all  Shrivaks.  Hchbads,  found  in  JAmner,  Chopda,  PdrolH 
Dhulia,  Amalner,  and  Naairalnad,  are  petty  tradvm  and  groc«iH 
They  do  not  eat  with  Chitodis  and  Ldd^kkds,  but  these  lntt«r* 
have  an  eqnal  obiection  to  eat  witli  them.  Thi-y  are  •Fains  in, 
religion  and  wor<hip  PAnumiiUi.  Of  the  remaining  siib-divistonH 
the  NbtAs   of    &irda,  Nasimbad,  and   Viral,  numbei-tug  in   ^M 

tBombaf  Que 





nile.  They  are  distributed  all  over  the  district,  and  ibere  is  ali 
nu  riUa^  t^iat  has  not  a  Marr^'s  sliop.  Their  features  are  more 
BtroD^tj  infu-k(r<l,  and  thoy  Bri)  sturdier  «nd  more  activo  tbau  other 
Viinix.  'I'ho  iDCu  usually  wvar  n  lock  of  hair  coriing  over  eaeh 
ch««k.  Some  of  them  wear  the  beard,  but  most  bsve  lately  taJten 
to  abavfl  the  whole  face  <<scent  thu  uioui>t«c'he.  Ainon^  DSTrcomeni 
tboir  bone  too^e  in  MirviUlt,  but  most  tiponk  a  mixed  HiQdu:*t£iu 
aod  Gajai^ti.  Most  of  the  men  can  read  and  write,  leaming  a  littla 
at  school  or  at  borne  from  their  fathers  or  their  clerks.  As  a  rale 
tbey  ant  moneylenders,  with  u  b»d  uamo  for  hardocss  and  uafninieai 
in  their  dealinffa.*  Beeidaa  landing  money,  they  deal  in  grain,  nulae, 
tfx>adiinents,  oil,  and  buttwr.  I'heir  hogses  are  ulways  clc»a  and  weU 
IcepC,  and  tfao  whII«  |ii»i»u-d  in  bright  hntastic  oolourii.  lu  village*, 
the  Mirvadi's  iti  generally  the  beat  bnili  house,  and  in  tomta  soma 
have  handsonu;  tbj-eo  or  four-Btorit-d  dwellings  with  richly  carved  and 
gaily  puintud  fronti).  They  UiVti  much  lesa  care  of  thi'.)r  persons 
than  uf  their  booses.  Their  women,  except  on  great  occasions,  ant 
sloTenty.  and  the  men  arc  by  no  means  carcfol  to  keep  the  rales  about 
bathing.  Their  food  oon»iKt«  of  rice,  whi»t,  pnlKe,  Indtan  mtlirt, 
butter,  oil,  and  sugar,  a  small  quantity  of  which  is  nsaally  kepi  for 
the  children.  Tea  is  not  an  usual  driak.  In  their  dress  the  men 
svcm  inclined  to  change  thuir  own  small  clow-fitting  bead-clrcM  for 
Rometbingin  shape  and  appearance  more  like  the  Mar&tha  IlrAhinaD 
turban.  They  generally  wear  their  coat-coffa  well  turned  back  to 
show  tho  bright  lining  of  the  elecvea.  Mont  men  wi-ar  s  silver 
toc^ring.  The  womeu'«  dre?^  i«  an  open-backed  bodico,  a  petticoat, 
and  a  robe,  odni,  drawn  npwarda  from  the  band  of  che  potticual, 
and  fnlliug  hke  a  veil  over  the  head  and  face.  Above  uie  elbow 
and  oil  Iho  vrrixts  they  wear  gold  jewels,  but  their  chief  ornaments 
are  bono  bracelets*  In  i-eligiuu  they  are,  'in  abont  eqeal  nutuV-r:!, 
Vaishnava  and  ShrAvake.  Tho  Vaiehnavs  keep  sacred  Chaitra 
Khvddh  ninth,  or  Ramnavmi  (March- April)  and  ttiv  elevenths  of  evei? 
niQplh,  ekadathw,  and  worship  Gin  and  Shri  ItdUji  the  god  of  gain, 
in  whose  nam<«  every  Vaishnav  M&rvfidi  opens  a  separate  accouni, 
aiwl  goes  to  his  furs  ut  Giri  Oenlgam  and  Pandharpur.  HhrAvak 
or  Jaiu  Marvddia  worship  the  naked  Ptinuin&tb,  the  tweniy-thtrd 
Jain  saint,  and  fast  on  the  fifth,  eighth,  and  fourteenth  davs 
of  every  new  and  full  moon.  Their  prioBlo,  chIIi>c1  jatii',  are  held 
in  high  respect.  The  difTeronl  sub-divisionB  eat  with  one  another 
bnt  do  not  intermarry.  Except  OsvAls,  all  take  food  prepared  by 
BHUiinass.  Their  marriuge  ceremonies  arc  purformcd  by  Gaud 
Brihrnans.  Prom  one  to  three  weeks  before  a  marriage,  nigfat^Jj 
processions,  called  bindoris,  take  pbce,  Che  bride  and  bridegrooflH 
moving  about  tlic  village  by  different  street*.'  The  dead  ai^| 
burnt  excent  unweaued  children  who  are  buried.  RxmipW 
lUDODg  Osvils,  the  chief  mourner  shaves  his  beard  and  mouataohec^ 
Kh&ndeth  Mirvidis  are  not  careful  to  prondo  for  the  destitute  > 

'A  OMt non  pluMc  tDortnitM  tlioir  ahui)  pnbolJQ««,i>aitUao«uti,  iMfAino  , 
i.c  M  ot  I  na  piM  aad  otu>  pic*  ol  jiAi,  or  two  cku;^  oB  wnrUuM  <a«  buyi. 

*  Th«  linaon  p(ocan<ni  iliflbn  from  the  wtnU  in  l*kli^  pum  nfon^  uutcKd 
ftflar  the  auMTiie*. 



P;  a  M^vfUli  kog^nu-  u  b;  do  ineass  ao  uncommon  sight. 

ch  men  have  built  t^mplea  and  opened  alms-tic|}i3ea,  vnere 

aor,  and  moncj^  aro  given  to  tno  dewtitute,  water  to  travellers, 

Ri  to  OitlJv.     Itcnt-hoii^os,  dfiirmtihal'ig,  oud  tomploH  hSTO 

built.     Moat  KliMudteth  Marvddia    have   settled   in   the 

Tisititit;  their  nsiive  country  from  time  to  time  to  aoe  their 

lo  look  after  their  u«t(itos,  to  iiorform  rvligioiu  rit««,  and 

As  a  class  thev   arc  well-to-do.     AoASVALa,  old  settlers 

adesbi  claim  to   be  of    hi^hor  caste  than  other  Marvadis. 

Feet   Brdhman   cui>toiii«,    have  a  large  turban   and    white 

and  their  women  never  wear  bone  bracelets.     This  claim 

it  CBBUf  seums   to   have   no  fouadatton.     Other  Mirv&dia 

I  and  new  Agarviil  suttlcrs  differ  in  noway  from  tho  ti»tiul 

inunigranu.     Tbev   are  the  chief  merchant*   of  Chopda, 

.  DharaogaoQ,  Dhiuia,  and  River.    Pro«periDg  as  money- 

[iuod  general  mcrcfaaots,  some  of  them  are  becoming   tand- 

t  but  they  do  not  attend  rauofa  to  agrtcnlture.     Another  olasa 

I  called  Jst  M&rv&dis,  apparently   J&ts  not  Viniii  by  race, 

total    strength   of   'i2Q   souls,   are  found   in    Chilisgaon, 

1,   and  Taludo.     They  come  from  Bharatpur  in   Mtfrvid, 

flesh  and  drink  liquor.    They  worship  all  lliadu  gods,  hut 

livf  deity  is  Ki-va  Deri  in  tberillapo  of  Kinishia  in  Jodhpnr. 

<>rti     by    prufuiiisiOD,    tboy  dine    hut     do     not    marry     with 

ah  ^(^rfldie.     Ac  tbeir  man-ia^fe,  when  the  bridegroom  goes 

ide'e  house,  ho  finds,  at  iba  door  of  the  marriage  booth,  u 

ritb  a  row  of  seven  or  aomotimes  nine  wooden  spaTTows,  the 

[otu)  b«ing  the  biggest  and  bighust.     Before  eut«riDg,  the 

must  aim  at   the  middle   sparrow  and  touch  it  with 

of  his  sword.     They  allow  a  woman  to  marry  a  sewud 

during  thr*  lifetime  of  the   &r^L     0»  Huch  (icoasious  the 

are   called,  and   if  ihe  husband  agrees  to  divorce  his 

iked  to  cut  off  the  end  of  his  turbao  and  give  it  to  the 

emen.     Slight  breacbtw  of  casta  rules   are  (orgiFen, 

:  cow's  deah  or  dining   with   low  caste  people   is   never 

Ltat  or  South  India  Vani«,  found  in  Dhnlia,  Amalner, 
r,  and  Ohus£val,  and  here  and  there  in  the  weet  of  the 
,  have  a  totel  strength  of  dOO  sools.     They   have  (our  eub- 
,  and  about  tiftt^un  uiiimr  brnnciiw.     Tin;  four  Kub-divisions, 
,l>ixiTants,  Chilivautii,  atid  Melvauls  dine  together,  but 
V"t  do  not  marry  with  the  Melvants.     Except  a  few  who 
.lo  cultivation,  Hlroo«l  all  am  shopkecpora  and   traders, 
mild  and  hardworking,  and  iu  money  mHtters  as  sharp  as 
They  speak  MarSthi  as  well  as  E&narese.     They  live  on 
i  and  rmlso,  and  touch  neithor  Seah  nor  liquor.  They  all 
l^tcciw  fonii  of  Shaivism  founded  by  Baiava  iu  1150,  and 
a  nnudiiiiny,  which  both  men  and  women  carry  in  an 
shrino  hung  ronnd  the  neck  or  bound  ronnd  (ho  right 
;  ahocUdur,  or,  iiinotig  tin*  [wor,  tiod  in  tlio  turban.     They 
ays  sacred  to  Shiv.     The  shriue  of  their  deified  founder, 
Kaodi,  at  Katburga    or    tiulburga    in    the    NiuAm's 
»j  is  to  them  as  holy  as  Benares.     Some  of  them  have  lately 

Chapter  IU. 


IBomUy  Gttettev, 








begnn  to  worship  Klmn^erAo.  All  their  religious  oeremonies 
performed  Jiy  o  rlass  of  pries^  called  Jwi^in»,  who,  each  with  it« 
mgh  pritwt,  form  fuur  »oparat«  IxidieH,  one  for  each  of  the  maio 
Bob-divitkiiui.  The  sect-mark,  an  horizontal  Btre&k  of  while  ashes, 
i«  worn  both  by  men  and  woiuon,  tho  women  thinktnj^  the  ashes 
luckier  than  aaffrou.  Eurly  niarHago«  aro  the  rule,  but<  (hvro  is  no 
objoctiou  to  a  tfirl  remaininfr  unmarried  up  to  womanhood.  T^ie, 
bury  their  dead.  Before  tho  body  is  taken  from  the  hooae,  a  cas 
dinner  of  buns  andiAiV.a  {H^pamtion  of  boiled  milk,  riooand  sagar, 
is  gircD,  aad  alms  are  distributed  among  the  Janffams.  The  hwly 
ii  then  wa^d,  smeared  vnth  ashra,  dressed  in  a  loincloth,  kav^in, 
seated  on  a  wooden  box  caircri^d  with  flowor  jrarbindH,  »nd  with  music 
mrried  to  the  burial  ^ruiiud.  Thoug^h,  for  tvro  or  tlin^;  days,  llw 
relations  of  the  dead  are  considered  impure,  no  moui-nin)f  iflob&erred 
and  DO  beating  of  braosts  is  allowed.  From  the  idea  that  not 
can  doGlo  the  tn»e  worvhipper  and  wearer  of  the  ling,  thoy  do 
observe  the  ordinary  Hindu  practice  about  ceremonial  impurity. 
The  Chilivants  and  Molvanta  arc  carofid  to  cook  in  the  dark, 
and  vory  strongly  object  lo  be  ween  by  stxangem  when  cooking  or 
eating.  Though  some  of  them  are  rich,  as  a  class  they  are  not  very 

BifiTiAs,  foumi  cbicSy  in  Dfanlia,  Bharsngaon,  Erandol,  na 
Jalgaon,  trade  in  cotton  and  Unseed,  some  of  them  being  wifax 
for  Bombay  merchant*.,  inoslly  Muhammadans  round 
in  Shirsoli,  Vliriil,  Bet£vad,  [)huli}i,  and  Jalguon,  but  rery  rarely 
in  the  west  of  the  district,  are  a  poor  class  dealing  in  beiel  leaTM. 
The  Uindu  T^boli,  locally  known  as  B&ri,  is  buth  the  grower 
and,  in  some  case«>  the  retail  wller  of  bot^I  loaves,  though  generally 
the  retail  trade  is  carried  on  by  Musalmto  T^bolLj.  Gaxi>bis, 
fonnd  chiefly  at  Dfaulia,  River,  and  Pnrola,  arc  said  to  haro 
come  irnta  Burh^npitr.  They  deal  in  ])erfumv»  and  esseacee, 
aUam,  and  travel  to  the  larger  local  fairs.  L&tXmXs,  foitnd 
chiefly  in  the  oaet  of  the  tltstrict,  come  from  Burhtinpnr,  and 
dual  iu  thread  for  making  turbuiw  and  in  misccllaiwons  goods. 
They  fetch  the  raw  thread  from  Bombay,  cut  it  into  Hiiitable 
lengths,  luid  twi.-(i  ii.  As  a  class  they  are  rather  badly  ofT. 
U  ALVAis  are  sweetmeat -Kellers ;  the  poor  among  tlicm  aro  labourers. 
BuinunL'KJis,  found  iu  Dholia  and  some  large  towns,  grind,  roast  or 
parch  grain  nnd  prepare  it  for  sale.  Kai.Au  are  liquor- sellers,  and 
jlhe  poorer  of  them  labourers. 






}  noiH 




Huab&ndmen  include  eight  classes  with  »  strength 
390,615  souls  or  41-13  per  cent  of  the  whole  Uinda  population. 
or  these  .314,.:.92  were  Kunbis;  41,776  Malis;  1680  Halkars  , 
lOOeXlkaris;  806  Bunkam;  &47  Bharidis;  64  Babars ;  and  244 
Lodhis.  £jUy||J[bo  form  the  bnlk  ni  the  Kbaudesh  population, 
belong  t^iw^^Mun  divisions,  local  and  Gujar  Konbitt.  Gujar 
Eonbis  include  eight  classes,  Reviis  property  Levas,  Do: 
D&lee,  Garis,  Kadvas,  Anal&s,  Lond&ris,  and  Kh/iprA.>t.  There 
a  few  families  of  Dales  on  the  banks  of  the  TSpU  in  ShAh 
and  Taloda  aod  in  R&ver  towards  Burh4npur.  The  DeehuukLK 
J&mner  an  said  to  be  Gai-i  Gojars,  but  they  claim  equality  with  ao> 


(BoidImj  QumH 

64  - 




th«  lost  yoat't  cocoftDul  u  loken  nwiir  aud  a  new  ono  pot  in  iul 
place-  "Tbe  second  rite  ia  ,on  the  fifteenth  of  Shrti'-fin  (Jolf-I 
Angiist),  wlion   (Trnin,   iiiilii«,   aiitl   rico   nro  r  -    'ler  andl 

oiferec3  tci  the  i^'ntldexn.     Tlip  (liird  ib  belt!  on  n  >f  J/'wAl 

(Janaary  -  February) ,   and    in    addition    to    the   worsbip   of   tori 

KddesH,  indadv*  a  ix'rcmonjr  knoim  m  rnAfln.  Tn  thta  cerpmonyl 
)  yciinecT  membent  of  eacb  family,  carryiDg  cwo  oocoaout!*  n-ru*ce.  I 
mMtattnebouseof  their  head.  These  cocoaauta  are  duly  irorRbipped  I 
Bt  the  heftdiDiiQ'H  bouM,  and  uft«r  dinner  nru  carriod  to  tboir  I 
didrrrtit  boiuiea.  I 

The  following  are  the  chief  details  of  the  Rere  Enobi  maniwe  I 
^remonii-4.  Pruparatioflo  bv^tn  on  both  mdv*  un  n  day  fixed  by  I 
the  Tillage  aalrologer.  ITie  five  eegenti&l  marriatfe  fomislitir*  mn.  1 
in  order  of  time,  (1)  the  anointing  with  tnrmeric,  hala4 :  fS)  I 
bonndary  wortihip,  nnta»tpujan,  commonly  called  gimanti ;  (3)  tbfl 
joining  of  bande,  hdtol,  the  knot,  gdnth,  and  the  worship  of  the  I 
saered  fire,  eh-jcri  bhavri;  (4)  the  tnooting  of  the  bride  with  lierl 
mothcr-in-luw  who  ci'jmes  with  gifta,  •uttmui'A;  and  ("i)  iLo  haskeLl 
offering  to  Uribmana,  jhdl,  with  jn^senta  of  anp«rel,  dher,  tol 
Tillage  aerTanta.  Eacb  of  thcKe  cerumoniea  is  followed  bra  feast,! 
two  of  thvm  being  giren  by  the  bnde'a  Fatb^.  Those  followingl 
the  third  and  the  fifth  coremoniea  are  grand  general  feoMA-l 
Uarriage,  na  opposed  to  botrollial,  tnnrini,  begins  by  a  meeting  of] 
fcindrt^  and  frienda  at  the  bride's  and  nt  tlio  briil^'^ooni's  bone«,l 
in  honour  of  tho  tumKTic  rubbing.'  Fire  matrons,  who  faaTel 
alr^'ady  drawn  lines  of  whit«  powdor,  n>N^o/i.  round  the  spaod 
in  front  of  the  wooden  stool  on  wliieh  the  bridegroom  i»  M>«t«u 
surround  it  and  are  followed  by  tho  Brahman  who  atepa  in  froan 
of  the  «tool  and  HlnrtH  wliat  in  known  lu  thopoL  wonhip,Jtaf(i«A/}u;ii.l 
It  begins  by  the  pfieat  placing  a  copper  pot,  kalanh,  full  of  wnier,! 
within  the  space  marked  off  with  white  powder  in  front  of  the  stool.! 
In  the  mouth  of  tbia  pot  he  places  a  pieoe  nf  coconnut  and  fire  betetl 
leores  in  a  fan-like  shape.  Into  the  water  he  drops  a  beteluut  and  h 
copper  pic«,  and  on  the  ground  in  front  of  tho  wooden  stool,  he  layd 
a  betelnnt  as  a  repreeenlatiou  of  (lAnpati.  Hu  then  repeats  sacnfl 
verses,  manlran,  in  praise  vi  Ganpati  and  praja  him  to  be  kindly.' 
Th^n,  at  his,  the  five  matrons  coming  forward  with  open 
dishes  full  of  turmeric,  rice,  and  red  powder,  rub  the  bridvgroom 
with  turmeric  danb  his  forehead  with  red  powder,  and  stick 
»  rice  on  it.  llie  rubbing  gotis  on  umidnt  contmuons  nproar,  the 
wlnien  laughing,  the  bridegroom  struggling,  and  every  one 
ioining  in  thefnn,  After  the  rubbing  is  over  the  Brahman  leads  the 
nridegroom  to  iho  family  goddess,  kulJen,  worships  hor  ondacoepTs 
alma.  In  the  same  way  a  similar  turmoric-rubbing  ceremony  ud 
performed  on  the  bride  at  her  own  house.  The  whole  doea  not  com 
more  than  from  Si.  to  6ii.  (2--tanna«).  Then,  with  the  bridegroinnl 
theaasembled  guests  and  kindred  in  a  long  line  of  bullock  cuTta 
with  gaily-clad  bell-jangliiig  bullocks,  Mt  out  for  the  bride's  villnol 
aoctmipasied  by  the  family  priest  and  hired  mui^icians.    '\\'hen  ul 

■  TIm  bride  b  firrt  mbbMl,  and  wfakt  rHoiim  «**''  AAlaif ,  U  ii«at  for  the  1 

IBoulMjr  Ga*ett«er 





waistdoUi,  dhatar,  or  troaaer  clolli,  to  the  bride's  pown,  lugdm, 
and  Uk''^  *'''>''  XKi^'i  fi'^i  'W">>  r>ltn)i  n  fitw  olt'iti  etAllcs  nr 
Aotnr  HMcred  wnod,  Kurh  ax  Buita  fnioiluHU,  palim,  luiil  ihixiwini^ 
on  a  little  clarilied  butter  Mid  si-sxmHm.  The  puir  iWn  ri>u,  axti, 
tritbotit  ontyin^  their  n>b«!<,  ivkI)c  five  limi^«  ruunil  ihv  Rn,  ^fD 
riirlit  to  Wft,  purforiaitis  Uia  cei-Dtuuny  ralletJ  chiwri  h/uuvi.  Tluijr 
»re  tbeo  taken  iuto  toe  honso  to  worehip  tbe  fiimil;  jafods.  On 
their  rotnm  thoy  nra  odco  more  senU>d  on  the  wooden  atoolsi 
iiiid  u  ditib,  oontaiuing  rire  and  other  food,  is  served  h}'  twn  yyaag 
married  womuu  on  an  iron  tray.  Out  of  thia  the  bride  ana 
bridegroom  «it  lo^rrilH'r,  atid  »  ^luid  dinner,  co«tinff  from  2«.  In 
JK  (Ke.  1  •R«.  &0),  b  given  to  t^Ujodb  Mid  friends.  After  dinniv 
the  ffrand  marria^  proocsgjon  la  formed,  the  bridefirroom  wonrinff 
tbe  tinsol  crovm,  Imjm'ujp,  ounting  from  6d.  to  \».  {annas  4-  Kh.  2),  uiil 
ff<^uvrally  riding  on  a  horse,  or  in  a  cart  witk  the  bride,  Torclirsi 
lireworks,  and  music,  costing  from  6d.  to  Jt2  [anwu  4-K8.  20), 
nccoiiitiiiii}'  the  proveMion,  tba  women  wnlkiug  on  i-luli  Kpread  on  thu 
ground  UHDaliy  bjthe  rill^e  waabermaa.  After  tJiis  the  bridegroom 
returns  to  his  o^rn  bonso  or  lodf^og. 

The  day  aflur  tbe  grand  uiarringe  ceremony,  the  motbor  uf  Hm 
bridegroom,  who  has  not  been  present  on  any  former  oocasioD,  eoroea 
to  see  the  bridu.  Thij«  is  cvllisl  thu  fticr  iiwpvction,  tunmnkh,  and 
eostn  front  2«.  to  £3(Ke.  I-Its.  &0).  She  bnugti  with  h«r  n-vc-nd 
bamboo  baeket«  contnining  sesamnm  balls,  gram  poise  balls, 
betelnuUi,  oocoa  kcmnb,  dntes,  robes,  pieces  of  clnlh,  omamcnl«, 
chiefly  the  nosering  nalh,  tbe  uiarringt)  ueoklet  with  bi,'ii<ls  of  gold 
strung  on  it  in  two  or  four  rows  mattgat  *N/ra,'  an  armlet  kadr,  ft 
Dfckbtco  gaUari,  n  comb,  and  n  gtww  bvad  necklace  j'ol,  together 
with  swootnieoUt  and  fruit  of  varioutt  kindn.  I'bn  britlo  and 
Inide^room  are  »cAt^t  on  stooU  to  receive  these  presents,  and  tJte 
baskets  are  ranged  before  them.  1*bc  fiiniily  prie>>t  then  worsliipa 
thepot,  fc'if'iAA,  iiutl  Uiiu))(iti,  whilb  (lidbridegmnni'si  mother,  coming 
forward,  docks  tbo  bride  with  clothes  and  omanicnta,  and,  ilipjiiui{ 
ber  finger  in  uiulassea  or  migur,  pot«  it  iuto  (be  bride's  m<Hith.  A 
dinner  is  then  given,  and  gifl^,  nhrr,  of  Uirbans  to  the  male,  and 
robes  to  thu  fenialo  relations  usually  follow. 

On  the  last  day  of  the  mnrnage  ft^stivitiea  a  broad  bamboo  basket, 
jAaf,  is  brought  forward.  It  eoulaiuH  a  piece  of  cloth,  nine  dale*, 
nine  cocoa  kernels,  nine  bimpH  of  turmeric,  a  linndfiil  of  rioe,  and 
^inv  wliiiiten  macer-shapod  flour  lam]>s.  The  bride  and  bridegroon 
are  tied  together  us  ixiforc,  and  nit  on  tbe  stools  benido  tbe 
broad  basket,  jltat.  The  priest  worships  as  bcfuro,  and,  at  a  gtvon 
signal,  the  pair  rii=ing  walk  round  the  basket,  J/wi(,  five  times  from 
right  t4)  loft.  The  basket  with  its  content«  is  given  to  tbe 
Brahman,  andpreseulH,  n^iirrjOro  madeto  the  nuiNiciitnK,  Ikrbtirs,  Kn]i», 
and  other  village  servants.  A  proeession  of  guests  and  friends, 
rttfi!,  then  runiit,  nnd  nil  sot  out  for  their  homes.  Besides  those 
esReutiiil  ivivmoniea  there  is  much  pliiyand  nieniim.-n!.,  with  vari'mn 
struggles  for  eupremacy  between  the  bride  and  bridegroom,  who  pelt 

I  Bombay  Gantt 








AIini«iU1)ad.     Nnmerooii  prieBta  and  Kadre  TOproEoatsttTes  atlt^uil 
(lie  ^rinu  iilwut  six  montJu  l^^ro  tlio  miin-Ukjfi:  liiiiu  to  fix  the  day| 
(tnd  hdur  for  the  wremunj'.     On  these  oocauiona,  no  gre&t   i^  th« 
demand  for  wivci<,  tluil  iiifantM  of  even  one  month  old  aro  toarriiML 

The  other  main  Knubi  division,  known  simply  as  Ennbis,  hat\ 
nino  snb-diriitioii-t ;  Pajnu,  Tiloli.!,  Ulu>tuU%  f^'^iii,  Kuiiil>hnrc,  Mardthe, 
DakDhni,  Varddi,  Viuijiiri,  and  Akarm^.  PajsAh  (I'l.Ti^Ti)  iirr  suh- 
divided  ioto  (iiiir  clMSiieB :  Bera,  Thorgavhaiia,  Kandirkar,  and 
^fnvghari.  The  Grat  istlio  main  aUK't:,  tho  other  tlirco  originated 
ID  fends  and  dispuU'M.  All  F^jiuiA  eat  togutber,  but  i>n  a<.'cuiuit  ot 
dispates  as  to  whi<;h  divi»oii  is  the  bigbeat,  they  do  not  intermanik 
vuo  of  tho  chief  I'ijua  Kunbts  ia  the  De«hninkh  of  Ytlral.  He 
belongs  to  the  Thorgavhttnis,  who  take  tiieir  name  fnini  ThorgaThaa 
in  SfLvda,  b»  the  Kandilrkars  tako  thoir's  from  Kaod^  on  tho  Tijiti 
In  BhntUlvnl.  The  Navgharis  would  Mwm  to  bo  the  dosceadanta  of] 
nine  bmities  or  houi^os  who  left  the  nmiu  81'Kik  and  sottted  in] 
different  Tillages  thronghoottjte  district.  PdJQ^  are  numeruas  only 
in  Chopda,  Nasirabad,and  Janincr.  Truthfnl,  orderly,  andfru^| 
almost  to  niggardlin«M,  they  are  the  ino«t  hardworking,  industriuaay ; 
and  simplvmindud  of  the  Kb^udeah  agricultaml  population.  Siooe 
tho  great  disptite  which  broke  up  thoir  caste,  they  have  bwai 
remarkable  for  tho  appan^nl  ahtieiipfi  of  jrii!i>i]>«JvM  nnd  treai^bericaj 
which  distingiti^tli  tlu'  Oujar  Kunbis.  Kxi-ii|ii  among  a  few  richi 
fiuoilioK  the  women  arc  allowed  to  appear  in  pHbiic.  TiLoL4  KiinbisI 
(76,1^1), spread  all  ovor  thodiMn'ct,  are  nioitl  nrimoronsin  the  Sivdt 
and  JAmnur  HuVdivisinDH.  There  ina  local  tradition  that,  like  tho] 
Dore  Gujars,  (he  Tilola  Kuubia  wore  Rajputa,  and  formorly  hai] 
tho  honorific  ^itg,  attiu-bod  !<■  their  names.  Thoy  aro  said  t^i  hnrel 
come  ^m  Up|)er  India  and  to  have  tM^longod  to  tho  dass  of 
]>adar  PavArs.  Itltich  leas  trnthful  and  orderly,  they  are  not  ■ 
nearly  ho  careful  or  hardworking  as  tlic  Piijans,  with  whom  theyfl 
eat  but  do  not  iuttirniarry.  The  cliiof  Tilnlii  fnmilioit  aro  those  ^ 
of  "(lie  Uesbniukhs  of  Amalner  and  Varangaon,  and  of  tho  PiUil  , 
of  HarlAln.  GhAtolAs,  said  t^i  have  com<>  from  above  the  (lluita,,| 
that  is  from  the  south  side  of  the  Ajanta  mnge,  i^ru  numerons  ioJ 
BhnsAval,  Jimner,  PAchora,  Ch&lisgaon,  and  Nasirabod,  and  a  few] 
are  found  in  Cbopda,  Erandol,  and  Dhulia.  They  eat  hut  do  not 
marry  ivith  the  Tilota  Kuiibie.  Lotiis  (121),  rvgardod  as  ao  ahorifrli: 
tribe,  dwell  chiefly  on  the  banks  of  the  Giroa  and  in  small  villagea 
»on,tbe  Tipti.  They  aro  found  al.-so  in  .\fiilogaOD,  Jalgaon,  R&ipurJ 
PAi^hura,  ilalkiiniir,  and  Nandurbiir.  Tliey  aro  a  very  poor  tribe 
eating  with  Tilolis,  PAjuAs,  Giijara.  and  VAuis,  but  never  marrying 
except  among  thcm«elve«.  KuHiiuAitES,  bv  no  means  a  oiinicroua, 
tribe,  are  found  in  the  village  of  IlholAna  in  ^{asirsbad  and  in  parts  o! 
Cbopda.  Likelhorrf>ni8they  are  very  )vxjr.  M^*  {4f,7iy),  said 
to  have  originally  crome  from  NlUik,  Poona,  Siit4n>,  mid  Ahnii.'dnagar, 
duriug  the  rwigu  of  the  last  Peshwn  (ITilti- 1817),  are  of  two 
classes,  Khasiia  jod  Kttfchiw.  whu  do  not  inu-rmarry.  The  Kl 
aro  pure,  IhoonildreD  or  parents  of  thesame  claMa.  ITie  Karchis  ar 
ttaid  to  be  the  descendants  of  handmaidK.  IHiough  generally  callc 
Marathas,  they    have  wpccisl  sumaipca  known  to  familiar  "frienc 




sncfa  M  GAikwitr,  Mohitc,  Jagta,  Sinde,  Nunh£lhar,  and  PaTilr. 
Tliey  eal  trith  TUoJa,  PiiJDii,  uid  olbcr-KuDbiii.  The  Kbane  Mudlthila 
obserre  the  zenana  custoiu,  ^ncnuly  knuwa  nti  Mardithi  Mola, 
v[h)<.-)i  i.s  done  by  scArecly  uno  Karchi  family  in  a  hundred.  DASstixia 
(H,uU3),  uttiii  to  be  itnui)]|rmn(«  from  Uw  Duccon,  aro  of  lowor 
caete  than  the  Maritba  Knnbia,  aud  marry  only  anioug  tlioniKilToa. 
T*feAms,  (utid  tu  b«  immigrants  from  Bor&r,  resemble  Tilola  Kaubis 
ia  nuist  (it  their  cimtAtiiu»  iind  habilit.  VanjAris  (1017),  siiid  to  hiivo 
been  orifpoally  carriers,  are  very  numeratu)  in  Jflinner,  ^'arnnffnon, 
DhsranRnoD,  l*4roln,  Erandol,  and  Dhulia.  At  present  there  is  no 
noUccnblo  diffrreun-  between  tbvin  and  ordinary  Kunbi».     As  thuru 

KVanjiri  F^tiU  in  Jilmner,'  lltoy  bavo  probably  iona  been  ttettlett 
Jtivatvra.  AKAKMAsifl  ( 1 085)  are  said  to  be  the  children  of  Gujar 
ImniHA.  Th»y  are  by  no  moans  nuinorons,  bnt  a  few  nro  found 
in  Nasirabad,  Chopdo,  and  SbdbAda.  None  of  the  better  doas  of 
Knnbia  eat  with  them. 

CbaptMT  III. 



Ten  clasMs  of  hu!*l>andmen,  BAbara,  Bunkan,  Bharidis,  AlkariB, 
Batkars,  Malie,  Iiodhia,  J&ls,  and  Rajpnt«,  seem  not  to  be    reefular 

tbii*.  BABAit«(<31),in  tiwirhubila  and  customs,  resemble  ordinary 
bb.  Tbey  are  found  ill  Am&lner.  BDXKARa(80(i),or  wonTcrs,  for 
seem  to  have  been  wcavern  before  they  became  buHbandiiu^n,  are 
to  hare  (■oiue  from  Owiiiior  aud  ihc  countiy  near  the  Ganges, 
tmbling  Kolia  in  appeanime  tliuir  oti.tloins  htv  like  those  of 
Pardesbi  or  Upper  Indian  Knnbis.  They  allow  widow  mumage, 
and  worship  lliii  goddosoos  Chhalotra,  Tutjiipun,  and  Uingl^j.  'llio 
Ain|ntr  Runkiirx  luit  a(  tho  hands  of  Eolis,' while  the  Bunkars  of 
VantueauD,  Haasilpur,  Bomar,  and  Jalgaon,  aro  docJdotUy  Pardeshi. 
'i  'riirs  say  that  ihey  came  from  Upper  India,  and 
nsuiilly  nttoud  their  mjtrriaeiM.  They  have  no 
liviaiouA.  Tlioy  ."till  wcAiVQ  rough  cloth,  Ar/iJili,  att  well  »» 
Itivatc,  and  have  the  pooiUar  custom  of  buryinff  the  unmarried 
bnminff  the  marriiHl.  BiiAR.inis  (547),  &)unu  in  the  Jdtnner 
Na«irahad  enb-divisiona,  though  profeAnional  dancer*  ttnd 
— s,  arc  also  bopgars  and  cnltirators.  Alkasis  (lOOfi), 
sni?  of  the  Maha  Iiodhi  cu^te  from  Uppvr  India,  an)  called 
from  cultiratioff  the  dl  or  madder,  which  yivlds  tbu 
I  red  dye  ffJurrangt.  Thoy  are  numerous  in  K4ydn,  KaiKpur, 
itnbud,  and  nro  found  in  Hviallor  numbers  throughout 
li*trii:t.  Uatkaks  (ir>80),  formerly  Uhangant  or  i^hephords,' 
given  up  their  wandering  life  and  taken  to  agriculture.. 
ey  ny  lluil  tiny  camo  from  Gangthitri,  thai  is,  the  banks  of  the 
~&van.*  Kuuierous  in  Jdmner,  CbiUi»gnon,  XiMirabad,  and 
where  eomo  of  them  have  obtained  pAlil  rights,  they  are 
dworking  and  much  U-s»  (luarndsutoo  than  Gujars.  MAlis 
liree  dances,  Phul,  Jire,  and  Kia.     The  lirst  two  oat  togcUier 




>*,  Kinlyaat^Uwinitil  of  lEAi-cr  cUim*  to  b«  a  pore  Ktmlii,  Mating  thAt 
iiueil  to  KMM  cattle  and  irm  callod  VanjlriaMa  nMuDOiaa. 

I  »tluA  hu  oMc,  «  Haiku-  ^vnyi  sitivcra  Uatkar  Dhaasar. 
rPiUI  dI  TohoT  i»  itmaa,  an  ii^u«atul  OhaDBar,  taf*  tlut  lit>  aootaton 
I  Itom  Mar  fooiu. 


iBotDhnj  Gantt 





nnd  look  on  the  K^  ati  a  tower  tribe.     'Vhey  do  not   intor 
^Hiig  E'liuUMitin  have  receiTCi^  assiKnnionts  of  1bD(U,    t->i'ftnj. 
Dcetimukh  of  Kran^lal  being  n  notable  io&tiutoe.  Looms 
oiDLLilin,  Suugiwl,  PAchora,&uigad,  Kasirabkd,  KanJeri,  l_     , 

nr«  ubl  ttifi  saine  as  Maha  Lodhu,  and  will  not  K^w  madder,  lU. 
They  eat  at  the  bands  uf  a  BnihinaD  or  a  i-Mto-felluw  nuly,  aail 
muTy  amouf;  tlwinHelTM.  Ainoug  them,  at  tnarriages,  the  bnde* 
groom,  nt  a  tixfid  hoar,  oomw  bo  the  marriaRO  booth  and  atrikca  it 
with  a  stick  or  rn^nd.  'Iliu  nnxt  day  thvTxs  ix  a  feaet  mid  thi?  bride 
Biid  bridvgruom  tnwA  in  tli«  hooih  for  tbo  fir8t  time.  'J'be  Utihioftii 
uflnjloger  i-e[)eait8  t«xte,  aud  the  bride j^riw>ni,  holding  the  briJoV 
jiands  in  bw,  her  fatli«f«  drops  a  (^ft  into  tJirm.  Ilicy  ivur<iii]i 
Bandula  and  Bbiiviin),  and  obwrvo  tlie  Vasra  ((Jciober-NoTeinln^r; 
tnnlAjiklani  (Jnly-Au^roBt)  holidays.  Except  in  caaes  of  death  fnidi 
cholora  or  small-pox,  t&ey  bnm  their  dead.  Jim  nru  fonnd  m  Raxnr 
andManur  inBhnsnTnl,fU]d  inHomcChAliNgHonHnd  Filcboni  villaj^s. 
Thoy  arc  oaid  to  have  come  from  ii&rv&r,  and  to  ea£  only  al  tlio 
hands  of  Bnlbmaus. 

Of  Baipntcultivntorg  thoroaro,  TwaidoK  tbcDoni  Giijhtk  who  now 
rmnk  »»  Kunbiit,  four  claHtw»,   Pardeabiw,  Khapgdfe.  Maplllifa,  and 

D<tkbnia.  I'he  first  two  eat  and  drmk  with  Titola  Ktiubis,'  bnt 
tito  Manitlia  and  Dakhni  Itajpubi  arc  said  not  to  \k  vnlitlcd  to 
thifl  honour.  (WuTwisucaUod  RdnoRajpn^a,  t^  Mur^tbt  KaJ|hiI», 
like  Uio  i'ardushi  liajpuCH,  do  not  allow  tlteir  widons  to  marry. 
Many  MarHtlia  KiijpDt  pAlila  hold  land-grants,  viUau*,  in  eofi 
Khiitide^ih,  bat,  as  a  rulu,  thoy  >>cem  to  pnofor  omjilnynwnt  a.t  MrjHiyA 
to  the  drudgery  of  a  haabaudmnn'H  life.  Thuy  are  said  to  iiu 
qoarrelsomo  and  spiteful.  I'hc  liano  Rajpats  have  fiiich  anmaniios 
att  Jiidbar  and  8hi»odo,  and  any  two  of  tlivir  tribcticnn  inU'mmrry. 
Thvy  havo  eixtoon  bou^t&s  in  Vfival,  and  they  do  not  oat  with  Kuulm. 
The  lUne  Rajputs  of  DaadAiche  and  8iadkheda  hunt  and  oat 
flesh,  fowl  and  liah,  and  drink  wiiio.  Ilitiir  womon  never  itjipi-ar 
iu  ■public  and  woultl  dio  rather  than  work  on  roads  or  in  bnlilH. 
Th<'y  mv  bodicoit,  but  uoithar  spin  nor  wcare.  Besides  these  four 
olasaM,  Suryavanabi  Kajpuut  htv  funnd  in  Nimar  ami  on  lh<>  Iwrders 
of  SArda  ancl ISfiusAval.  They  neither  eat  with  olhor  Rajpnta  nor 
allow  widow  mvrtnge.  The  higher  families  are  known  by  tie  titJe 
of  'ITjiikur. 

Tlio  Mnnithi  dinkcts  of  the  cultivating  claj«4rdi  ar«  foor,  Gnjrit 
•IHkshni,  Khandeahi  or  Abirini,  and  Varidi.  Gujri,  spoken  fbrtSy 
by  tho  Giijnrs,  is  romai-kabk  for  its  larf;o  number  of  Gajar&ti  words 
and  ratio  endingit;  Oakshni  ik  spokvn  by  the  immigrants  from  iha 
Deccan ;  Kb&udeehi  or  Aliirani  by  the  earliest.  non-aboriBritud 
settlors;  and  Yariidi,  an  importation  from  Ber&r,  has  a  marked 
mixture  of  Hindi  wprda  ajid  cndinga, 

Of  Craftsmen  thtre  were   fifteen   divisions :    Sonitrs   \6fiOi, 
Sut^ca  U,3G7,lx>b&r8'1873,  Shimpis  \ifi'->,  K^saraSlU^,  Kumhh&rs 

■  Th«  Uitbtr  Eajjmts  da  not  Mt  with  ntdiiurr  Knitliu.  Uarjktlu  and  oUibf  ton, 
Raipniii  (M  vitk  ndstalHiur.  thwuh  tlt*y  do  not  cat  with  tlnccvr,  'Hlolo  Bad  Hli 
Kiubi*.    Mr.  J.  CoUoa.  C.S. 


5697,  Dhigrrtna  021,  Ukhcria  H  GiHirnUs  875.  Kachhis  10, 
harvats  37S,  Otiris  SiH,  Loniria  4517,  Bcldiin!  'ioati,  •nnj 
bis  \G,  nr  a  total  itlrungili  of  68/lS*)  aonU  or  &-'ttt  ]>cr  cciil  uF  the 
1(1  population. 

SonXbs,  holilitur  the  highest  place  amonfc  Ktijtmk'ith  craftsmen  . 
and  belioved  to  Iuivp  omv-  from  Uppor  India  or  MiUa,  aru  found 
thmaghotit  the  ditdrict.  Tfaey  are  of  twi>sui>-(]ivi«ioiis,  AUirtiondrii 
uid  Viuabya  or  Jain  Sonars.  Ahlr  Sooirs,  be)ieT<^  to  huTO  come 
originally  from  Uppvr  India,  are  foir  and  goodloolcin^,  careful  (o 
bo  wdII  sbaren  and  alwava  dreased  in  cloun  clotlic^.  They  ara 
dever  and  hardworking,  bat  most  dange^oiis  to  deal  with,  as  ibc, 
local  proverb  says,  "Bapu,  have  no  dvolinj^  with  a  ^Idiimith,  u 
tAilor,  or  my  lord  kulkanii".'  It  1.4  generally  bulicvwl  that  if  an 
nt  made  from  serenteon  mpees'  weight  of  melal  bo 
.  aod  nielt«d,  it  will  bo  fotmd  to  haro  loat  aboat  thirty  pi>r 
in  wuiffht.  Ouoe  a  year  on  Ilio  thirtieth  Shruran  vad^a 
it<«mber),  every  goldsmith  gets  eomo  ffold  from  hid  inotlior  nn<l 
r,  and  makes  it  into  an  oruamont  lilehiug  some  of  the  gold  aa 
ck-pciiny  to  Ktart  th«  new  year  with.  An  Uic  mying  is :  "To  a 
even  his  owti  mother  ia  nothinjr".'  BeMido.t  making  and 
repduring  gold  and  siln-r  onuiini^nt^,  ihvy  set  goma  and  work  in 
lirodoas  stoni-a,  and  tJte  iMOr  prepare  copper  and  brass  ornamonta 
for  male  In  tJu3  women  of  the  lower  classea.  Beiatd«.<*  working  m 
i«well6nt,iromearecn]ti)rators,ot1iorsn)asons,audafew  are  labourers. 
Soma  deal  in  grain  and  Ic-nd  money,  and  a  fow  who  have  received 
sooM  «dBCT»ti"n  arc  eniployi-d  an  Govemmonl  w»rviuil«.  llioao  who 
woric  tut  gold&mitha  earn  according  to  their  akiil  from  \<t.  to  0<i. 
({  RBiia-l  onnd')  for  every  ropce  woighi  of  cnld.  They  eat  (he  Hetdi 
of  sheep,  go«t«,aod  fowirt,  smd  drink  buHur,  Proi^ganls  for  marriages 
maile  while  the  children  are  in  their  infancy.  On  the  occattion 
le  formal  demand,  mi'jtn,  which  is  gimentlly  made  four  years 
>re  marriage,  some  gold  and  ailrer  omameola  and  ailkun  cIoth|<« 
givi'n  to  the  bride.'  The  marrying  oonple  are  genernily  of 
the  same  age,  seldom  ovor  lt*n.  Tlteir  marriat^  ceremoniea 
nde  tnnnerie  rubbing  aud  the  other  iihuhI  obitcrvancx.'s  and 
ond  with  a  fi-ikit.  Of  Iat«  they  have  introduced  the  custom  of 
performing  gimanli,  or  as  tbcy  inoorrectly  pronounce  it  gheratiti, 
two  boon  before  tlio  regular  marriage  begiiiii.*  Soniuyoars  ago 
Uw  foiod  w«a  urved  in  a  hu-ge  betl-motal  diah  from  which 
twelve  persons  ate  sitting  in  a  i^roap.  Now  each  gnest  has  hia  ovid 
diih.  Marriago  expentMa,  whieh  formerly  varied  from  £b  to  JtIO 
(Ba.  50.  [U.  h)0),  have  of  late  nearly  doubled.  Widow  roarriogu  in 
the  gamUutrea  or  piif  form  is  ollovrod.  On  a  hicky  day  in  thu  dark 
bftlf  of  itti  month,  i»ome  time  after  the  sum  to  be  paid  to  Uio  widow's 
father  has  boon  settled/  the  bridegroom,  with  hia  relations  and 

*  The  Mvltlil  tmm  I  Boadr.  AUmfH,  £aUan>  dpfnt,  ydnrAi  Mutual  noio  n  Bdfpa, 

'  Tlic  M>i*ibi  II  :  Stm4r  ra  oUt  ii»  aifAi  hm/tr, 

lilt  uo  ;  MM  putliookt.  srfgini;  om  apprr  gKnoonl.  lAanUi;  two  ruba. 
„^iuu.  Md  *ana  Moan.  •  Fnr  tuiUier  itriAlU  nm  aborc.  p.  W, 

Btn  wkt  fomialT  stent  jC4  (R».  60}.    ll  bx  now  men  ■uvanlold  sad  amn*- 

Chapter  III 




cbaptOT  nt. 



friends,  Roee  to  the  bouE4<  of  his  widow  bride.     A  Brflumu  Orj 
asirftkigvr/  joshi,  is  culled  in,  nii<)  twn  low  stools,  patii,  ftre  ph 
nuUT  «acb  uibor  coTened  with  clotb.     'I'b«  HnUiiimu  itryii^At  i 
invokes  Ganjnti  and  Varuna,  and  gtToa  tho  pair  folded  bgtol  ttai 
}>6nbuli,  to  uuld   Id  th«ir  biLodi^     'IlifD  th«  bridegroom,  taluof 
dngi^r  or  other  weaiMU  in  bis  left  bacd,  ahn  i>a  ui>6  tttool  and 
bride  aita  on  the  other  to  tho  bridegroom's  rights     The  Brihi 
recites  bjmns,  maiUmt,  and  vrorKhi])!!  Caopati  and  Vaniiui,  otid  ■ 
married  wonuui  comea  forward  aud  rubs  thx  fon^bt-iids  of  tha  brvde 
and  bridegroom  with  &u(froD  and  rico.     'Vhe  bridegroom  then  gii 
elollii'S  to  th«  bridu  which  rIio  forthwith  puts  on,  luid  in  rvluru  " 
"falltor,  rubbing  hia  brow' with  sandal,  given  tho  bridegroom  cU 
As  it  iH  a  custom  that  thu  bridu's  rvluliona  and  &ieudE  should 
BVii  their  face»  for  thn^  da)'!<,  the  bridu  utid   bridegroom  lt»va 
the  bndegroom'a  liouao  almost   inimediati>l_v  ufter  tliD   marrii 
performed.     Two  old  practious,  ginug  gifts  to  the  villgigio  hru 
and  enipk>,viug  M^g  music-ian.f,  are  fullin;;  into  distiM-.      Mleq 
fuQcml,  ttouirahave  a  peculiar  custom  of  nibbJiig  cliinlJod  Uuiori 
molaasee  on  the  ■boulderaof  thp  bier-bearera.  I'bey  worship  all  Hit 
f^ds,  cspeciidly  Kliandoba  and  Ike  goitdcss  Chaudi  or  Dvvi,  faitLJ 
all  days  sacred  to  8liiT  and  Vi.'diuu,  and  )ui?o  Dniliittnns  as 
priests.     Their  marriage  and  funeral  ceremonies  are  those  laid  dol 
in    the    I'uninM.     On    thu    ttilrtitrth  dujr    of    tho    Hindu    inotitli 
Shrdvan  (Heplember)  (he)'  worship  the  hf»rtb,  hii'jri'hfari,  &ud  it 
liquor  and  tho  tongue  of  a  gout  on  the  tire.     On  this  day.  cxc 
making  the  liick-)xriitij-,  iindur  penalty  of  a  iino,  no  work  i;ii  dol 
Caste  diepuCea  are  settled  by  it  council,  panch,  whuso  diM.'u.iMons  : 

grorerbially  long,  lasting  sometimes  a  whole  day  and  night  anl 
ftWD,  As  tho  saving  is,  "  Wben  tho  stars  fade  the  somirs  ditto  T 
Though  »omu  loanl  Kngli:<ib,  most  t<-uch  tlivir  crhiliirvn  only  readil 
and  writing  aud  the  btile  arithmetic  wanted  to  keen  their  accounG 
As  a  class  they  uru  well  off,  somo  of  them  rich.  \  aimmya  or  Jxim 
SXiKksa,  a  small  community  ot  fiOO  m«n,  iin.;  found  in  NimdurbAr, 
Prakiisiia,  ShAhada,  Siodkbed,  Amalner,  Eraitdol,  aud  Uetavad, 
They  uru  believed  to  bo  old  fiottlcrs,  and  neither  dine  nor  marry 
with  tlie  Abir  Sonira.  They  Kpcak  both  Uujaniti  and  Marithi,  aad 
in  Kandnrb^r  and  Shiih&da  their  women  wear  tbe  robe  in  GuianUr 
fashion.  Tbvy  work  as  goldsmiths  and  neither  eat  flesh  nor  drink 
liquor.  They  wear  tliK  sacriNl  ihrciul,  perform  tho  ri^ilar  IbrLnul 
.  cigremony,  aud  are  io  other  respects  like  lii:^luiuuis.  I^eir  widowu' 
beads  are  shaved  and  they  are  not  allowed  to  marry,  Some 
VaudiiuiTs  aud  utbere  Shaivs.    Thair  privsls  aro  Bntlunnns. 

HtiTJifts,  carpenters,  aro  of  three  diviaions,  Siil^r<  proper  othfiT 
called X>eshi  Sutors,  Ahir  SutArh,  and  PinchJll  iSntAra.    tjutArep ropey j 
say  that  thoy  are  Kuubiit  by  descent.     They  belong  to  two  diviaic 
Ptoobiildharmi  found  at  Julgaon,  Dharangnon,  itud   Kntndol ; 
H&T&la  found  at  Y^val,  Naairabad,  aud  Asodn.     Ahir  Sui^ra 
distinct  and  aro  of  tho  eamo  class  oe  AbirLohirs  and  Abir  cultivat 
Tbey  do  iwt  marry  with  Uetdii  Snt&rs.    A«  carpontom  aud 

le  wjfti 

)  The  Msnttbi  It :  A'^  n  Mn*,  in  n  wmlni. 





cnrcrrK  Kliiii<U«l)  SnUirs  are  ffood  wo^k<^rH,  oaKilv  Lmineil  to  lu 
t^ropcau  louta.  1'be  8uUnt  vf  Uli<>tKia  nud  \divul  linjru  a 
luuiio  (or  earring  »nd  boase  carpoutry  ;  and  tliua«  of  Talodn'  luv 
EouiiiuMfortbeirjikiUin  making  oitrt-*.  8ouiutwitnty  or  thirty  of  tlteui 
come  iu  January  from  S^iuj^liad  in  Oujardl  to  Nunipur  nnd  Talodn, 
tad  stay  till  May  uuikini;  carto.  A  cariwntcr's  daily  wa}(«  varies 
fnim  lH.to2ii.  (nDJi/id 8 -  Itti.  I)  iKx^^rding  toHkilL  Villiigi.- <;arp<>Dt«r8 
arc  nsiittlly  paid  iu  j^rain  for  roakiug  and  moiidin^  tiold  (ooIk,  nod  in 
«isli  f'T  hmim-  carjH'iitry.  Thuy  c»t  atiitiiiJ  food  and  havp  no  rule 
a^iuat  tlio  nue  of  iDlnxtcatiii^  driukti.  Liko  bi;{b  ciule  Hindus 
tlicy  wi.'cvr  a  iN^nt,  waistcoat,  waistcloth,  and  ttirlmn,  folded  uitliitr 
after  ihu  Bi-Abinun  ur  tbu  PmliLu  f;uilii'>n«  'liny  ham  thotrdnad-a 
Widows  may  marry,  but  it  they  marry,  tbey  are  Qot  he(d  in  much 
roispct.'t.  Thoy  have  aeupantto  ca^to  oi^^'auiealioD  with  local  chiefs 
or  heads  railed  chuatlhrijt.  'I'hiry  are  a  rttiia);;  class  earcfu)  tv  teai-h 
th(.*ir  children.  Pnncbdl  SutiLra,  ao  called  &oni  their  acqunintuiii^ 
wilh  thi!  (ivMsrls  <>f  working  in  wood, gold,  iron,  hrass.and  Blone.  am 
bolieved  to  have  comti  fnim  Madnis  and  sre  Maid  to  be  sr^llix]  in  liim(* 
num)>urs  iu  Poona  and  Abuiednagar,  With  a  strength  of  283  souls, 
they  are  found  almoKt  ihroughoot  the  di«trioL,  <,>»pcciMlly  iaCbopda, 
Jininer,  and  Fscbora.  If  tha  first  husband  agrees  to  sorarate  from 
them,  their  womon  ara  allowed  to  form  a  neoond  inarna^.  Tlu^y 
neitlier  eat  unr  marry  willi  Khttnde^h  8ulllr». 

LouAvs,  blat^ksmtthn,  f.mnd  all  nver  the  dbtrict,  and  with  a 
good  bjord  uamv  in  Dbiilu  and  Ithusdval  wb«re  tfaoy  hjiro  learn«>d 
iu  local  fuivl  aud  railway  workmbope,  am  Huid  to  bu  of  twelio  and 
a  half  divisions  of  which  only  four  aud  a  half,  Oujar^ti,  Mai'^tbi, 
Piini'hiit,  Ahir,  and  Ghia^i'  an-  knowH  in  Khiiodcsh.  The  last,  thn 
bidf-caHlcH  found  at  NaKirnbad  near  Jal)i(aon,  are  a  poor  class  who 
,Ki"ind  knives,  clnan  sw-trd  lila<les,  and  mako  jiworil*hfatbs.  The  Ahir 
lli'iliiim  aru  a  dtiflinrl.  chuti,  the  Kiime  as  the  Ahir  Siitars  and 
icaltivat^irs.  The  three  chief  divisions  differ  liltJo  from  web  nthii*. 
Strong,  dark,  and  with  rognlar  fi-siturun,  they  are  hardworking, 
thriftless,  aud  quarrel  some.  They  make  and  repair  tho  iron  work  of 
ploughs  and  carts.  In  foimer  times,  at  book -swinging  festirals,  the 
iLobAr  Worked  thw  iron  hook  into  tho  unuJlcx  oTlhe  di-rolttu'a  Inok. 
|They  speak  Maratlii  and  dres.-i  likis  low  catte  Hindus.  Tbey  worship 
Hhir  and  Khaodoba.  'I'beir  hertidilary  ^ijiirihial  guide,  jfuni, 
Piiucbfildharni  who  bul'jugs  to  thiiir  own  caste,  settles  all  social 
fdiaputos.  He  wanders  among  his  people  risitiug  thi.i  samp  localities 
iat  long  inCcr\-als.  They  are  not  wcll-to-il'i,  their  eaminjrs  suHicii^ 
Ifor  their  daily  wautu  only,  Gd.  to  In.  (4-3  aniio*)  a  day.  Tboy  neither 
laend  their  children  to  ecLool  nor  take  to  now  puntuila. 

'     Snixi  '  "^,  found  in  all  large  villages,  belong  to  four  classes, 

Ahirs,  .'^'  .  -lainH,  and  Pardeshi  Brdlimaus.     Ahir  Shimpis  are 

found  at  Jalgaou,   Erando),  Amaluor,  Chtiittgaon,  Dhulia,  Sb^ihiida 

■  The  QbiaidU,  M>-i  CapUin  lli'jvcj  thr  AnuiuitUsn«falSupeKDtenJe»taf  Tliui 
'ftiA  Dtoottjr,  (onictunc*  rob  b  tlie  Koalun.  tmt  arc  aol  holiitcnl  crinaiaaU,  Uiuaiih 
'■oBia  uv  oilea  to  tbe  nvnt  of  gu^  roUMn,  wbunr  ()>rui  tbey  imkc  and  ehnrpvii  A 
iMuUable  iDBtaiKT  ol  this  q«curr«<l  in  NortntKU  IM^  at  Sdcalkot  in  KalAJgi.  Boiil 
iputk*  S«l.  I.  87. 

a  411-10 




[Bomba;  OaxettMr. 



.  SKmpU, 



tiud  Cliopda.  Ntodovs  are  Devwmor!)  from  tbe  Deccan,  where, 
PooBu  umLAtimednagar,  they,  are  setlled  in  lai^  uumbora.  Uot 
thcAc  Shimpi  classes  talk  KhuRilpsbi  and  Mnrithi,  and  use  Set 
and  liquor.  They  aro  quiet  nnd  wolMiiiharRd,  but  not  verr  skilfti 
Their  wonion  iielp  in  tb«  work.  Some  are  Shaivs  and  olhoJ 
Vaishnavo,  and  a  few  have  lately  joined  the  SrimiiUrdyan 
Kabirpanthi  aewts.  Thev  biive  a  hereditary  high  priest  who  lii 
at  Miilher  in  BigXin.  Tbmr  marriage  expenses  vary  from  £1  to  " 
(Ri(.  111. Its.  300).  Th«y  altow  widow  niarriajC^.  Cattle  dispnt«a  are 
settled  by  a  <?oancil,  poHek,  at  a  maas  raeetinp;  and  excomnmnifjif cd 
poi-noD.3  are  fined  and  adntitbcd  after  pwrifying  tliemselves.     The 

Iirocftcds  of  ihetft  fines  a^e  osed  tor  caste  purposea,  Jain  Shimpin, 
nund  in  S4vda,  Jalgaon,  Dharangaon,  and  Na/iirabad,  nm  a  small 
cwmmnnity  who  have  other  meniberft  in  Berir.  Like  BrShmanH, 
wheo  dining  they  wear  the  sacred  waiHtcloth,  sotu,  Pardt-^hi 
BrdhmaQ  Shimpis  are  newcomers  from  Upper  India.  All  tho 
foor  Shimpi  eLmiiios  are  welUlo-do  and  Rare  money,  their  women 
aod  children  helping  them  in  their  work,  lliey  send  their  boys 
to  school,  and  some  arc  in  GoTemment  employ  as  clerks  and  Jtchool- 

KjIhArr,  coppersmiths,  found  all  over  the  dieitriot,  bare  no 
anb-divisioas  bnt  numerous  faimilies,  liuls,  snch  aa  Dore,  Akal,  and 
Korapkar.  Tboy  veil  braas  and  copper  |)ot«  and  dishes,  and  St 
on  women's  arms  glass  bracelefa  prepared  by  Maniitre.  Their 
marriages  resemble  Rriihninn  miirriHgcH.  They  bom  their  dead  aud 
eat  at  tlie  hands  of  IWbmanit  only.  They  are  a  well-to-do 
community,  those  of  Songir  having  a  specialty  good  local  name. 
KrumiAKif,  poLterK,  found  nil  over  the  district,  are  divided  into 
Mar&this,  Paindeshiii,  and  GorekumbhArs.  Tht-y  do  not  intonnarry 
or  eat  together.  *Dark  in  colour  with  regular  fcaturca,  they  are 
hiirdworking,  tbrifty,  orderly,  hospitable,  and  fairly  honest. 
They  make  tiles,  bricks,  and  earthen  p()|.s,  and  also  figures  of  men 
and  unimitls.  In  t^mio  villages  the  potter  is  one  of  the  village 
eetabliahmcnt  furnishing  rillagcrK  with  earthen  pots  on  easy  temiK, 
and  waiting  on  slmngera  to  supply  them  with  water  and  pots. 
Though  tlwir  appliances  are  most  simple,  they  are  generally  very 
espert,  making  many  seat  and  partially  ornameuti'd  articles.  Thoy 
worship  Mrilmti,  Mahiidov,  and  the  goddess  liakithmi.  As  a  class 
they  are  not  well-to^do,  and  none  of  their  children  go  to  school. 

■  ,I>iuovX}E6,  or  saddlers,  also  called  .Tingars  or  KharAdis,  though 
dealing  in  leather,  are  reckoned  superior  to  ChilmbhAra  and  are  not 
considered  one  of  the  impure  ca«te-s.  They  are  found  all  over  the 
district  chiefly  at  Dbulia,  Nasii-abad,  Knuidol,  and  P&rola.  Thoy 
are  a  iwor  cIhak,  of  wandering  habits,  fi-equenting  fairs.  ITiey  eat 
si  the  hands  of  Knnbia,  proiMro  wedding  nc«d>dresses,  eew  eaddlo 
cloth«,  bind  Ixmks,  and  colour  bed  posts  and  etioks  with  wax. 
LiAKttiiBAB,  found  in  the  larger  villages,  are  a  poor  claaa,  prepariag 
wax  bracelets,  and  colouring  glasa.  flAimnis,  stone  masons,  are 
found  in  largo  villages  and  receive  a  daily  wage  of  from  9tl. 
to  la.  6d.  (6  - 12  annas).  They  are  poor  though  hardworking. 
KAcHBis,  gardeners,  make  nosegays  and  Qowcr  garlands  with  mncb 





dan  lud  ta«te,     PAtiurvatr,  aIodc  dr«8iten,  fuunJ  iu  soorlj'  every 
ftn   itf    KliAnilmh,  Ki-e   divided  iuto^S^lkura  aod  Piub\rii.     (^ark, 
tb,  uid  titT<jiw>  tti«y  are  geDerally   poor  and  du  not  eeud  Uieir 
Co  BcbooT  or  laku   ki  now   purguiU).     OtAris,  tukiug  their 
inim  tliu  Uorltthi  verb  alnr  to  pour  or  amelt,  n»ke  molt«n 
I  g(  Hindu  ^mI>.     LoNi^Kts  arc  cement  innkura  mod  lubounm ; 
BiuiAks   art*    ImclfliiyerM    and    niuit    wall     builders,    portly 
iiliu&na  partly    iliniiua.     Tliev    are   well-to-do   ktM<ping   rnals 
to   carry  walvr  fur  bnildin^  purpuisus  and   (or   making 

^Vannfacturera  iududo  seven  divliioux:  Telis  20,389:  SAltB 
s  Sa^.'i;  Khalria  924;  GadriB  61!;  I'atvekaiB  Uj 
-.Jl,au>lal  Nlrvngth  of  37^SM)  woU or  S^7  per  wot 
ofUu!  nbote  popnlatiuu.  'I'lieite  »eveu  diviaiouii  nuty  be  armugod 
Btu  fonr  rliiwws.  Od  munufacturcre,  Telis;  thread  and  cloth 
Dunafadureni,  S&Uit,  Khalri.-j,  Koshtis,  and  Patvekars;  dyers, 
and  wool  w«iver«,  UadrLn.  Telis  are  ttaid  (y  t>o  of 
five  and  a  haH  classes,  or  distinct  aub-divisions,  of  whom  four, 
ilki,  Kftlhud,  Pitr'k-Hlii,  nnd  GujnrAti,  are  found  in  KhAndusli. 
first,  the  must  nuuierouii,  found  all  over  KhAudeiih,  ari>  tiivtd  li> 
have  como  from  the  south  of  N^ik.  They  attach  no  eti^rina  to 
wwiow  marriage,  and  tlieir  marriage  ceremonies  nro  like  tlaiHe  ot 
Euubix.  'I'lie  Qojariti  Teli  ia  found  iu  the  weat,  and  (he  fardestu 
b  the  ca«l  of  tho  district.  They  are  generally  strongly  mode  and 
fair  wilh  rv^iliir  fctiturvs.  They  preta  sesamum,  m,  seeil  and 
ouroauuts,  and  Bometiioea  hemp,  an^tdi,  weeds,  selling  the  oil 
cakes.  Exo-pt  the  very  poor  who  bury,  the  Telis  bum  their 
dead.  l*h<<y  liavu  a  iK-Hthnan,  not  hereditary,  called  ehaudkri.  They 
■re  generally  in  good  couditiou,  but  do  not  ^end  their  children 
to  acnuol  or  take  to  new  pursuita.  SXuts,  weavers,  iirw  »aid  to  be 
of  twidre  and  a  biilf  cWsea  of  which  six  are  represented  in 
Eb^ndesb  -,  Sakun  SfLli  or  HAklun,  8nt  SdlJ,  Ban^^ad  Sali,  I'ikli 
8ali,  Ahir  SAIi,  and  Gujarati  Silli.  Of  tbeae  tJie  Gntanlti,  8ut,,a'iul 
BakuD  a&Vt*  aru  fonnd  at  Jal^on  ;  Ahir  Stiix  at  Faupiir,  B&nnud, 
Parola,'  aud  most  larxe  towii»  ;  und  Tikli  S&lis  at  H&vda  and 
PkTola.  The  Sakan  Silia  are  said  to  have  coma  from  faithan  umI 
of  Ahnivd:titg»r,  and  the  Tikli  division  is  aatd  to  lake  its  uuine  front 
tho  tikiiu  ttr  spangles  worn  by  tlioir  women  as  brow  ornaments. 
The  Baogad  S&lis  are  said  to  be  a  low  race,  and  from  tlwir  pmctioo 
of  keeping  concubines  are  known  aB.Laand)valliit.  Of  the  differijDt* 
Bab-divUiuna  (ho  Sitkun,  Stit,  luid  Ahir  S&lia  eat  together. 
Generally  fair  and  well  made,  thoy  are  hardworking,  quiet,  and 
mdepenucnt.  Thcydeal  inclothaawolIiMwcavuit.'  Tliey eat aheef^ 
fjToau,  and  fowls,  uud  drink  li<jiior.  They  dreus  like  HarMhis,  and 
worship  Kbaudoba,  Uhavilui,  and  other  Uindo  gods.  Ost«  dispat«s 
are  HeUled  at  meetiogs  of  the  adolt  male  membcra.    They  are  ia 

Chapter  III. 


I  Pirol*  baa  u)nth»r  Inlwior  «1m«  oI  SAGi  known  m  diok  Sili*. 
Lik*S41uH»l  Kmlitu.  Jnuii  wMvn  gowM,  JuyiUt.  and  rabca,  «««i».     TM  >^- 
n«M  the  leoo),  Willi*  Oik   vlulara  fn^n   th«  cnmb,  /Aani,  noAe  in  Mia  roeo- 
K,  wtu<ti  Ok  StilU  uiil  Koditis  us  in  upuatinj;  tlu:  Uil«*d  while  weanog. 




I^Vt^r  III. 



t     Patrttar 



iniddlinfiicirnim^tanc^RaRd  gniKfrully  son<)  tlwir  hoys  to  bcIiooI. 
KakiMkid,  mid  lo  bo  of  twelve  and  a  half  caste?,  sii  an:  w<01  kt)i>wi_ 
IJInlv.ijir,  Nir.ili!,  NumOK),  Nlimdpv,  Uujaiiit  i.  itnd  Ahir.     Oi  ihi-se  the 
BhAVMiii-H  HIV  iilruo«t  tke  only  Rniigiiri»  in  Kliiiuittttb,  and  ai'f  Uividtsl     ' 
into  serersl  ciaasea  aa  Khaooi-e,  Bhs^at,  and   Blinroti.     Tlioy  «re 
mid   to   tmre   oome   from    Uujarfit,  »n<t  arv  niinwroiiK  »l  Sivda, 
Jalgnou,  F^kiMwr,  wad  Paix>bi.     lliey  nrp()are  ctklours,  and  piiat  and 
dye  c!o1h.     They  havo  a  ooimdl,  p'tnei,  to  iwttio  oastt-  dinpult^w,  imd 
BO  uK-i'livo  hf^dmun  called  rh'imlhri.     They  allow  widixvii  lo  mairy, 
aud  nre  on  the  whole  a  CAet«,  able  to  nmd  and  write  ao^H 
Bonding  thvir  boys   to   sclxxil.      tiAi>Ria,   wool  weavers,  fc>uud  sH 
^lialiH^tai'u,  I'alonda,  andt^ongir,  are  Esirly  well-to-do.  Patvkkars,' 
silk   woi-Uvra,   d>?   not   fonn  a  aoparate  casl«.      Th«    iiiilusti-y    i^i 
practiced  liy  Kunhist  nnd  MimiUth^iw  at  Jalgoon,  and  by  two  familia^^ 
of  PardeBhia  at  Dlinlia  aud  Chopda,     'I'he  I'anleBhifl  who  hitv^^ 
pomo  from  Lnckiiuw,  within  tbo  Inst  Ion  or  twonty  yww*,  am  of  the 
UobuDKhi  caAto.     Koshtis  am  said  lo  }»  of  iwuivu  and  a  half  cast 
eevea  of  which,  Iliul^ar,  Devao^,  Khato  Devaog,  L&d,  Mitnlthl 
Hailptiri,  and  N'irliai,  a.rv  fotind  in  KhAinlvsb,     B4>:«idc)i  vilk  thi-cmT 
for   DockWeij  aud   jewelry,  sut<l   hot^e  and  palauquin  trappings, 
th«y  niaku  silk   cloth  and  ivonioD'§   robes,  mdi'tf  like  the  S&lis.     By 
raligtoii  Ihu  tirst  two  »itb-dirisioos  uro   Lingiiyuts,  thu  third  wea 
tho  sacrtid  thread,  aud  th«  remaining  fotu-  are  low  vhutaes.     Dalit 
tbti  Li&g^yat  Vanis,  th«   Lin^yat   Koehtia  do  tu>l  alwayit  opeu^ 
wear    thu   tiiuj  ;    many    of    ibiMii    hidd   it  in  lliuir     turhaua 
waJ»tboltB  or  keep  it  in  their  bouseti.     A  small  stone,   gcniTitllj 
from  iJio  Nnrbudit,  this  liit^  i»  proxonli'd  by  (heir  priests  U>  Lhtt_ 
women  »»  well  as  to  i\w  men  with  c^rcinoniea  imicb  like  those 
Karred  thread  inrestitures.    These  /tjij*  are  carefully  kept,  and  o| 
marriaf^  occasions  ttro  worshipped  aide  by  side.     At  thwir  marriage^ 
though  tbo  Ko«htis  havo  (he  knot  and  hand-join ing^,  thoy  liave  no 
tho  wa Ik inflf. round,  ehavrt  bfuicri,  ceremonies.   Tliw  ufTuHatin^f  prioa' 
artabotl)  JangiiinH*  and  RrAhniaus.     The   Brilhuiau  prescriVM  tl 
marring  linio,  claps  his  liauda  at  sunset  when  miu-ria^  oFremoniG 
aj-e  gtiuerally  pi^rfnruiird,  and  Iho  Jangam  ties   ihe   knot  and  joi(, 
tbo  hands  of  the   brido  and  bridegroom.     Tho  paiir  do  nut  »it  Oui_ 
raised  pl»tfi>nn  as  among  o4her  castes,  but  inside  a  s<)iiarL<  whose 
comers  It  re  marked  byniud  bulls.   I'hey  bavenoocreuionial  mourning 
fur  tho  doad,  and  their  women  are  not  conflidered  unclean   during 
^Ibeir  <-ourKU».     Widows  aro  allowed  to  marry  with  all  the  honours 
of  ft  regular  marriage.     When  t,hey  »i^  not  bogging  their  privi^it^ 
Jauganis  work  in  &ilk.     The  Hadgar  aub-diviaiou  has  a  wandering 
priest,  who  livi^i  at  Piuidhitrpur. 

Bards  ^'j.l  Actora  inclnda  two  classes,  Qttrovs  800-i,  and  Bhats 
or    Thakurs   WD  I,    a   total    of  7065    soals,   or  0-68  per  t^ont 
Otmttt.  the  whole  populalieu,     Guuvs,  worshippers  of  Shiv,  ai'e  fo 

'  Pattclun.  lilk  (Rni:e  aail  ImscI  iiafcan,  tak«  tWr  naae  ti«m  fntenie  U  tti 
Hlk  thiKMl  ou  virc. 

'ThowJanicuiii,  or  UiigAjr*!  \v;x»r'i  Mow  raMll  divU  tiiin>t>elc,  «&ai«tJb,Mi4  u* 
fonad  in  tJig  i-uutral  |<Mt«  of  Uk  dulml. 





or  twp  in  every  birge   Tili«fre.      Sutllwl,  aocurding   to  in>ma 

kiUQts,  for  a«ven  ^neratiouH,  Iheg  nreanid  Ur  bave.  Lhrtre.  biiI»- 

'  IDS,  Aliir,  ORkshni  or  tjttniv,  and  Varddv.    Tliey  bold  g^^'^'^i 

iiur,   in   ifrtaio    viHagm;  Hll^mii  to  »iid   dwiii  tlio  U'lnplvs  of 

inmiiQ,  R^ni,  nnd  Maluidev ;  and  have  an  hereditary  ri^ht  to  (he 

sringn,  xiK-h   im  bvtcl  leaf  and  »nt9,  ooomnnt^,  ntitl  t;r»in,  made 

jMabii'ltir'a  tciuploH.  -  Jt  Ik  their  Lii<(iiifMit  to  collect  and  distribute 

_l|^e  ninrmelotf,  l/il,   leaves  lo   Cho  chief  hiiniliei)  of  the  villas, 

iwvivinff  iTi'stmls  of  ^raiii  in    niturn.     Thvy  aW  uttund    HrAhmiin, 

Ruiiiii,  and  Vdiii  wwltiiiigs,  and  piay  the  Bute,  tattai.    Tiny  blow 

the  tcmplo  cotioh  and  horn,  some  of  thorn  with  mncb  skill.     They 

-'■■■  "   fXKtr  illileniio  irlaoit  with  a  onuno'ilf  punch,  for  HeltHn^  cu«Ut 

<e8.      UsAth' uf  thmt  Dub'diviKinus,  Pardeslii,  Murdtlut,  and 

I,  are  found  in  nearly  every  lar^  Tillagt]>.     A  fine  intelligent 

/I'll   tiindti  and  ^>o<]-li>oktni;,  llivy  iwivy  u  miniik'  kuowK'dgu 

■  jf  th«ir  bcnilitiiry  patrons.     Tht^y  repeat  poetry 

1  future  and  are  ready  improvUors,    lliey  have 

ilud  ImiiMS  iit  ci'rtiiin  villiip'S.  Of  l«l«,  from  tli«  doclinin(F 
4-'  iif  ibt^ir  pnifcuifiou,  many  ItMtx  havo  taken  to  labour  and 
io.  Thoir  niartia;^  are  like  those  of  Kunbia.  They  bum  their 
Icnd,  \mi  liury  llieir  infanta.  Old  Bhiila  aru  lookud  npon  with 
rvvtireui.-e  und  appeiil^d  Ui  iu  atnlv  diHpntoK.  Ilioy  bare  no  bereditai^ 
li'  '  ':i>4s  thoy  are  inclined  to  send  thoir  boys  to  w:booL 

t '  .  ilo"  known  as  Tluikura,  nro  M-Ulud  inhabitJkn(«  of 

iiti  tioh)  grHUt»,  nifatui.    'l*hoy  arc  beggara,  labourers, 
-  eiiltivators. 



Personal    Sorvante   inclodo  two    dasaes,  barb»r8,    NB*lvEa, 

_',  Hud  wiislit'i'inuii.   Ilh'ildiiN,  ■^Vi'>,  a  tolal  of  20,617  ttouitt  or 

_i>_Tcent  of  ibf  wbolo  p^'pulation.     Of  thj  twelve  nnd   a  half 

Nmavi  ^idiHlivisionB,  four  ai-o   found  in   Kbilndevh,  Tityd««,  Ahirx, 

DitknIititM,  and  Oajars.     The  lirat  two,  found  at  iS&vda  and  almoHt  all 

i>ver  ibc  district,  Iiavc  aach  Hurnamos  aa  Ingnle  and   Milnbar.     The 

Taydn  Nbitvj  plays  ao   mnsical  instriimcnt,  but  holds  tho  torch  at 

wi-ddinfffl,  gels   half  of  the  foes   {wid  to  HrtlhninriM,  and  on  the  dav 

on  which  tiirrm-nV  is  api>!itrd,  ivceives  J-i,  (i  njirii)  from   the  ffirl  8 

[alfavr.    The  Abir  Nbdvi  never  carries  a  torch.     He  nlayi'  iho   llute, 

■mnni,  atnl  the  dram,  sfiniiff.     As  village  uurgciMis   lliey    b!<wd   and 

apply  levelled,  and   their  women  act  ua  uidwives,  and  at  marriages 

lH>y  bold  iimbrf-llaa  over  the  bride  and  bridegroom.  Thoir  niarriaeo 

-re  like  those  of  Knnhis.     Except  thv  poor  and  iufiuitMjr|i« 

;.  they  bum  their  dimd.     Afl  a   i-buia  Nbivis  are  food  of 

it  .u:.i  (.r^wiiip.     Dn'<!tnii«,  waslit-rmen,  inclndo  fivo  sub-divisions, 

udelas,  Mfii'vfl<iis,  MunUluU,  I'srdpshi«,  and  Tailuiigit),  who  neither 

nt  with  one  another  nor  intwrmiirry.  Must  of  lliem  livo  in  tliatohcd 

biw,  only  a  fow  having  gooti  dwellings.     Tbey  eat  millet  bread, 

purry,  cords,   vegetables,  fish,  and  mntton.     "Iho  vilUgo  Dhobhi, 

-  '■  mlly  a  MarAiKaand  known  locally  im  Parit,  washes  for  Kunbia, 

-,  and   Brdhmans.    Mhiira*  clothes  are  guiicrally  washed  by 

Chapter  11^ 




>  Ttwn  an  tiao  ttam  MualaiAn  Bliita. 

IBomtej  Gaiett 

hapttf  IIL 








Tailang!  Dliobhi*.  Besidos  by  wwihing,  Ohobbis  somutinuni  «ani 
living  by  gelling  graoti  or  b^  labour.  Tlimr  bvouriuj  goda 
Khiindoba,  Bkiuix>l»,  Bbaviini,  and  st-rpunU,  and  thuy  also  wonbi, 
their  anoeaton.  Tluty  oitlier  bary  or  burn  their  dead  uud  bavo  no 
headmaii.  Tbeir  wives  belp  litem  in  tlieir  work.  As  a  claaa  tbey 
are  pour,  nuDu  of  thum  rich  and  uio»t  of  tbeoi  in  dobt.  Xbey  do 
not  send  tbetr  cliildreu  u>  Kvluwl 

Shepherds  and  Herdsmen  include  two  claases,  wiib  a 
atrtayih  i<f  13,477  soulo  or  189  per  t-oiil  of  tto  wholv  Hindu 
population.  Of  these  t7,7UH  wore  Dhanffars  and  1769  (Jarlis. 
Undor  thv  gonuml  tcnn  DiiAtiaAit,  or  Knephenl,  come  three 
Aasses,  Uhangare  [>roper,*Khil&ri!i,  and  TliililriK.  Dliaogan  proper 
generally  earn  their  living  by  weaving  blanketti.  ITibt  hi»vo 
tievcu  Bub-divtDiuus,  Ahir  KKkU.'kar,  Hhegar,  Marsha,  HoIkar> 
Halkar,  Qhogattuuya,  ami  Sholotya.  Of  t\n-fv  tho  Aliir  Dliongan, 
found  at  Naairabaa,  Krandol,  Cbilndsar.  Jluilod,  Cbopda,  Piit.'ii(im, 
Adjivnd,  Yitval,  SAvdu,  Bumiir,  and  Bbadgaon,  are  said  to  liavo 
come  from  Chitod  in  llpiwr  Indiu.  Tlwir  women  wear  tbo  Kuubi 
robe^  )Kidi.  Some  are  cult)\'ators  while  others  deal  iu  .Hhe«-p  aiut 
go«t«.  Thoy  worship  a  god  named  Cb&njfyAp^bya,  call  Dr&umana 
to  officiate  at  tbeir  inarriageit,  and  allow  widow  marriage.  They  eM 
with  Ualkar  Dbangai-s.  TiiitARis  or  KaiuiBiR,'  prufcSHiouul gnuiiers* 
t)i>ll  woo],  ehcep,  and  guntH,  and  drive  a  small  trade  iu  milk. 
They  xpread  all  over  the  district  duriug  the  fuir  Ki-imon,  jnuiMintf 
e«u»t  during  tlm  cold  wrathcr,  making  for  the  Siitpud^  in  tha 
hot  months,  and  retumiug  to  the  west,  to  Dhiiltii  aiid  Pinijmlnur, 
for  the  rains.  Grazing  dl  over  the  country  in  the  fjur  weather,^ 
they  are  often  paid  by  cultivators,  for  the  sake  of  the  manure,  t^H 
pen  their  flocks  iu  their  fields.  At  the  same  time  disputes  ofte^' 
arise  for  damage  dbne  by  their  Socks  to  the  late,  ralii,  cropx. 
Gavlis,  of  two  chief  divi»iii»^,  ling&yat  and  Muntthn,  found  heii) 
and  there  throughout  the  coUectorate,  are  moat  uunierouH  iu  Dhulia 
an*  Cho|>da,  They  aro  Um  milk  and  butter  sellore  of  the  district, 
keeping  large  herds  of  bufyaloesund  cit-wn.  Among  Lingityat  tiavlia 
marriages  are  gcnemlly  performed  by  the  Jangam,  but  iu  bis  absence 
a  Brahman  can  ofltciale.  A  nwund  is  raised  iu  the  centre  of  the 
wedding  shed,  imindae,  and  a  carpet  is  spread  over  it.  Two  bamboo 
baskets  an;  placed  in  front  of  the  mound,  and  the  bridal  pair  stand 
each  in  one  of  these  basketo  while  tho  officiating  JangHui  holds  up 
ihe^marriai^  curtain,  atilarpat,  and  jwrtunii-t  the  ceremony.  Tbo 
{Kiir  lire  then  led  to  and  seated  on  the  mound,  which  hss  been 
previously  surrounded  with  a  line  of  rice  or  wheat.  ITicy  worship 
MahAdev  and  allow  widow  marriage.  I'he  caet«  observanceH 
MariUha  Gavlis  are  much  like  those  of  Kunbis.  I'he  Gavlia  ai' 
generally  speaking,  we!l-to<do,  their  women  bt  and  buxom.  Ahibb? 
following  the  Bame  profession  as  GavUs,  arc  said  to  be  of  seven 


'  TkiUri,  fr««n  tkiUr  a  flock.  moMis  itridly  hlwcp  i^d  ge«t-h«rd«,  and  Khi 
front  Uiilit  s  dtore,  muna  «tri«tlj  ucat-bci^  la  practice  Ui«  word*  m«  i 




xub-dhndons  of  which  fire  are  known  in  Kbintlrab,    GriUlMUi&i, 
Bhirviilbij-a,  Uhidjtmvftr,  Uhoni,  anii.  G  ujftr.  Thoy  woreHip  Knabn&. 

Fishera  iodnde  two  claBOM,  Koltn  39,207,  and  Bboui  or  KaluLrs 
total  Btrcngth  of  4^,250  souU  or  &'l)6  per  c«iit  of  tfau 
le  Hindu  populaiion.  Koi-is,  thouj^h  fuond  near  Dth«r  rivont, 
hsve  their  head-gnarterB  on  the  1'ixtti  bank*.  They  arc  of  three 
dasses.  Ahir  Rolis,  Kolis  proper,  and  Nehoru  Kolis.  A  dark, 
Mrrmg,  well  made,  and  robniit  ruro,  th<i|^  eat  flesh  aad  drink  liquor. 
Tbey  work  all  the  fi'rri«a  alon^  the  l^pti,  ^d  during  the  rains, 
often  rwk  their  Uvo«  is  rDcovoring  timber  from  the  river  when  ia 
ficwd.  They  also,  with  much  nkilt,  gvfiw  melons  in  the  beda  qf 
rirera,  and,  an  villngo  labourers,  are  found  in  nearly  evvry  targe 
Tillage  in  tlie  ditttriot.  Exc«pt  mmo  very  prnKport>u$  villiige  hi-ad- 
Eum  in  Chopda,  the  Kolis  are  poor  and  tinthnfiy,  and  seem  unfit 
tor  steady  hard  work.  Tbey  worship  Khitndobn,  Bhairoba,  and 
goddess  ObATiiQi.  KahAiui  or  Bboib,  found  in  Mmner, 
.rmngaon,  Krandol,  P&rota,  Amalner,  Sdvda,  and  Fainpur,  are 
chief  fiihi-rmt-u  of  the  district.  They  un<;<l  formerly  to  parry 
palanquiuK  and  litterit,  but  their  preaeut  occnpation  Ls,  beaiden  fitihing, 
(nnmfing  Rrain,  growing  melons,  and  carrying  grain  on  thoir 
ili>uke,%-s.  Tbey  rank  lower  than  Ki;lis,  and  c«t  ile«u  and  &sh  and 
drink  liquor.     Tbey  arc  ignorant  but  tiardworking. 

lAbourora  and  HiacoUanooiis  Workers  include  twenty 

claaaers,  with  u  lotul  ^tn^ngth  of  .M,002  souIr  or  &'S4per  cent  of  the 
*holff  Hindu  population.  Of  these  26,6+2  were  Rajput*!  9982 
P&rdoahia:  168  Goraidbans ;  1674  TirmJtlix;  20  Shikiri>t;  6352 
Rivch&»i7\  Kanj/iriN  ;  <>:)  KAinithiit ;  »  Golh^  ;  21  Kahats  ;  262 
P.-ndbiri8;5  Jalkaris;  1208  KhAtik8;S028  BUris  ;  158Sorti»;fil6 
Ehang«Lr«l  177  BhirslM;  2»1  H&nliU;  US  lOtambards;  and  181 
Dingat«.  R*jppts,  locally  known  aft  Deccani  Pardofihis,  though  from 
■narryinff  with  Deccan  women  they  aro  looked  down  on  by  tho 
Bajputs  of  Uppi-r  India,  have  not  entirely  lost  their  military  spirit 
and  bearing.  Of  three  diTisioas,  Marittha  or  RAno,  Khaped^s,  and 
I*ardeahi,  they  are  both  luboiircr*  and  coltivatorn,'  and  nerro  as 
sepoyn.  Among  MarAtlia  Kajpurs  are  many  poliiio  pti tils, especially 
in  the  .Iiimuer  nnb-di virion  and  alon;;  the  base  of  the  Sitmilis. 
Pitrde^bi  and  Maritha  Rajputs  will  not  oat  at  each  other's  bands, 
bntif  a  Pardeshi  Brithman  pit^purcs  the  meal,  they  wUl  eat  together, 
GovARDRAN  i*  perhaps  another  name  for  Garli.  SbixAbi«  aro 
those  who  make  hunting  their  profession.  BAvoHi!),  found  in4he 
weat  on  the  Giijanit  frontier,  are  a  labouring  and  cultivating  class. 
KAN/AitiR,  makers  of  hairropcs,  are  labonrera  and  beggars.  EA^kXthis, 
inimigrantfi  from  Telang,  the  modem  KarDit«k,  tal>»ur  in  the  fields 
and  aa  bonse-btiildvrH.  GoLnAi<  and  Kahatb  areordinary  labonrers. 
PbkrRaeis,  found  chiefly  about  Dhulia,  bring  grass  and  wood  (or 
Bale,  and  prepare  manure.     BAitis  aro  bold  leaf  Kellers.*  _^  _ 

Onsettled  Tribes  woro  five  in  number,  Bhils  126,701,  VanjAris 
86,G72,    Piidhis    4606,     Konkaoia  8201,   and    K&nad<U    818,  a 




'  For  [iirtb«ir  puiicuJut  Mt  p^  70- 

*  See  kbovc,  p.  89: 

IBomlMf  duett 

3upur  III. 



*  AUU, 



birenglli  of  170,888  souls  or  18-53  per  omit  ot  the  whole  populatio 

BiwLa.'  with  in  1872  »□  ostimsted  sii^ugtli  of  VZO,it'Hi  souUi 
on:  Uin  cliinf  uf  the  large  K'^mp  of  tribes  that  at  quo  titiiu  hel 
most  of  tlio  countT^  now  (listi'ibuted  tiinons  tba  provinccitof  MewAr,* 
M&lwa,  Kbindfitli,  and  (jiijariH.*  Ousleu  !>)■  later  Invadora  frofii 
the  ncbti^t  of  their  oli  po^M^saious,  the  UbtU,  in  couaidomble 
Btreuglb,  fttill  hold  the  ivildvr  and  more  outlying  |wrta  of  Ibt^^o 

Bwidea  iu  Central  tndin,  R»ji>ut4na,  Gnjarttt,  and  Khiindesh, 
Bliila   are   found    tiorLbwanU   in    Ajtuir  and    Jesalinir,*  iind     in 
Baroilley  and  Binda    ia.the   North- West   ProviucBx.*    They   d. 
iTot  paaa  eaat  into  tbo  Pond  country,  those  aeaiLAsixgad  in 


■  Tb*  voni  Ittiil  t«  UliwoJ  l«  onnw  Inm  th«  Dn-riJtita  MUm  a  bow  (WilionV 
AbotigiiutI  TriiMM,  3).    Tli*   Hitxln  Ivgend  ol  Uuir  oiif in  ii,  tJut  r4  tn-eni   auii* 

SiMngrnua  MskldaTaailalMiMUi  tirM»,a(iii,  a^lyaiid  vkdnua,  killed  liUfKthitr'aliulL 
or  tht«  IM  mut  builib«d  to  lli«  bill*  •»!  bMuiiw  tkn  fuundar  of  Um  UliiU.  (Mal- 
ouloi'*  CnitnJ  India,  I.  SISI.  Plohany's  (1M»  rkyllite,  tdaoail  auiiUi  of  tint  Viiidltlui 
nnn,  wvnt  probaUy  Bliii*  (Bnrtiua,  173).  Koftarly  ittiutu  dm  ot  Urn  wonl  Bkll' 
baaMan  traotdL  In  tlia  MalaUiti*!  titl  c4  tritmi  tlii*  (mm  to  b*  iiKliidiil  uii^r, 
i-uliudu,  »  gaosral  Unit  lor  wild  tribe*.  (H.  II.  WiIraii'*  Wnrkn.  VII.  I.'.H  ;  iii>.l 
Vivitti  da  St.  Uartiii,  Ouuo.  Oraoqoa.  et  I>«tai«  de  rin<l<.  £47)  rM'Uin  (iraluni 
(Boiu.Uov.SaL  .XXVI.  S(HI)*ml»rJc>bBMAlM>lai(C«nlr<>ltn'Ii>,  1  :il6  <um  I|  .Utc 
Ihat  Ika  Bkib  arv  Biantloaeii  In  the  MalUUiltM.  But  th>  word  ixhiI  in  Ihr  oriitiiul 
b  Nitklda.  and  thsro  looiiui  to  bn  no  mora  raaaoa  for  idoailymg  ih<i  Nixliibti*  widi 
tba  BliilK  iliaa  vxtb  nuay  otlicr  of  tbc  mdc  hill  racca.  In  Ikn  rniK)i  Tunlnt  uMnttuu 
la  nu-lu  (i(  VliL-  I'hUlii  Of  vtUajfm  of  tha  Bhila  (WiUu«'a  Work*.  1^'.  Hi.  I4S) ;  aiid  in  tha 
JitimilA  Bkila  an  oloMod  Willi  Uedba  aa  una  ol  tba  aaran  lowcat  Inlmt  (l.'ckbtmike'a 

*  "Am  1972  MPMia  rotnma  ahov,  mulor  Ika  head  ol  Bhila.  a  totAl  of  I  KjftS  (nvla. 
Ti>  tlioac  may  bo  odiUd,  aa  ipMrallr  Included  anwniF  Itliila.  I'ivnia  XSS,  (Liiitn 
IM,  Kotliib  223.  and  Nnhilii  D.  tf  to  Uiia  tiMi  StaOt  tdUl  ol  47.COA  aoub  ti  adilxl. 
llsivo*  tor  tliu  tnbui,  ))i|Rf>h-.'iilly  kmwa  an  KliiiidtMh  I'litK  ■  iinuwiit  ■(rcMgtli  of 
IBljSU  acnb.    Tim  niluriut  ol  llii-v>  InlMt  anr  pr<>li>My  ivrj'  Im  (nun  forrvct. 

■-nioaarliaat  UBwIuul  M"«*r  »*fi' UhiU  (l.-l'i.  HJiJMtKlo,  I.  )i**) :  Ibe  tChLla  >ra 
apaclallyMrang(iitlioaoulli..lM>tiiAiIla>><ilt<»i'BT)««riiiliunt.fMm<I<itUii.I  T?9).  In 
(lajMtti,  aMMnline  lo  l.n  J  In. ml,  tliu  lUiTIThnd  Aim.  Ub^Jlf*  Mi')  tTHnip^..^!-  Aa 
lata  !■  the  tloaa  of  1 1  ■  iiq  Aatval.  th<1BWnWMHBBniintd«bad.«ji» 

ln~nHDumliran3  i  n  torowi  aoath  bv  iha ill— ImAai  llWiil  Mt«H  t^^ii 

tbeBaJ^i^ dTiivu  I.'..'  i-.[LiiH  '>^it  III  |iJ 

Id  fiiasy  lUjt-uuiia,  Aii>i«a,  ami 

bivw  I*  liurhflt  liv   blmiiH  tatgl*  ff'l  tlw 

jay  that  ih..  \.i..J  ij^tt^rt^TinfifihiSSMff^  b^"^  nar'^ 

Uhil  pcwur.  1'bt  Ubil*  are  aliayt  kwa  tv  Imp  tha  pnaetloa  aliva.  Tho  ri^lit  of 
givinfi  tbs  blool  a  cbinxxl  l-y  •.■■riiiu  (mnliis,  aiul  tbo  Iwlii'l  tint  lli«  laaii  frain 
wbuM  vain*  it  ll-.<va  iltn  williiii  a  ymr  fail*  to  diiiili  thair  i«il  U:r  Uiu  uuifp).  The 
IfajinitN.  on  tlio  utbor  hand,  wuald  ubdly  M  tbo  practice  dio.  Thii  tliuy  a»  i»  diM 
M  tMir  tdiriukin^  from  fmiivtii  ISitl  Mood.  But  tha  triM  paai[  of  tiin  diainM  a 
t^l  ill*  ommui^  ninaiada  thcan  of  Uie  iliattiioai  of  tlinir  rula  wmI  of  Iba  aeed  «f 
aanotioa  by  tlioir  fuwoa*  anbjvota.     Ttbiml  Roy.  An.  Soc  >.  Ci9. 

*  The  ItfiS  otnaua  retama  nbow  iJifiiC  aoiil)  In  flnJirAt.  n^tl  ICT.6S4  aoMla  in 
Khinitiah and  Stoik.  Thucliialnrsngth  of  thnltliila  n  ••  I  <  Hot  Itnipatina. 

la  tomLpMl  Uio  [woiihi  oje  alaoat  cxduiivoly  llhlb>  (Iv^  .r«{|fcr,  I.  ISO) ; 

to  UlblWaathc  bulk  .J  tho  uwrfoare  Hhila  fdittu  1171  ;m  jjij-ji  kiiMv  an  20U.OU(I 
fdiuo  ill) ;  Mi.l  in  r>nMart.ur  10.000  Bhib  (ditto  231).  IIhfv irTtlividad  into  a  rarioM 
o(  cUu^  ajBin  bMoa  mf  a  Mptitcd  (uwnon  iltwout.  «th*r«  huddlod  togctlwr  by 
atupU  ootitisaily  of  liotiilMiuti.  llicy  have  a  aligbt  infoHOU  of  Uindsinn  aad  feme 
am  aottkd  oulti' 

*Inioo'a  Ajmir,  IT.  Jwar.  Rny.  A..  Sec.  US  of  1844;  Tsd"»  Wntim  India. 
31'«iiR«ipatiliutlaxctt««-i,  II.  %l^40.  ITC.  199,M4.  S&l. 

■N.  W.F.Oudttoor,  G78.IH7.     Kv  J^iils  are  abowo  in  tbo  N.  W.  P.  ISTSCcuw*. 




Kakdi  riv<jr  in  Jamuur.^  Tu  the  Hoiilli-weoi  Ibe  Bhilei  itr«  »topp<>d 
by  ihe  sturdier  race  of  Kfeik  and  Ahmednajtar  ^olihj'ho  probably 
once  beld  the  wbolu  nftbe  (Jentr^  Konbia  i^ln^ica.*  To  tbe 
vrr»(.  mil)  nortli-wen:  thv  hilly  truot't  tlint  in  ncrLli  Konkiui  and 
Kaib  (Jujitrit  ati-eich  west  U>  the  sea,  are  chiefly  peopled  bj-  early 
tnlieAaliDost  aUof  them  Bhil  rather  than  Kch  in  characfajr.'  Northof 
tbe  Tiipti,  o»r"-M!'i-  i.-r-n., ,1,^11^.  cutffni  hH>nli4)r  ot  (Jujitrit,  BhiU 
and  KdliH,  id'  re  bo  distributed  that  *%  Pfajl  flfilSIP* 

Owgmitf     FurtM^STOoito  are  found  ncattored  over  KtULi^w^r 

a I,  in  atrenffth  Jn  Thar  and  PArkar,  and  in  small  oainltera 

o.  -t  the  wboiB  of  Sind.' 

IIow  far  the  modom  Bhil  has  chanf^ed  from  tho  orif^nal  Bhil  it 
u  bani  u^  aay.  The  fact  that  many  plain  Bhib  are,  and  who'll  well 
kd,  many  bill  BhiU  become,  eqaaJ  m  aise  and  appeamnce  lo  the  local 
knrclnA*  Hindaii ;  that  in  Poona  th«>y  are  ainch  autwrior  in  8t«tnre. 
«pp(%raiit:e,  iiihI  iHtiOligvnco  to  thoBc  of  tho  SAywidA*  ;^  and  that  ab 
I'fa-ltar  they  are  tall,  slroog,  and  healthy,"  seems  to  show  that  the 
stunted,  litnpid,  and  sarage  Bliits  of  Kh^ndctib,  Gujarat,  and 
RajpntAna  have,  vitbvr  from  inarrtaso  with  older  and  lower  raoeR,  or* 
bY>m  bad  air,  exp04Di-e,  and  want  of  food,  suffered  greatly  both  in 
mind  and  body. 

A"  iilndci;h  rocorda  contain  no  mention  of  Bhils  except 

Bfl  a  .'-■    ,  '      iidl  iriW.  it  has  been  thought*  that  tJiey  w«r«  forced 

■  C<atr»l  FTovi]iOMa«Mtt«*r,  3M ;  BanlTGM«ttMr,3ie.*Ia  tli«  NurbmUdiviaioit, 
next  to  KhfariMh  mdjHic*,*  oanal  it,  then  were  (1872)  18,420  Bhil*  and  4080 
tHuUUa.  (^'oitral  lYoi-Uicca  C'Sniiia.  Hi. 
'  Buinba)-  Omnu.  18(2.  "nio  detaili  an  :  KopaivMn  2474,  K*i-iu  I2S1,  Saoguiur 
'.  Panicr  4M,  Ali>^  MS,  Shvnw-n  ^IX  Ka|l«r  &t,  JiinktiMl  76.  .inJ  Sbrigoada  S. 
Tbe  1&72  ccMnu  total  waa  193  Knb.  The  Ithil  olenMot  in  liie  PoauA  populatkui 
I  nu^LItuagVI  before  the  limn  gJ  the  MaraCliiCovcttiihMiir  Tii'lSilSat  Kopufaon 
itt  AhmMlUgai.  a*  nian;  ru  'QT»I  SvJt  were  killrd  ly  bcini;  throvn  doim  wolt*. 
Mr.  Sinclair,  CS.,  m  lad.  Ant.  1 1 1.  100.  The  mii  omiku  r»tunu  &6w  one  Bhil  in 
KaUidgi     U  thit  ia  eoiNct  h«  naa  pMhably  aa  ovtridra. 

*Tlia   1871  eeiuna   Ntnma    ihow  iitne  BliiU  in   Kiaara,  apparmitly  a   miiUko 
(CoUcvtor,   ITth  June  I8S0),  twi>   In    Ratstgiti,   pariwp*  waiiaMisg  M^gan.  and 
t««nty-fiva  ia  Galactic,  pmbablv  inimipant  laboutnu 
*A»oag  thcTC  laay-  6o  Botoil,  In  — ~i|   fftltK    Iff!   Ttflf   ■Tll*'™^  the   Tt|^knr». 

n-*  '-  ""  ■"■"■  r*  H"">    i>h^»jn^i2~iJi-j 
—  «-■»-  ffinarito.and  KMhoaUiL     <—*=-• 

B'as^^aanHrTfisnvsnBTTTMiir  is,  Gouwid  1:4, 

Umlxli  74,  KndBbivnacarasl,b>Ui  lOTrK  TheCaUli  total  wt«  l^>SO,  acdOieTlur 
ud  rirkartota)  lO.MI.  Tito  Sin>l  dntaili  were  Upper  Siod  PrifiiiUM'41,  ShikArpur 
I7B0.  QaidataUd  449S,  aii'l  Kanrachoo  778,  total  >I07.  (Compaiv  l>ir  A,  Buruai  in 
Jtwr.  It.  O.  Stx.  iV.  100  ;  Run.xti'1  Sinil.  320  t  and  th«  SimA  GanttMrp,  A  ipeeul 
inrqwry,  ntwlc  thniuj;h  ttia  klxlneu  erf  Mr,  K  C.  K.  Olliianl,  C.H. ,  Aotiatant  Com- 
DnaniMMi.Siiid,  ahovt  that  thia  ictum  cl  Ubiliia  ma-ch  tvii  liitch-  KiiHiitt  in  Tiuv  and 
Ptriiar  there  an  rcry  (cw  Suid  Btiil*.  All  of  tlioia  van  bv  tncvil  lo  hUmli.  Sgma 
in  Tkar  arc  eld  aottjen  ;  th«  Mat  barn  ooom  liao*  Ifae  Btitkb  oonqaaat  aa  camp 
foOowtn  and  muidcrcn. 

'  Ind.  ADt  III.  189.  ■  Buroea  in  Jonr.  Boy.  <Hof.  Sao.  IV.  tOD. 

'Graham'i    Bfail  Tnb«a.   Sir  J.  Maloolai   (Cmtaml   India,  I.  Sit)  aba  naotaa  • 
tradition  that  ibe  Bkit)  were  driven  from  their  original  M«la  la  Mtrwir  and  Uevtr 
•outli  to  KhiU'ieih. 

Chapt«r  HI 



(Bombajr  Guet 


hftpt«r  lU. 


'    JMfb. 


within  KMndcsh  limits  by  the  pressure  of  Raipttt  and  Musalmi 
ronigivMt  tp  QiiiAntt  uiid  M^vru.     But  tlio  pciHitiuD  of   the   Bhil 
in  Kh&ndeah,  iKattered  in  8iiiall  Duinben)  over  almost  the  wfa<~ 
district,  and  R^thered  in  atrengih  among  the  aonib  and  west  aswa  _ 
iw  Hk>ii({  tho  Dorthcm  bills,  seoms  to  show  that,  as  is  knowu  to  have 
been  (lie  cuse  id  Uujaral  and  B«j)>titAn»,  thu  Kbiiiiduib   BbilK  wvm    I 
driyep  from  the  plaipa  by   ropre  powerful   iuvadera   and   set4)ers. 
Hie  cloBP  reagmblancc   in  npporauoo,    character,  lan^affe,  and    . 
coatomg  bctwtiin  the  Bhil  of  the  ylainm|^j)|l|eJaBjlaM  vil  I  agent, 
wonld  aeem  t<i  show  that  tho  buik  oi  tliepcoplOave  a  coDsiderabUla 
atrain  of   Bhil  blood.*     On  thv  uthvr  hitoil,  tho  tnarkod  dilTtiniiioifl| 
lK>twv<!i>  the  we(tli-ii  Biiiltnid  lIia  liill  Bhil.   as  well  oa  the  marked 
variety   among  tliiTiii'eiit  iribo^  ut  uill  Bbits,  seeni  to  show  that  the 
word  Bhil,  proporly  belonging  to  the  pw>[>1«  found  by  the  E^arly 
Arlan   cooquerom  and   aeKlen*   in    posaeMuon   of    RajjiuUiiiu  and 
iCh^deah,  was  afterwards  npplie^^^^^^awle^  foroat  and  hill 
triboB  of  thoae  proTinoes,  nMinyT!^Snoi^ni^no^SIong~io  the  SHil 

TheMoghals   (1600)   fonnd    the   Bbils  hardworking  and    loyal 
subjei'ta,  and  undor  tbo  Moghuls  they  seem  to  have  continued  qai^^ 
and  orderly.*   But  duriiigthv  eighteenth  ecnlury  in  lEe  'diaitirbaDc«^| 
that  marked  the  transfer  of  power  from  the  Moghal»  to  Uic  MiirAthM^' 
^^ey  aaserted  their  indepeudouce,   and   tb<;  MaritJife.  failing   lo 
bring  thorn   to  orilor,  treiiteil  them  aa  onjJIaw!;.  gave'  Ibcni   ni'itber 
eocouragement  nor  prot«<:tion,and  allowed  thoir  lowest  olIiiicsrA  to  lake 
their  lives  without  trtiU.     A  Bhil  cnnght  iu  a  diftlnrbud  part  of  ihe 
country  wm, without  inquiry,  flogged  aud  hanged.  I'lirltii-v  wu-v  fnM<ly 
nsed.     Exposed  to  the  sou,  with  his  nose  slit  and  his  earn  atripjiod 
from  his  head,  theBhilwaa  burnt  to  deathon  the  heated  gun  or  iatl 
embraces  of  tho  n.>tl*hot  iron  chair.     From  a  high  rliRn«-ur  Anto 
hundreds   -kviv.   yearly  bar  led  to  destruction,  and    in  the  towns  ' 
Dharangaon,   Ch&U^acHa,  and   Kopargaon,  large   bodies  of   Bhili  _ 
iw«embled  wndi-r  a  full  pi-omiso  of  iHn-do«,  wore  boheoded  or  blowiT 
from  gnns;  their  women  mutilated  or sniot  bored  bysmuke;  audtlioir 
ohildren  diuihod  to  death  agaiuat  the  slouoit.*  J 

After  an  unaacceBsfat  attempt  to  bring  them  to  order  by  force, 
tjie  British  adopted  kindly  miiucurcs  in  their  dealings  witli  tho 
Bhil«.  fiy  tho  personal  influence  of  m>me  of  tho  oarly  ofHceiti, 
Robertson,  Ovans,  and  Outram,  many  fibils,  as  meml>orK  of  a  polico 
Koxyn  and  as  husbandmen,  settlod  to  a  regular  wderly  life.  At  tin; 
same  tituu,  though  {hmou  wait  eetJtbliAhed, and  haisinceoathe  wbok 


'  TVlDch  UoUteil  froRi  Ih*  oUiOr  pcopla  it  CNinnt  b*  [trovcd  t^t  ItMi  «n{[in  of  tb 
mi*  in  India  u  (tixtinot  (ran  t^  d  tlw  oantnion  cultivitton;  1>t.  J.  WiUmi^ 
Aborix)B>l  TribM,  3.  4. 

■"nia  winM  Bhil  h  giv««  *"  ""TIT  **"*  ^  ""*  »efc»"wUdjW  it     Gnbun'*  Bhil  _ 
TribM.     K*h<ip  C<ttd«-cJ)  (Hair's  suHkitt  TextOTrTSTTB  ol  ojiiiiioB  that  tha~ 
RtiU  balonip  to  th«  titaHj  of  mco^  who,  Iik«  the  KoIm  uil  SAntluJi^  entered  India 
frocn  the  noitli-cMt. 

■Optua  Gmham'i  Khfl  TribM.  Boh.  Gov.  Sol  XXV].  2U3.  Al»l  Kul  (Gladwin'i 
AiB-i-Akb»ri,  II.  Mlnya  :  "lltwkiiebaadiiicn  arc dntifnl nbjecti *ad  very  lab 
They  an  of  In*  toIloviuK  tribei,  Koony.  BbeiK  and  Goimd," 

•  Ur.  J.  WiLwii'a  Abon^al  Tribe*,  *. 



{mvailed,  any  alight  disttirbanoo  Has  been  enotigli  to  stir  in  some 
tit  ihi-  Bliil  Iribt's  tinT  luvr  of  ii^]nii«<r  ntid  disordtT.'  £voi]  vhen 
ke  has  ffiveu  up  dijtijrtlorly  liiibitfi  tlio  libit  hivi  iiitv(l«  littlit  rwlrnnco 
in  oomjort-or  akill.  Itrno^ance,  caro  leanness,  and  lore  of  liquor,  have, 
HpecMly  in  wcet4>rD  KhiiDdrsIi,  sunk  many  ot  theio  dwp  in  debt  to 
tlig  ita*-"!"  tjujar  Kunbis.  'I'he  wlmle  iiiftfjiinerT  of  the  law  oourtw  is 
worked  by  the  (itijar  to  keep  hia  debtoni  in  hia  power,  and  in  gpite 
sf  thn  great  rise  in  the  value  of  thoir  labour,  tno  BhiU  work  on, 
except  that  theyum  fed  btttweuu  »c«d-limr  iiiid  harvest  and  are  given 
an  occufliooal  turban  or  rolie,  little  leaa  poor  and  degraded  than  they 
wvre  in  fonuer  tiiucs  of  trouble  asd  disordiT.  Etcd  where  he  has  not 
tank  to  \w  a  vt^ni-anl,  us  a  sniall  liiiid holder,  tjiit  Bhil'n carelesanms 
and  want  of  skill  prcwiil  his  iiuoce»)',  and  as  a  labourer,  tliougfa  if 
be  plcHMos  he  is  a  moat  efficient  worker,  his  idk^ncifs  and  fitfuinesa 
•taad  in  r  he  way  of  his  earning  nay  eonsiderablo  wage. 

Though  fiiund  iu  kuuiII  numbers  in  every  part  of  the  distriet,  Ibo 
balk  of  the  Bhil  po)>ulntiiin  belongs  to  the  weateni  districts.  Of  a 
Urtal  of  120,020  suals,  ii;i,7'J\  or  h306  per  cent  are  found  in  the 
three  weatern  sub^divisions  of  Tnlodu,  rimpalnvr,and  Nandurbilr.' 

fCh&ndcsh    Bliila   mar    coDvententJ^  be  anranged   onder    thre« 


gniups  :  plftig  Bhils.  bill  tad  forert  trjby^r  Ml  J ,  "^"^  ^^^'''  '^'^9 
plamUhits,  the  largcMt  aiid  nio«t  cinliwca  claaa,  found  in  Kinal^, 
nnmbDrs  in  almost  all  tho  villages  of  central  and  sonth  KhAmiesfty 
uni  kniiwii  Mmply  aa  Bhils,  in  coutradistinction  to  the  Tadris  and 
Nirdhifl,  the  Khutibt  and  NiihiilK  uf  the  osatprn  Hiil  nnd^s  and  the 
Pivrifc  Mathradi  and  (Jivifc  UhiU  of  the  west.  Tlie  Rirej'  *"*^ 
hill  <rib<4  ari>,  in  tho  Sfitpnd&s,  tho  Bard^,  Dhink4s,  Dlutrepis, 
(liivite,  Kholili*,  MnthviLilis,  M^vchiK,  Nalial«,  and  Varlis,  and  in 
the  Sahx-idria,  the  Uaiigt-IiiH.  The  mixed  tjjbes  are  three,  ooe 
Ibo  Bhilai  lis.  half-Bhil  half-liajnut  or  Kunbi,  found  in  the  eastern 
Kiit)mdii«,  i\nd  two  half-AIuHalm&n  Italf-Bltil,  the  Tadvis  in  the 
eastern  8iiti>ud&a  and  the  yirdhis  iu  the  S4lm£7^  in  the  sonlli. 
Tho  large  dass  of  coramoD  or  pkain  Bhils,  and  meet  of  the  wifder 
hill  and  fiirCMt  tribes,  aro  broken  iulonn  endtese  nuinber_qf  amjjl 
claa^aome  of  them,  such  as  Faviir,  Miilr,  %arda,  Ho  none,*  llori, 
G£ikwnd,  8hindi,  J&dav,  Tb&kiir,  and  Ahir,  arising  from  a  claim 
to  a  strain  of  non-Bbil  blood ;  othors,  as  Vttgbia  and  Ghania, 
kaken  from  the  nanna  orabimnls ;  a  third  set,  as  Fipahta,  from 
Ihf*  nsTtiPF  of  frcM ;  'and  a  fowrth,  of  miaoellaneons  origin,  from  a 

I  utj  or  acme  prirato  gig;ial.' 
iLiiibers  of  those  Mib-divisions 

The  typical  Khfindesfa  Bhil, 

are  not  allowed  to  intonnanj. 
Bhtla  differ  mnch  in  aniMaranoe. 



Bkiti.    • 

L'Somn  Botioe  of  tlic  chief  Rhil  riiiewi  m  girtn  htkrtt  andar  "  Hiitorr  ". 

T*Tb,  deUib  wo  .  TilolU  27,236.  I^iapJiMr  H.«M.   NuadurUr  if.MS.   ShikfeU 

t.SSZ,  DliiilU  7132;    Vuitol  TMl.  Anulner  5003.  Shirpur  4S30;    En>»d«l  SMO, 

PAchora    aOM.     CbMida    SUT.  ChUkigsoa   ISSS^    Nidrkbad  1097.    BbaiSvkt  DOT, 

JUnmrr  601.  uul  Slvda  028. 

'RanU  it  Hid  to  be  k  lali-divinon  of  Ok  Smioms  ulaoi,  MhI  (fce  Im  wiU  not 


[Bomlray  Oaietteer,, 







thi>  wild  wovdxinnt)  of  Uie  SJttpaiUH,  ia  ^wk,  welt-madej  activoj 
and  limly^widi  high  cheek  Ixiaes,  wide  noekrils,  and  id  some  cbmi 
coarse,  atmoit   Airican.  features.     These  urv  no  ilotih!  stunted  nn 
degmdcd  b_v  nvnnt  and  ill  health,  and  |>vrhti]iM  by  iiklt'niiarringt!  wil 
^dcr  itnd  lower  triboa.     Among  the  Routherit  aud  west«i-u  tribes, 
who  (trubal)ly  awre  nearly  represent  thu  original  typo  of  Bhil,  are 
many  welUbuill  and  evon  some  t«ll  haudaome  mon  with  rvgniar 
featnrvs    and    wavy    hair,      lite    plain  Bbila  ar»   ecaroclj  to    be, 
disliugiibhed  ftom  local  low  ctoas  niadua.* 

Kx<;i3pt  among  some  of  the  wHlder  hill  tribes,  who  porhapx  arfl 
improperly   nuikcd  atnoiig  Bhilii,   the   Bhila  have   no   trace  of  4 
different  from  tSat  of  the  country  whoro  they  arc  settled. 


I  111 




Locording  to  the  goographical  potnliun,  BhilH  xpciilc  tbe  CognnU) 
diuloct«  iif  Miu-fithi,  Uujsrdti,  Uiugdi,  MovAdi,  ^'armadi,  and 
Kajput^ni.  They  have  many  peculiar  terms,  and,  wifli  some  Prikrit, 
UHe  many  Skythlnn  words.  Tliorc  i«  no  Innjoof  any  connoxiou 
with  Ihn  tri)>e?i  of  tuiuth  India.*  In  Kh&udcHh  their  dialect  in  a 
mJMare  of  liinduslJiui  and  Marat  hi  with  GnjarAh  endings.  It  varies 
coiiiiTderably  in  diffcrenl  parts  of  thu  district  and  among  differen'^ 
tril>o>t.  Thu  langnugn  01  the  i>lain  UhiU  diffvni  little  except  i 
prunuBoiatioQ  from  the  MarStlii  spohon  by  the  other  poHAMit) 
while  the  Akr&Qt  P^vr&s  and  wostem  Bhits  speak,  anio  „ 
j^hemeelrus,  a  dialect  of  tiujariti  unintelligible  to  the  plain  Bhil  of 
central  and  sonlb  Khindesh. 

Formerty  mom  BhiU  lived  in  hive<liko  j^gjjj^oroating  the  tops 
i»olated  hillit,  luutily  put  together  to  be  crept  into  for  n  few  wce„, 
or  months,  and  then  left.'    Most  of  them  atill  live  in  thatched  huts, 
j'Aoptfiig,  leaving  them  at  once  if  disease  breaks  out,  or  if  the  bandet  ia 
thonght  Imuntcil  or^tiihicky.    A  few  have  oao-stopic-d  dwellings,  th 
widU  of  inibiinit  bricks  aud  the  roof  of  mud  with  a  Mninll  vcmti(1nh  i 
Front,  and  divided  inside  into  two  or  more  ro<ima.    Kaidi  hou.'iftholi 
ha»  »«  many  cups  aa  It  hiia  members,  ono  or  more  earthen,  woode 
or  metal  platters,  a  Iarg4>  earthen  or  mettd  water  jug,  and  cooki: 
ntensils,  and  a  wood  or  metal  ladle ;  a  stone  slab  with  roller  a 
lumdmiii,  and  a  largo  knife  for  cutting  vegetablest  li  cot  or  t 
with  liedding,  a  blanket,  and  a  qailt  made  of  pieces   of  clot 
8titche<l  one  upon  another ;  a  cow  or  biilTnlo,  a   few  fowls,  a  sm 
fishing  uet,  and,  now  and  then,  a  sword  or  matchlock  with  a  b 
and  a  good  stock  of  arrowi;. 

*    Vha  hiH   Bhil  has  E«ldom  any  clothing  but  a  piece  of  clotJt  rouB< 
hiK  loiui*  and  their  womou  a  ixnarw:  iJiltcrcd  i-obe.    The  peasant  Bhil 
^  wears  a  turban,  a  coat,  aud  waislclotb,  and  thiTJr  women  u  robe  with 
or  without  a  lK>di(.'<>.     Both    men  and  wouien  wear  brSM  or  silv 
eu-nnga,  and  wLttii  they  cuu  afford  them,  anklirta. 

I  C»pl*iB  It«B  ia 

Onikun'a   Bhil   Tnlw*, 
AnL  IV 

Bom.  8d    XXyi.  pa.     Dr.  J.  WiUnn,,  Aboriipii*!  ^riU»i^ 
m.  Bom,  iiw.^SSLXXVt.  »» ;  .nJ  Mr.  Sind«?i  C.  S.,  >u  In 

I'l  Aborigiul  Trilica,  3.    Mf .  fiuiuliur  (Ind.  Aat.  IV.  33;)  M>yi  | 

|i»vr  ■  wi^iiliar  voeibulnry,  bat  arn  "In-  of  It-lliiii;  it.  ~ 

'tttBh»i.r»  BIul  Tiibw.  Bom.  Hov.  Scl.  .\.\VI.  'JW. 




Pe««»nt  Bhils  Uriuk  lir[Uor  ntiil  cftt  inillot  bnwtil,  carry,  conlH, 
T«^tabU'»,  tiHti,  and,  when  ihcy  can  xffortl  it,  goot'a  fleab  or  mi}ttoQ. 
Uouctaiu  Bbils  aro  much  leea  particniar,  Uliey  Dftt  carrion,  atumnU 
that  bavii  <]iiid  u  mitiirul  diiatb,  and  probably  iu  out-yf-lhc-wtty 
pJacos,  iliu  fleah  of  the  cow.'  They  teod  on  wild  roots  and  fraitft 
and  ua  all  sorts  ot  venniii  and  fiarbiige.  Bxceasirely  fond  ot 
donntry  Epintt),  gonvrally  moha,  BaMin  latifoUu,  and  iriimcKlvnito 
in  tbuir  u>u},  they  aontutimes,  as  in  Akrini,  (lislii  them,  and  in 
iiUior  places  bay  tkoin  from  the  liqnor-Beller  or  Bmuffgle  tliem.  Tho 
luwlaad  Bhilg  giro  carte  dinntfrB  at  births,  bfitratlialB,  marriagcSi 
aiiHT  ^imtTix,  *rhv«>o  d'iun«r.<,  guntrnlly  oookvd  by  tho  women,  ooDsist 
i<  )i«at  bread,  split  pease,  and  graili,  a  few  veffotablos,  and  A 

<1  .i((ared  milk.    Tbo  mon  do  not,  bke  ibt'  biKher  castea,  tako 

iiR  ihftr  HpliT  tpinmrnta  wjn-n  thuy  dine.  The  food  itt  served  in 
Wll-iiietal  diitheH,  four  or  &vo  perMinn  eating  from  tho  same  disb. 
Children  dine  with  tho  men,  and  women  and  grown  girls  aft«r  the 
DiGD  hnvc  dined.  At  thi-iw  f<,'ast«  thoy  nvithor  oat  llvidi  nor  drink 
iiifuor,  imd,  except  at  a  di^alh  fcaMt,  tliey  idn-»yti  end  witJi  singing. 
The  uiontbly  food  espeusea  of  a  IJbil,  his  wife,  and  two  cbildreu, 
v-.iry  fnim  about  vight  to  sixteen  shillings.' 

Thriftless  fuml  of  Hpiriu,  and  loathing  ateody  work,  the  BhJl  ia 
simple,  ^tbful,  and  boneet.  tlie  women,  who  in  former  times  went 
to  battle  sometimes*  using  slings  with  great  effect,  have  much  Jnlliienm 
»Tpr  the  men.  Though  shy  and  timid,  thvy  nro  kintlly,  intelligent, 
hardworking,  and  boneat.'  The  Bhils  are  fond  uf  amasement  and 
excitement,  hunting  Rnd  fishing,  plaving  games  of  chance,  telling 
stJirii-v,  ^ingingto  tlu>iw,\-<impi>nimcntof  asix-utringedfiddle,  cAiivir, 
nod  daui-ing.  In  a  BhildaQyy^ien  and  women,  k<.»iping  time  to  tho 
music  with  a  dowble  ahnffie,  bend  backwards  and  forwards,  wheeling 
ronnd  tho  players  in  an  irrugnlnr  circle.  At  these  dauees  men, 
with  much  geslinulatiou  and  wb<K)ping,  often  dress  tbemB«lTee  aa 
women,  as  Gosavis,  or  as  wild  animals.  Occasionally  some  of  tho 
dancen!  mII  nloug  the  ground,  join  bands,  and  bound  backwunldand 
forwardakvefiiig  lime  tothi- mur'i<:  with  »  double  Khufile  or  jif^ng 
nioveroenl  of  the  feet.  The  muaJcaJ  instruments  are,  in  the  ea«t  of 
the  Satpudiis,  »  drum,  fIA'>/,  and  a  bagpipe, |)am'.  llie  drum,  dAof,  iit 
tn»de  of  g>Mt  tdcin  stretched  over  a  hollow  block  of  Pterocarixis 
■nantupium,  bijarsal,  wood.  The  bagpipe,  patn',  is  a  hollow  pnmplun 
fixed  on  two  hollow  Immboos  with  lute-like  boles,  throo  in  otw  and 
five  in  the  other.  To  tho  end  of  the  pipea  is  fnateued  a  bellow  biscn 
or  cow  horn,  and  a  hole  Ut  made  in  the  nock  of  the  pumpikin  down 

Chapter  HI 


mu*.  ■ 

'  Mr.  Rbcbur.C.  S.,  in  Id. -Aat.  in.13%   Thii  ia  not  qnitc certain.  Compare  laxL 
Ant.  IV.  337.     Aknlni  AUd  TaiotU  Blub  Mt  oaloo*  uu)  VcRetablfi*.  gronttd  IniU, 
Am,  kodra,  riot,  millet,  uul  liuli*s  aullci.   Mcbvfta  Bhib  cat  hicni,  ec*t*t  bwet, 
,  bnSaka,  ukI  flili,  bat  aot  ttw  lUab  o(  hon»,  cowi,  or  tmuoclc*,  nor  do 
I  tftavtn  at  crowm.    Tdoda  Mimlatdir.  I8TS.    On«  MuniiJ  tlie  Bhib  nover 
a  monkey.  Ilio  Central  India  Bhil)  (Utloalm,  11.  119)  cat  not  only  th«  Owh 

Jna.  but  eJ  Mnn. 

*  Thi*  lualiulc*  In-o  skfri  ol  miUct.  tiultin  reiUct,  or  vhtat  flour,  k  day,  4d.  toM; 
i  tUr  naW.  i-t.;  ppietw  l-i.  :  lolil  lid.  (A  anman). 

'  MalLvIni  (CtDUnt  tb'lU,  U.  181)  ofao  IjiTCa  tlK>  BUI  wootun  ■  SDOd  cbwwtu  let 
kiniUiiKu  sod  bud  HMk, 




>  Aflt. 

(Bambar  GaieUeer>: 



which  the  Bbil  blows,  moring  his  fingers  up  and  down  over  the 
Iut«-1y]«8,  tmd  mnking  a  6onq^  mmnsly  likv  the  Ixigptpcs.  Ii 
the  weHt  Sdl|nid(iit  they  um  a  kuttlodruni,  t»r,  heaioa  jnlh  slickit, 
uid  a  tamtxrimue,  <laf.  ' 

*  lu  praying  to  MntialniilD  tminta  and  to  Khander&o,  the  Bhils  often 
mak^smalJ  mud  hor&es,  and  promise  to  give  one  of  them  to  th^^ 
Bhrine  if  their  pctilion  is  hc-itrd.  In  comniun  with  Khrindvith  KnnliidH 
lliiiy  hiive  AD  extpftuie  reverence  for  Lhe  horfW  Kiid  dog.  In  luauy  o(^ 
lut-ir  stories  the  chief  event  bangs  on  the  help  given  by  an  cncbautod 

The  Bhilit  have  no  tcnu>l<H>.  (h-«r  some  o^  llMir  most 
iutages  they  raise  open  sheds  ;  bat,  ingeneriil,  fur  a  place  of  worRhi[ 
they  choose  some  trttc  consecrated  by  a  few  large  stonn  wi  on 
n  mod  termce  Tmilt  minid  it«  root.  They  hold  Ben»r<i»  sacred, 
and  risit  other  regular  Uindivsbrinos  including  Nixik  and  Jojun. 
Their  special  ulaoe  of  pilgrimage  la  IJauinant  Nkik'a  Vidi,'  a  few 
miles  K<>uth4bS<uigamnoi:un  the  Pooiia  road.  The  less  wild  Bhils 
have  gciioniK  a  BnihniAi  who  acta  a«  a  houso  prieiit,  nod  is  paid  ii 
money  or  cloUies. 

Their  chief  festivals  are  HolJ  (March  -  April),  which  they  alwa} 
celcbratu    with  drunki-n  orgies,  and  Vafrii   (Otftober),  when  iiiaoy^ 
of  them  go  to   tho  cfaiet  towns.   aiKr7m  their  ontakirtx,  sacrifice 
to  Durga,  a  ^jddewt  whom   they   at  all    tinios   reapeot.'    Strong 
believers  in  witchcraft,  they  have  Baryfa^'  m-  hereditary  sorcerers. 


'  "*  on 






>  A  hw  mSM  Minth  tA  Sanprnm*.  by  s  {mm  call«d  tko  HMinattt  Niik'*  VHi,  th* 
rard  diinl)*  ■  \etty  pUlMii.  n«u'  th«  toj^  upon  thii  rid^o  of  a  natural  tnpilykc,  a 
•toie  pilbr  (K«nvDnier*taa  Uw  ilwUi  of  jWrnaot  Naik,  a  toca]  Bliil  vtiict  wbo  nuiile 
wsrod  tbc  Mochali,  or,  M^ordiiig  to  anutbcr  Mary,  on  th«  l*cabwn.  Tli«ir  «uuniy 
OMnc  fifhtiug  about  KTcnty  mile*  titan  Poona,  and  th«  BbiU  waited  tot  than  to  paai, 
Aa  Haanuuit  N*ik  wh  bcodiag  hia  bow,  a  troopcv  ahol  htm  ia  Um  btoMt  with  s 
matchWk  bolL  Tb«  wcnnd  vm  fatal,  but  m  h«  t«ll  ha  UManJ  hia  duft  and  killed 
tbc)  b<)fac«nan.  Afl«r  the  hattla  tbo  BhiU  brmuht  UaBnianl'a  body,  and  fatuittl  it 
whora  tba  boratmaa  bu)  at«od.  tferc  all  OhiU  fnv*  lo  be  buriad,  uid  mim  a  y«Mr 
tboy  otme  and  day  cockt  and  drink  deeply.  The  Imah  ia  covorod  with  titti*  wooiIm 
Uga  and  ama  oOcrni  by  wonhipiiKa,  wba  hope  by  lIuunaDl'a  favour  to  cure  aa 
aiEng  limb.  Cloaa  by  are  two  or  tbrae  otlicr  t-Jioba  of  Uw  auna  aart,  (ijoan  plat- 
tonam  nmnMnM  by  litUe  otwliaka,  and  otbera  mofc  raodcai.  Ur.  3in«Uir.  C.S,,  in 
I»d.  AnbT.S. 

*  Hie  lUoda  wd  Aktiai  BhiU  hxvc  tbrae  boltikya  in  tbo  y«aT,  r^okbr.  Kmili, 
•imI  lloti.  The  fint  i*  odebrsted  in  the  rainy  aMacn,  whoa  tlie  fod  vlf  hder,  who 
haa  M>  form  or  atoiM  iina|t*<  **  worahimHid  at  tbe  htadmanVi  honae.  In  honour  of 
th«  soil  tlie  headuan  offata  ■  han  and  duthbutM  liqnnr.  At  flindlf  (October)  Ihcy 
woohlli  tbo  vilLq^  god,  and  the  hoJiday  cintinuM  tor  lliroiMlayi.  The  hcadmaa 
dUtiibntaa  linoor.  Kxcvpt  aoma  wbo  utvlviid  to  bu  iufiired  by  the  |{od  tboy  du 
not  dAOcc.    A  fNiHUo  lakilUd.  nowovk   iaaUowtd,  snd  all  boay  thenuolro*  wHh 

Sying  OB  tha  unall  dnim,  iMoJtf.  At  Holi  tisM  tlte  headmao  dblnbulM  li>incnr  aail 
ntwrymakiqiFlaala  for  Are  daya. 
a  Banla  are  iDppoMd  t*  have  tba  bM«ditary  gift  of  iaqiinttiMi.  Thair  po««n 
•ra  dararuwt  till  RHiaad  byniaii«^  and  (or  tUa  naaao  they  have  aolaHef  HuaioiBna 
co«n*cl«d  with  ttMu,  proftcMmt  id  nagaeriMM  aeap  in  pniaa  o(  tbo  Ull  daattts.  Whnt 
tlta  racitaUon  at  thww  eoog*  haa  «Kait«d  tbom.  tha  DanAa  brtpnlo  danoa  with  fraotio 
geatnrM,  awl,  looeontng  ibeir  lop  knot,  toat  and  vtiirt  thnir  hcaiU  with  attui^  ocmrol. 
■ioM  of  th«  whole  tnme.  In  thii  etaU  of  phnauy  they  otter  <«aclca  to  vhioh  tboae 
who  consult  tlieiD  rarefnlly  Uateii.  TIm  BamU  are  uf  lasitM*  caetea,  Brtbmana, 
Dhobhii,  Ila^ims.  aad  other  nindHL  and  adaiit  diadplea.  Bf«ide>  m  oratlw  thar  act 
a*  phyvioiana,  aM  ours  tnBing  complaint*  b^  tMrba  and  otl»rr  lortnt  mmtikm.  Wbea 
tke  djtWM  U  beyoad  the  reaoh  at  that  »ktU,  they  attribute  it  to  Itao  e*il  iaflMocc  of 



tLoy   cohsdU  on   nil  ocoasioiia   particulartj   wli^n   tiliiDiiitif; 

pluodur    nuil,  ami    wUi>»c  iuIt^  ihcy   uliuoet   alifayH   follow. 

A^aOMlly  am<mg  the  lowE^r  tribes  rery  gn>al  tUtvnHuu  w  |»id   Co 

■lois.     Iffe  man  lets  fall  hia  bread  by  accident,  if  n  )>ird  wrmina 

tat  the  luft,  if  n  tniaku  rroMiM  tbe  p«lli  Hod  escapes,  or  if  any  otm 

m>-<-la  them  and  aakji  where  Ihi-y  are  going,  iht-ri!  will  bu  no  B|>oTi; 

M^  utber  hand,  a  bird  screoming  od  the  right,  a  dead  analdr,  or  a 

-r-r  r-'-'ing  without  speaking,  promise  a  successful  day.    If  bad 

:  -nt,  thu  HhilH,  saying '  ruit  tnga,'  otum  iniiko  in  thu  aanrl 

i.r  diixt  ut  Lhu  fxiad,  an  image  »f  a  man  oraomelitnea  two  images,  one 

uf  a  man  the  other  of  a  woman,  and  throwing  atntw  or  gm«s  orer 

tiwta   sot  Gru  to^ha  hoiip,  and  boat  thoinuigvs  with  stickn  amidst 

much  aljtt»'  and  uproar.     Tliiit  tlioy  call  billiag  bad  lack. 

Til  at  claRses  of  Bhila  differ  wi^le^y  jg  paatftma.     Among 

the  wudtr  mountain  BhiU  tlio  only  obi^ervanoea  are  at  marriage 
and  death,  and  ihoy  arc  of  tht:>  Kttnplit^it.  With  thu  assent  of  the 
rirl'-t  fathi'.r  niarria^oa  are  generally  arraugcfl  oiTdumd  by  the 
Niiik's  prime  rainintcr,  pradkan,  and  the^paste  com^utee,  panch. 
The  aiii  of  a  HrUiman  or  Bhflt  is  not  wanted  ;  a  feast  with  plenty  of 
drink  completiBR  tin  ceremony.  The  chief  and  hin  minister  got  Wif 
a.  crown  each,  and  about  £1  5s.  (Its,  1:!  ««.  8]  are  spent  un  drinking 
and  f<.<nfiting.  At  di--aths  wild  Rbila  have  no  special  ceremonies. 
Thry  Uike  the  dead  bodv,  and  bury  or  burn  it  as  in  most 
convenient.  Over  their  chiefs  they  raise  oaims  or  rude  pilesi  of  stonea, 
and  at  certain  times  smear  the  top  with  oil,  red  lead,  and  rermilion. 

The    more    ciriliitfld    Bhila    of   tbe   plains   hnra   very  completo 

t-'p.  ano  peath  ceremonies,  differing  little  in  dotail 
iciised  by  the  higher  classes  of  Hindus.  At  birth  a 
ito  i»  utiiphiyed,  and  boaidea  a  bottle  of  litiutw,  is  paid  two 
.  lagH  if  the  child  is  a  hoy,  and  one  slnlliDg  if  it  is  a  girl, 
for  four  days  no  one  hut  (he  midwife  tonfihes  the  moUicr.  On  Iho 
morning  of  the  lifth  day  a  pit.-ty  of  womeu  are  called,  ami  twth 
toother  and  chdd  are  balhed  in  warm  water.  Just  ontaide  of  the 
threshold  of  tJie  but,  the  mother  cowdungs  the  ground  and  traces 
tanneric  lines.  In  the  middle  of  the  drawing  .sho  pliiecs  a  lighted 
lamp,  setting  round  it  6ve  fiiot  stones  corresponding  to  tbe  number 
of  days  since  the  child  w-ta  born.  Hound  these  pebbles  she  lays 
pieces  of  cocoa  kernel,  and  over  the  whole  (tpnnkle.t  turmeric,  millet, 
rwi  powder,  and  liquor.  The  guests  drop  a  few  graiua  of  millet 
over  the  mother  and  child,  and  thuy  como  back  into  tiie  house,    ^tar 




Bkit*,  ■ 

loaw  wmn,  iiiumia.    la  Mon  ombi,  n  n  laeir  any  m  nni  oat  ms  wiw 
ttoy  <!(>  i>r  parfonning  vuioua  Mreai'miM,  lomeliiBn  lij  miuiif    auAM 

Spwavtni  ft  huncb  nfpcBeack'a  fcstlian  rnumi  (be  pttamlh  head.     In  ao 
il  voinuiuillxe<l<»iiu  the  witvli,  w*ill<ytimtia2.  IwUliiig,  uidotli«r  toi 

I  wlccili,  MtkSm.    la  bhIi  omm,  it  n  their  diitr  to  finl  oat  Ue  witdi,  snd  tkir 

atlier  tiMot 
I  aome  caum  an 
tortun,  foroa) 
t4  riaoJM*  tier  name.  Tbof  muat  know  b«r  ouim,  hm  rnuon  fur  ti^abling  hor  vintin, 
mill  til*  tcrnu  on  wiiKh  ib*  will  b«  sppmaad.  Tlie  Barri*  of  ttie  pourer  Dhili  ilifTcr 
in  xima  mpaota  fram  Iko  N*t.  Beyond  llw  ulaahtna  of  itoaa*  tboy  nyjiifrc  no  moab 
to  axeita  thani-  Novicos  an  reqaired  to  peitortn  itaily  ibhitiuBt  in  wutn  vator  (or 
nb«  <bkya,  nod  tn  altoir  Uioirh»ir  to^w  aatoagaapoinbl^  lliey  then  andvrgo a 
pniuUoa  :  and  U  muaie  dot*  aot  •itmnbte  Ihtai  to  a  atata  <4  Rwiajr,  Ihejr  are 
Tc)«tad  aa  uot  being  (aToared  l>y  tiM  goda  with  eaoofh  iptrrtaal  gnuth  Traat,  Roy. 
Afc  Hot.  1.  77. 



£pt«r  m. 


thifl  tlie  j^ft'ls  ure  feoatod  with  wheal  ntid  rico  brciul,  mnttoii,an(l 
liqiion  aiiil.the  wh<.>)«  itight  ^s  R{>e»c  in  ttinginff,  xtnokin^,  udiI 
drinking.     The  lamp  is  allovrcd  to  hiaro  for  tweiily-fonr  hount.' 

On  the  tnalttii  duj  a,  diidi  of  boJIod  millet  an<l  split  pulse  is 
nadonmdy.  Some  of  it  i«  Uid  on  a  brum  pliUt«r  in  which  are  hIm 
plwwd  tw«lre  wheaten  cakas  uid  lighted  lamps,  coirespi^iiding  with 
the  nnmber  of  days  since  chv  child's  birth.  In  another  diab  a  lamp, 
drti,  is  50t,'  Hnd  alun^  willi  the  iiiothor,  woinuD  go  in  prooession, 
flinging  and  beating  the  drum,  towards  tho  neamt  running  watvr, 
where  the  mothor  arranges  the  twelve  lamps.  The  cakea  are  placed 
in  a  ]iaubt.'twveii  the  lainpn,  »nd  a  Iittlu  of  tho  boiled  food  is  laid 
on  each  calce.  The  mothw  worships  the  witl4>r  goddoiM,  Jnliin-la, 
throws  a  little  red  load,  rod  powder,  and  some  grain.t  mixed  with 
turmeric  into  ihu  watvr  and  on  tliu  twi'lvo  tamps,  and  lighting 
•  Gn>  bofoi-e  llie  lamps,  feeds  it  with  oil.  They  then  go  home  and 
feast  on  mixed  rice  and  palse  and  oil. 

Girls  are  generally  mamed  between  tw^lre  sod  aixteen,  and 
boy«  botweoa  etixu>«u  and  twenty.  But  from  thoir  parents'  porertj 
both  boys  and  girts  often  remain  unmarried  till  they  aro  ovei 
twenty.  When  a  father  can  afford  to  marry  his  sou  he  look*' 
about  for  a  siiitiible  mittch.  Tho  girl  must  not  he  the  boy's  first 
coQsiu  or  belling  to  the  same  clan.^  Suggottlioun  of  marriage  como 
from  the  boy's  house  and  aro  taken  by  the  Wy's  relations  to  (be 
girl's  Gather.  When  it  is  known  that  a,  ^Lviuiraltlu  reply  will  he 
givenij^fomiAl  proposal  is  miwte  by  the  boy'a  father,  or  his  ncarosb 
reUtJoor  Whtsn  the  aSnir  iit  so  fur  xetttcd,  tho  nearest  relallona 
both  men  and  womeu  go  to  the  girl'x  hou»e  and  then;  ask  that  the 

S'rf  jihatl  be  gireo  in  marriage  to  their  boy.  If  her  father  agrees, 
a  girl  is  brought  out  and  »c»(ed  among  the  guests,  and  the  boy's 
father  or  his  nearo*  rolatioa  offers  her  a  padcot  of  aweetmeata. 
This  over,  they  dine  togetlier  and  the  guests  before  lenring  talk  over 
the  betrothal,  and  a  day  or  two  after,  with  (he  help  of  u  Br^hmaa 
astrulogor,  tho  boy'«  fatlier  Sxpm  the  l)otrochal  day. 

On  the  betrotltat  day  tho  astrologer,  the  (toy,  bis  father,  and 
other  relations,  taking  with  them  a  robe,  a  bodiwf,  and  sweiitmwitfl, 
go  to  the  girl's  house.  After  resting  for  a  aliorl  time,  the  girl'ri 
father  calls  a  council,  paneA,  and  in  thoir  presence  agrees  to  give 
his  daughter  in  marriage.  The  boy's  father  th«n  presents  the  girl 
with  a  robe  and  bodice.  A  married  woman  toncliciK  the  girl's  brow  with 
red  powder  and  gives  her  somo  swoctmeata,  blessing  ner  and  hoping 
ffiat/  like  them,  ner  life  may  be  sweet.    The  whole  party  then  drink 

*  During  tliMa  Ftitii  iti«  man  and  vonen  nmidn  aejamt*  ;  th«  men  mtokiaa  md 
drinklag  in  one  dIiko  and  tli«  women  nsf  iag  and  bMiin^  m  loaaU  drain,  JM,  and 
driakiM  la  kBolAor. 

>  httioMM  the  lamp,  ibrte  u  in  lh«  dl*h  nd  loail,  nd  imwitcr,  oaoooant,  b  nixturo 
ol  flfs  diSsTsnt  nsini,  and  «ct  turmeric  powder. 

*  As  nmoiifi  toe  Rajputa,  two  fhmiUea  ol  tba  mm»  cisn,  Shiadi,  Barda,  Pavir,  and 
Bui.  cannot  tnl«naafTy.  Bat  marrian  ia  aUnwod  tratWMn  membtr*  ol  tba  different 
claaa.  Aaajn  t&era  ai«  minor  lah-diVMiaM  iiKb  aa  OtikwK,  i^palM,  and  Hari, 
Ixrtireen  wkicli,  m  they  an  all  of  the  aanM  dta,  marria^  ia  nM  allowed.  Tb*  aoMlion 
wb«tb«rtii«  m««ber«of  Mrtaia  familiM  maj  laumarrjr  u  d*<idod  t>]r  Ibt  c*«t« 
OQUcit,  piHcA, 




from  tunda  fiapplied  by  a  present  of  three  shillings  rr<>m  cfw.'h  of  the 
EiUwrs.  That  evening  the  girl's  fatj^er  gives  the  guest;}  a  dipner, 
ud  next  moming  the  boy  and  his  party  go  hunio. 

There  is  no  fixed  interval  between  the  betrothnl  and  the 
nmrmgo.  It  may  be  a  month  or  it  tiiay  be  yeiira.  When  he  is  in 
I  position  to  meet  the  marriage  oxpenaei*,  the  boy's  fiithiT  semis 
wwd  to  the  girl's  fothertbat  he  is  bringing  the  dowry,  ijhiin^  or  diy. 
On  azTiTal  be  and  his  company  are  given  refreshments,  aud  a  council 
ii  called.  The  dowry,  from  £1  to  £2  (Rs.  10  -  Rs.  20),  is  settled,  and 
the  amaant  laid  before  the  council  in  a  metal  plat«.  An  unmarried 
woman  of  the  girl's  family  touches,  with  red  powder,  one  of  the  nipeen 
ID  the  plate,  and  the  brows  of  the  boy  and*  his  party.  The  girl  iif 
bronght  ont  and  seated  on  the  boy's  father's  lap,  and  the  boy'a 
bther,  taking  h  rupee,  places  it  inside  the  top  of  the  folds  of 
her  robe.  The  council  then  tell  her  to  go  into  the  house,  and 
take  two  rupees  from  the  plate,  to  buy  lirjiior  for  the  evening's 
entertainment.  The  rest  of  the  dowry  is  handed  to  the  girl's  father. 
After  a  feast  the  evening  ends  with  music  and  dancing.  Next  day 
the  father,  with  a  few  friends,  goes  to  the  family  priest,  bhal,  and 
fixes  the  marriage  day. 

Nex:t  oomes  the  turmeric,  liahU,  ceremony,  when  turmeric,  mixed 
with  water,  ia  rubbed  on  the  boy's  iMidy,  and  part  of  it  is  taken, 
by  a  band  of  relations,  to  the  girl's  house,  and  there  nibbed  over  her. 
After  this,  generally  for  almut  a  fortnight,  iMith  the  boy  nud  the  girl 
kre  mbbed  moming  and  evening  with  tnnnerif.  At  both  their  Miiises 
booths'  are  built,  and  at  the  girl's  house  an  altar,  biihHlr,\a  raised. 

On  the  marri^e  day,  an  hour  or  two  before  the  time  fixed  fir 
the  ceremony,  the  hoy,  riding  im  horseliark  willi  n  umrriago 
ornament,  ham)ig,  tied  to  his  tiivbiiu,  s^llrt^^  <yth  ii  fuoipMny  ff 
relations  ajid  friends.  On  the  wiiy  hn  is  t;iken  to  the  tcinplo  of 
Uaruti,  closely  followed  l>y  liis  sUtiM'  whi>  walks  beliiiid  him 
with  a  water  jar,  kara,  in  her  hiuKJs  in  wliirh  livi'  i'lip])?!-  cnyis 
have  been  dropped.  Ilidtiti^  iit  the  teTii]ile  all  dritik  fmm  a 
jar,  ghn'la,  of  water,  and  imo  of  tlu'ir  iiurnlior  tin;  k'ailcr,  rnrdhnrn, 
iH  seated  on  a  pony,  or  on  a  lujui's  slmulder^,  and  tii.kcn  tofhef^irl'a 
house.  Here  he  is  feasted  ami  his  f;we  nililx'd  with  sont,  hijol. 
Going  back  to  his  friends  bo  wu-lirs  his  face,  and  abnut,  sunset  tbo 
party  goes  to  the  girl's  house.  As  they  di-aw  m-itr,  the  Imy  is  jielted 
with  onion:^  and  fruit,  and  when  he.  arrives  a.  cucoanut  or  a  pieco 
of  bread  is  waved  round  him  and  either  duslied  on  llio  grounder' 
thrown  away.  When  he  dismnimls  seven  women  stniid  hcforo  tbo 
booth  with  full  water  pots,  Miw,  iuto  each  of  whioh  the  boy  dr^ipsa 
copper.  After  this,  one  of  the  wnuxni  waves  a,  lighted  lamp  round 
hia  face,  receiving  from  him  the  present  of  a  pieee  of  cloth,  eliollihnn. 
The  boy  then  sits  facing,'  the  east.  The  BnUim.iu  priest  sends 
for  the  girl,'  and,  seating  her  face  to  faco   with  the  boy,  passes  a 

Chapter  III 


BhiU.      ' 

'  Ohita  ii  a  Bhil  vinrA  cnrre^pnnAmq  with  the  ^[«l■athi  huH-l-t., 

-The  booth  at  Vnihnf'*  hiuin  in  m\'h-  of  ijitit  pnsta  and  thiit  at  the  uirl's  of  twelve. 
'lo  Home  oases  tho  hvi'lea''""i'i  himself  g^c,., 
B  411-12 

(Bombay  Quet 



kpt«r  III. 

'     BUU. 


thread  routiil  ih^m  botli.     A  roloHrod  cloth   in  liold  bctwiM>n  thi 
Uiglkenuiif^h  1«  pruvenK  (ht'ir  jfttriiig'  eitch  utlii-r.     The  girl,  joiiii' 
hor  handd  togetlier,  touobea  the  clotli,  and  the  bay  From  the  olbi 
Bide  cUiipa  her  hsada  with  both  of  bis.     One  of  each  parly  boL 
the  boy  and  tlie  Kirl  round  the  wiki«t,  wbilu  tho  prieat,  etiiiittitig 
»  raiitod  platform,  rupi-atit  ntan-iu^  verses,  ftnd  Uw  guent*  t\ 
groins  of  ri«e  or  niiliet  over  the  heads  of  tho  couple.     After  a  abort 
time  tJie  priest  claps  his  haotlti,  tb?  boy   and  girl  throw  garlnnds 
round  piicn  otJii'r'i*  IU^4-k.H,  the  cloth,  is  pulled  aside,  i^na  ara  fired, 
muKtc  plaved,  and  the  gnests  loovr  nboiit  con^utiilaliug;  each  other. 
Betelniit  and  li-avos  nro  di^lrilxiltid  itiiion^  tht^  nivn,  and  tiirmcrio 
«adr<rd  powdur  amiing;  tHe  wuiuen.     The  boy  and  the  girl  are  seated 
on  the  altar;  the  laps  of  five  married  women  are  filled  with  wheat, 
rice,  dates,   and    botelnutc;   and  rotiu<]  thu  boy's  and  girl's  right 
wrigu,  yellow  ittringn  with  a  piec«  of  turmeric  are  tivd.     The  boy 
and  girl  then  feed  one  another  and  the  ^eats  are  feasted.     After 
sapper,  sittinf^  in  small  gTou[>s  in  and  about  tho  booth,  the  boj'a  party 
on  one  sido  iind  tbu  girl'^i  on  the  othvr,  thvy  paw  tlioir  time  in 
•inging  and  drinking. 

Koxt  morning  tlio  boy  and  girl  bathe,  standing  on  tow  woodi 
Btools,  tha  women  of  uie  parQr  all  the  time  throwing  water 
over  them.  Then  comca  the  lap-filling,  pkalbhitme,  when  tho 
girl  is  given  clollios  nnd  omnments,  and  hor  lap  is  filled  with 
whifat,  ^i^^e,  or  millet,  a  piece  of  copoa  kernel,  dnK-s,  ulmomli',  and 
betelnnts,  and  the-  par(>nt«  and  rolatiouo  exchange  presents  of  cliithon 
and  money.  Tbon,  with  music,  the  boy's  mother  and  her  relations 
and  fiends  go  in  procession  to  the  girl's  house,  walking  on  «lothos 
spread  on  tho  gronnd.  At  tho  house  they  are  mbbed  with  oil  and 
tathod  in  warm  water,  and  if  the  girl's  father  can  afford  it,  glass 
bangles  are  put  roodd  the  women's  wrista.  Both  boy  and  girl  are  then 
presentod  with  clothes.  During  this  time,  till  the  return  procession, 
tho  boy  and  girl  amnsie  themKelves,  biling  pieccK  of  biitcl  leaf  or  of 
odboa  kemol  ont  of  each  other's  mouths,  or  searching  tor  a  Ix'telnut 
hid  in  tho  utlu^r'^  clolhcs.  While  (ho  boy  is  at  his  house  tho  girl's 
father  gives  two  dinners  to  bia  oa»t<r  follows  nnd  rolalions.  After 
two  or  three  days,  a  party  from  both  families,  taking  (he  girl  oog. 
horseback,  go  to  tho  boy's  house,  and  on  the  following  day  the  boyVJ 
father  gtTOS  a  dinner.  After  thi*  tho  yellow  throads  are  take^ 
off  the  wrwts  and  necks  of  both  the  boy  and  the  girl,  and  they 
■  are  bathed  to  remove  a!l  traces  of  turmeric.  In  a  poor  family,  tho 
orainarj'  marriage  expenses  amount,  in  the  case  of  the  bridegroom,  to 
£2  I0#.  (It*.  26),  and  in  thecaAoof  tlie  bride,  to  £1  10*.  (Ba.l5). 

The  Bhils  allow  and  practise  poly^my  and  widow  marriage. 
When  a  man  wiahea  to  many  a  widow  .he  sonds  some  of  his 
friends  to  urge  bis  suit  with  the  woman  or  wilb  her  parents  and 
relations.  If  his  proposals  are  accepted,  tho  suitor  tiiko<<  to  the 
woman's  bouse  a  robe  and  bodice,  a  bead  necklace,  twolifjuor^ra,  and 
some  boiled  peas,  and  sugar.  The  match  is  then  settled.  The  man 
takes  ffiih  him  a  few  frit-iidH  and  the  mutorials  for  a  feast,  and  they 
sharM  the  food  with  a  pariy  of  the  woman'n  rohttiona.  Ilie  womnn 
dresses  faerftelf   in  the  clotheti  brought  to  her,  and  after  the  gueats 





■?«,  ahe  and  her  Iiaainnd  pa«s  the  nigbt  t(^tker.  N&xt  nonung 
kb^  start  froui  the  house  before  dayiyealc,  aud  spend  the  whtde  of 
ikt  day  iu  the  fivid,  in  Bomo  lonely  placi*  thm^  or  four  miloft  from  the 
TiOaf^'-,  thair  friundn  sending  th«m  food.  Th<.iie  widow  mwruffea 
«ni  liStea  nreceded  by  an  6)(i[)eiueut,  which,  afrer  the  payment  of  a 
^  to  thtibead  of  the  communiiy,  is  condonod  by  the  parvotv  nod 

Whan  a  Uliil  a  on  iho  poiut  ot  death,  his  relations  diatribnte 

miiOBj  bidiid;^  the  poor  iu  bia  name^     When  he  dioa  the  body  is 

laid  on  ii  blanks  or  on  a  p)pct>  of  cl<jth  spr<Mid  ovor  a  blunkut.     An 

_Bu-thi-n  [Kit  full  of  tMid  watur  i.t  )j!hl'«<1  ncmr  the  dour  of  the  h(>lIM^, 

id  Eiie  L>>dj  is  bruu^^hl;  oat,  hold  is  a  uitiiD^^aition  out§ide  the  door,* 

water  powrwd  orvr  it.     The  old  clothes  are  taken  off,  and  tying 

a  nvw  iiiei»  tif  oloth  round  th«  luinM,tho  iKfdy  is  luid  on  the  bier  and 

niver»a  with  a  new  whiCe  abeet  leaving  the  face  bare,  and  the  head 

Ocrverod  with  n  tarban.     Kod  powder,  guldt,  ia  sprinkled  over  the 

»tid  Kome  br^iiid  and  cooked  rioo  are  tied  t<^{trthvr  io  a  pivoe 

iii  and  placed  ou  the  bier.     The  body  ia  tbeu   tied  with  a 

.'   to   the   bier,   and   carried  to   the   buryinp   ijround   on   the 

l<ira  of  four  nuar  nialu  relations.     In  front  of  thorn  go  the  hods 

deceased,  the  chief  unnmer  carrying  fire  in  an  earthen  jar,  and 

.  u^  _  I  thu  others  carrying  an  earthen  jug  full  of  water,     lialfway  to 

IhagTSi'e.lhebierislowcrud.andsoineof  thouookudfoud  is  laid  uoura 

biuli.  The  bearers  change  placea,  and  without  furtlier  bait  the  body 

is  carried  to  the  burying  ground.     Here   the   bier  is   lowered   and 

'M'umerii    httip    in  digging  a  grave,*  long  enongh  for  the  body, 

>  prevent  it  being  opimed  by  wild  auiiaidH,  ulxxit  &v«  or  nix  feet 

In  this  tho  Ixidy  ia  laid,  the  head  to  the  south  and  the  anna 

iietl  along  either  side.    Cooked  rice  and  broad  are  pluce<)  in  tho 

muutli,  and  the  body  i»  sprinlcled  with  water.     Before  leaving  the 

gTKT«.  the  man  who  is  last  arranging  the  body,  tears  a  small  hcJe  in 

tho  winding  ^heel.     Tlwn  tho  wholu  party  sit  round  the  gmve,  so  fur 

nffihat  they  cannot  seo  thu  body,  and  tho  chief   mourner   throws 

a  handful  of  earth  on  the  corpse,  and,  all  joining,  cover  the  corpse 

with    earth.     When    the    body   is  covered  they   rise  and  fill  tho 

grave,   initting   a  small  Irvui-li    rvund  tt.     In  thi^  trench,  beginning 

trv>m  till'  tioTth,  iLey  poor  water  out  ot  an  earthen  jug,  and  when  the 

circnit  of  the  grave  is  complete,  drop  tbo  jag  and  break  it  to  pietica. 

'l^hL-n  the  bier  is  turned  upside  down  nud  bunted, and  the  fanerui  party, 

)ing  to  the  neareiit  wau-r,  Imtlie  and  aooumfMRy  thechief  mourner  to    . 

*  hi>UMii.    In  front  of  tiio  houtu-  a  tire  is  lit,  and  into  it  eomc  woman  s 

is  dropix-d,*  and  ouch  of  tho  funeral  party  taking  some  uim,  Melia 

azadirachta.  leavoH,  ibnjws  them  on  iho  fire,  and  paA.4iag  bid  open 

pnlRis  thnugh  iht-  &moke,  rulw  them  over  his  fooe.     The  mourners 

are  ouvr  |iairc,  and  after  takiuga  draught  of  liquor,  go  to  thoir  homes.* 

OapUr  XI 


•  Tnaa  Jtaf.  Ab-  Boe.  I.  69. 

.  ■  Thaj  aitlMT  hary  tti«iT  iIomI,  or  covM  tb«Bi  witfc  pttw  ei  stviiM  wbon  gnvca 

mt  tia  prapuml.     Wibon'i  Abahginftl  tVlbM,  4. 
,     Tlui  u  oat  nniAJly  iloiiB.     Mr,  J.  Putlvn,  CS. 

*  Tba  sbuFo  ii  Irov  if  the  pl^a  ukI  iMtmiUa  Blill*,  who  tnvkrikbljr  bory  tiud  never 
buxa  tlMlr  ilo»d.    Bui  the  Akztm    mA  IMdk  Bhib,  cxc«p(   la  <mm  «< 

[BomVxy  Ouett 

bajiter  HL 






On  lh<>  third  (lay,  oue  of  the  women  of  tlie  monniiiif^liDUwIia 
ru'c«   tbe. right  Bhouldura  o^  tho  pflll-bwrcn  with  oil,  ntiJk, 
cowclung,    nnd   wnslit-s  llit-m    wilU  vim    ti>ig<t    steeped   in   cot 
untie,     rbea  Uie  four  invii  ballio  aud  are  treated  to  a  dinDiir. 
the  honse  the  onljr  eign  of  niouroiiig  ie  that  every  moinini;  for  fl^ 
dajfi  thu  women  wuil  for  about  u  qii&rUrr  of  uu  hour. 

On  the  eleventh  d«y  the  chief  inoumcr  goos  to  a  river,  and  there 
has  his  hciid,  iH-unl,  and  fiice  shaved,  and  batbeH.    Nex(  ho  oiakes  i 
a  doiigh  cuw,  spriukles  it  with  red  powder,  aad  setting  it  on  a  lent 
place,  bows  to  it,  and  thruws  it  into  iho  wutvr.     He  then  batbee  a&d 
goeH  hoiiie. 

;Klb«r  on  tha  twelfth  or  the  forty-fifth  day,  a  potter,  Kumbhdr, 
it  called  and  a  seveu-ulop  bemp  ladder,  thodhvan,  is  sot  against 
the  wall  of  the  bou.-su  tkut  ttiv  iwul  of  the  dead  may  cHiiib  by 
it  to  heaven.  The  priest  .iit«  at  the  ft^ot  of  the  ladder  and  chants 
a  verw  from  the  {'urios,  aud  the  string  by  which  the  ladder  ia 
faetODud  to  Ihejground  w  burnt,  and  tho  laddiT  pulled  dowu  luid 
Ihrt'wn  away.  The  npot  where  thv  luddvr  wmt  tied  h  then  spread 
with  flour,  and  a  small  plate  with  a  [»eoe  uf  bread  and  cooked  rica 
is  laid  over  it.  In  ibi-  plate  is  t^ei  a.  small  water  pot,  and  aloiig- 
wde  of  Ihu  wilier  \kiI  a  lighlvd  Iniup  coveri-d  by  an  ^^-mpty  liawboo 
basket  with  a  cloth  drawn  over  it.  This  day  a  erand  diuuer  in 
prepared,  and  beforu  beginning,  five  mouthfiils  are  oumt  near  the 
tMMKet.  The  burial  ritea  for  a  woman  are  the  Mune  aa  those  for 
a  man.  When  a  child  dies  its  Either  carries  the  body  in  his  arma 
and  buries  it,  and  on  the  seventh  day  a  Mmall  dinner  in  given. 
la  some  rare  cases  the  Bhits  burn  in»ti>ad  of  burying  their  dead. 

They  work  as  husbandmen  and  fieJd  labourorB,  soil  gniss  and 
fuel,  help  tho  ordinary  Xunbi  landholder,  and  when  they  can  get 
thoni,  gather  wait  aud  houoy.  Wives  help  their  husbands,  and  at 
barvesi  time,  whole  families  leave  their  homes,  aud  for  throe  or  four 
weeks  work  ae  ri'i^wrs.  For  this  they  luro  paid  in  kind,  geuemlly 
CArning  enough  to  last  them  from  one  to  two  months.  Bhils  never 
leave  Klilindi'^h  in  search  vt  woi-k.  They  sometimes  chnngu  their 
village,  but  for  the  most  pai-t  have  lived  for  loog  in  the  same  place. 
Their  avorage  motitlily  wagtts  vary  from  tfs.  to  lliit.  {R».  ■i-  Hs.  8). 
In  spite  of  their  good  wagt-^  all  are  very  poor  and  usually  iu  dobt. 

The  Bhils  differ  much  in  their  t'elj^-ious   beliefs  and  practices. 

pox,  chi>Ixrs,  anil  leproay,  bum  their  doad.  The;  have  th«  euriom  ciulom  ol 
etsrying  tli»  dM«aw>1'a  vifc  on  hi>  bi«r,  uiil  kfter  i^miic  s  littlo  diaUao*,  or,  ■• 
oUien  s*y,  tSUr  iwKliuig  tbo  bnitung  ground,  ol  settuig  bor  ilowii.  The  wifo  bitalu 
btr  DackwM,  aod  trtry  one  iwm  Ixy*  a  copper  Mia  ui  tb«  il«0BiMd'*  lucnitS^  Th« 
widow'*  ornunenl*,  if  aliu  baa  nuy,  uid  tho  docouol'*  clothaa  nn  burul  with  bim. 
Hi»«hc«Baii(l  wHtvr  i-uli  are  givm  l.>  hti  aiatar's  son,  but  the uUtnlurnitun)  i« burnt 
wilL  hun.  Thom-b  he  i>  geamiW,  tho  aon  ia  not  alwav*  tbe  fint  to  light  the  fniieral 
pUe.  lliwa  viUr  Bhila  hsre  ao  ffxod  days  (or  )i«r(onfuiagtlie  »ft«r-d««th  cer«inailiaa. 
whoa  th^  0*0  alKinl  it.  th«  citiof  mnuriMir  buya  a  hen,  and  potting  it  in  a  Inaket, 
t»l(e>K  to  tll«apOt  where  tlw^  Ubtr  lijw  lliruwa  a«»y  tho  dcoc.iacd'a  wlw*.  The  patty 
then  bathe,  briiig  the  h™  back  with  tbom,  and  ilnnk.  Tho  »idoiir"e  Iiair  >h  out  off. 
sad  tfao  hen  i*  cooked  by  her.  Titc  nroc»«Hinga  end  b;  tbi  sift  of  a  iDrbnu  Ut  tho 
dooMWd's  M  hia  siEtcr's  m».    TalixU  SUaUatdlir  (1676). 





BhiU    • 

SouH  of  tlie  ml Jeat  tribe>a  wnrakip  only  the  tyer  troJ.  i'iMli<i«) ;  Chapter  III, 
■MT  pay  tipifisl  rwvcrouco  to  the  mmtb'erj  mtifa,  and  Ig  MaD4*lcv;  FopnUtioa. 
«iul«  ulliuni  wornUip  tho  unltutiry  \ixa}  ttiaHa  godn  chivHy  Bluuroba, 
Khauiiiibn,  K&noba,  the  jfoddeHK  A i btLsr&oimJ to,  and  Shitt&iulta 
tbr  smaM-pox  go(l^li^8»,  nbotn  thoj  invoko  undur  vnriotta  nuoea.' 
AlnxF't  mII  wiiniiiip  tlii;  npint^  of  tlivir  unoeiitora  and  bvlioTt  in 
■  KTah,  and  oioeus.'  Tlii-ir  gods  are  stoueH  smeared 
'  1  Aod  oil.  Th<«j- gvoL^riilly  worship  tboin  ac-(^>nijmniod 
bf  their  pri«dia,  iku  Kli^'al<t  ur  Bhfils.  7'1k<}-  fii-iit  ufTer  nn  animal 
&ud  Ebeu  bquor,'  aud  after  bgbtiu^  a  lirs,  cast  into  it  a  little  of  tbe 
teth  and  viae  wilb  some  pulse.  Bvpoatine  a  prayor  they  bow 
Wfoni.tbc  gods,  and  rbuti  partake  of  Uiu  nesb  and  lt<|aor  aft«r 
^•tv'.ug  tbe  pne»t  bis  share. 

Amnng  thu  plnin  Bhils  disputes  are  f^noi-Hlly  nettled  by 
nfori'tic^^  to  u  ^iiitiii^ii,  jmnch.  E«vb  of  tho  wildrr  inountatn  tribtfa 
tw«  an  beieditary  chief,  naik,  some  of  whom  were  foruiorly  men 
(if  ^eat  i*owor,  and  wero  eorvud  by  the  BhiU  with  wonderfol 
Eaithfiiliifsa.  Kncb  ebit^f  ban  an  beroi^tarY  minintyr.  OTvuttait  or 
c-  also  a  Ithil.     As  is  the  cage  with  Uhira  and  M&nga,  BhU 

c ,  I  .n  ii*  1'3'  diwtricls   nut  by  ginglo  vJllagoa.     The  diiitrict, 

^Mj^^fHi.  i»iiaiata  ot  a  given  arc-a  or  'grtVup  ol  Irmn  ten  to  twenty 
Tillages,  and,  aa  its  headman,  the  niiiii  reoeives  through  his  minister 
all  roquiMtH  for  tu-bitnition  cotnmittvLVt,  panch*.  All  BbiU  obey, 
or  are  auppoaed  to  obey,  the  ndik  at  tlieir  particular  ^>'irt;ano. 
Differenca  of  clan,  which  is  a  social  rather  than  a  political 
dutinction,  mattiiru  but  little.  A  Mori  Bhil  will  pay  the  eauie 
deference  to  a  GAikw^d  wait:  &a  is  paid  by  a  tlliil  of  tbc  GiiikwAd  clan. 
At  all  fi-»^«l»  and  higfa  oorcmonics  the  minister  seals  and  arranges 
Ihr  giio^t.i  and  attends  to  ibeir  wautn,  aud  bin  wife  to  the  wiuito  of 
thu  women  guests.     The  chief  prestdw  and  loads  the  feast.* 


■  1  •[      ".iiH    r-ii 
India,  II.  IM[: 

I,-, I 

I   tt^iQur  iloilist  ftro  K»li,  Hatipikva.  Vi^Acha   Kunvor,  Htlkn^U*, 
luiit,    Knliyii   IU]1.    Oitian   kUJa,    lUIUin.  ChtukoocUniiU*, 
:<^iiii4U,  hualtititimiM,  *iij  G)u,iut. 
Lj' 'II    u(   tbi   Coolnl    luilln    Hliib,  Sir  J.    llfila«lm  Mn  |C<iulrml 
Tb«  rnxntiiOH  «r*  uniiUr,  but  Uiw  foniin  •llir<tr*nl  (ran  taa  religion 
:•.    ThMT  cvtviavDum  ui'  much  uiiitvil  tv  pfopitiatory  oSsriuRs  uil 
r  '  ■•!  Ill*  Uiiiilu  BiiuoT  i&(*fiifil  •iaitlM,  liutpirticuUrly  Iti  IhvKwldoM 

•'  uvy  oUv  pay  gnat  r*Tunjnv«  to  HaJuUvv.    Uf  t)ia  Blitl  jmbHiui  of 

<■  I  tin,  Mr.  If  ont  uF  lk«  TneouiHiifltrin*]  Survey  (B«pun  (nr  i9i677)  givM 

;'■  i^auociiiiit.     Nol  IwlMvuig  tli»t  orrlaiii   Kliil   ■•HeaU  coitlil  rnnkv  MOfda 

vail.  uKfiinl  over  lira.  I  *iinl  fur  tinan.  A«  il  «m  nut  n«li  tlnw  th«y  timMoW  Vit 
tSuiw  the  Ifnt  with  grml  nJutvUncML  Thar  duy  »  IkJo  about  (our  (««(  loiig'uid 
ngfatwa  taclm  deep  nnil  tiaU  lilM  it  vithlivw  coaI*.  Tlia  ptimt  tbvn  niut(«rMl  aa 
ffi-n-'-'i""  BDil  laaaed  the  coala  tilt  lh<T  wen  hri|clit>  Hvtliuii  ofTunil  ■  luml  and 
«ar*d  a  luikiid  swurd  aii  timia  over  the  li/e.  afUT  whicli  h«  il^eiiol  a  Bhil  mtioa  by 
tuiD  to  «alk  over  the  coals,  llib  th«  Bliil  did.  tokinit  six  dolibaral«  "tvM,  and  thriou 
mppnlrnf  tiio  o]icr>t»n.  Trickery  wu  euapBotvd,  but  «n  hi*  fevt  being  ex-'tuined, 
tlwv  wttt  uot  found  tlie  loMt  bnmt  or  lili*t«>«d.  A  Mtiialmia  peon,  a  Ba'4v»  of 
0«Ab,  vu  thvn  uk«l  to  walkover  the  fire,  whioh  liu  di<l  wiihovt  taeleMlheMtatim, 
aa.  lin  oaid,  it  vu  crhiunwd.  Thoogb  be  moved  katl  a  Iwt  at  a  tune,  Uw  fleab  <C  his 
»ii: .-  w  lU  not  even  ainjjed. 

'  I  linir  rule  ibout   lauiiJieoe  ■•  that  Hatipava  and  Vlahicha  Knnver  ehowtd  grt 
a  bullock,  and  iJicothctfdoitio«  a  lie-goat  or  a  fowl,  a  ooclt  far  a  god  ud  a  bto  tor  • 

■  la  Cmitral  India  the  Bbil  chieli  were  colled  Tadvia.     The  people  wtf*  ikvoted 
to  tiicin  *ad  tniiiUuivIf  obej'ed  Ui«U  CManunda.     (Makvlin,  U.  laO). 


baptar  IIL 

Uiwrttbd    - 



The  following  are  abort  aketchea  of  Boine  of  the  leading  tri 
wliicb,  Chougb  conunonly  included  under  the  general  torm  B 
diffuf  in  maay  roapocta  from  tSe  moro  ordwly  iMain  JihUn. 

NARits, living  cbioflyoD  tho  north Wjicof  tbo  Sjitpudfa.  bord 
on  Uulkar's  Kini^  and  the  towna  w  UalTMi,  PaliUiner,  an 
Sindra,  and  in  smaller  nambera  in  Chinnin  and  Virv&da,  are  tfao 
most  HAvago  of  tho  Bhil«.  Vory  dark,  small,  and  harsh-foaturc<l, 
ther  wear  liraaa  earringa,  and,  as  aboes,  pie<»8  of  nilgai  bide 
tied  witb  airings.'  Thoy  live  cbivfly  on  routs,  fruit,  and  b«mctif, 
ahun  all  intorcour^e,  and  lend  u»  utterly  mrago  existence.  A  few 
raise  a  little  grain  among  ibe  anliea  of  burnt  boagbs  or  barter 
Gorest  produco  for  clotlit  but  they  aro  seldom  soon  bwyond  tbu 
limiCa  of  their  niitive  foi\!M(«.  Some  of  tiicm  arv  Muaalraina;*  but 
moiit  hare  no  noticeable  religion,  neither  worabipping  ilinda  idols 
nor  following  tbu  MusRlinAn  crocd.  Thoy  have  an  lioreditAr^ 
headman,  ndik.  In  1823  the  MahAIa  were  iu  a  disturbed  slatv,  kdi' 
canaad  vorv  great  fawmble.'  . 

KhotiI|8.  numbering  223  sotib,  dwell  aide  by  sido  with  tho  Kahri 
ftlongthenoutliface  nf  the  Wj^yi^ijj^,  and  are  found  in  largii  numbBra 
at  Dhauli,  Vaijapur,  andinma^yofthe  Cbopda  and  Shirpnr  villages. 
Tho  Tadviaaod  people  of  S&vda  call  all  BhiU  Khotila.    Bui  KhotJla 
and   Nahitla  ana  distiDCl  claasen,   regarded   by   tbu   ()uru   Bbil   «^m 
degraded,  because  they  indulge  in  carrion,  and  do  not  bBsiiale  t^| 
tonch  the  dmd  body  of  tho  cow.     The  Khotilu  barter  gums  ain^^ 
wax  for  the  produce  of  the  plains.     In  their  babita  and  customs 
the  Nah^B  and  Khotibi  aro  muob  aliko.     They  are  great  huntsmen 
and  Tery  fond  of  Uquor,  drinking  to  exoesa  CRpectally  at  HoH 
(March-April)  tune.     The  day  after  RoU  they  eet  oat  hunting, 
and   sweep   the    fonosts   running   down    peafow]   and  jnngtcfowl 
with  great  glee  anil  wouderfnl   shocchs,  and  sometimes  with  the 
help  of  their  dogs  and  arrows,  bagging  oreu  a  spotted  deer  or 
a  blue  bull.     Many  of  ihom  worabip  the  tiger  god  and  refuse  to 
joia  in  a  tiger  hunt.    Tbeir  religious  oeromonies  are  very  Hiitiple 
requiring  nn  Hriilimuu.     Tb©  child    ia  named  by  ita   parents    or 
tribeBmen,  and  aa  it  growa  np   follows  in  ite  parent's  footMtvj 
If  a  boy,  ho  joins  his  mher  in  the  chase,  helpa  to  catch  liali  an 
gather  Wvua,  Ine,  tiom>y,  wild  borries,  and  otber  forest   prodao 
which  aro   bartered  with  tiome  shopkeopor  in  the  plain  for  caa 
or  credit.     If  a  girl,  she  helps  ber  mother  iu  cooking  and  cot 
grinding.     When  tho  time  for  man-iage  comes,  if  old  enou(fh  th^ 
lad%imself,  or  if  be  is  too  young,  his  father,  arranges  with  tho  pirl'a 
father  for  a  cert.iin  price,     'fhe  costu  committoo,  jHtneh,  and  thtjS 
headman,  naik,  are  asked  to  witne»i  the  agruomeul,  and  a  ibiy  t^H 
fixed   for  Uio  coromony.     The  officiating  priest,  u  Bbil  by  c»wti>, 
known  as  Mdukar  or  Cbaudhri,  ia  the  Naik'a  minister,  ;fmd/uii^_ 
For  his  service  he  gets  a  turban  or  tiomo  other  present,  or  a  monEC^J 
fee  of  2*.  (id.  (Ite.  1  m.  4).     If  the  headman  is  present,  he  also   i^ 

*  Tboif  MfiMMaBn  m  mnch  ilg*iii«t  tham,  their  (eatero*  sr«  vnm  sinra  himl 
diMgroMhIo  thu  tiM  Blilla,  vary  ilwk  ami  g(  n  lUintnutav*  rt«tiu«.      Ur.  Gilxir 
&»x.  R«c  3W  at  ISaa.  l!!&7.  »  lad.  Ant.  IV.  S8B. 

*  Mr.  aibwM  C«U«cU)r  kA  EUndMli,  Bov.  Iloc.  V»  o(  1£«,  I2». 




^il  half  a  crown  or  Uiroc  iiliil1ing».  Ailor,  in  tlic  ordinRTj'  way, 
iba  brido  and  bridegroom  Iinve  be«a  rubbi>d  with  tunnvric,  or  lue 
&!  '  '  vTonmg  tha  uiiiiiMor  begins  tha  cy>rt>tnoDy  by  asking  tho 
t'  ill  tbe  ninnc  of  Iiis  bride.  Hw  WIIk  ht'x  uiune  and  Hf»  his 
- .  -;  1  1  ii  or  trousorclotli  In  bor  gown,  higda.  ITion  ab«  is  n^kod 
:]i"  :u  iiii'i^Toom's  name,  and  aftoi-  saying  it,  ties  her  robo  U>  bis. 
'Hill*  twd  Edgotber  thoy  turn  seven  times  rrMuid.iiiid  tbo  coronionyig 
ooinplete.  A  ffinst,  costing  fnitn  IO<t.  to £3  (Kit.  5-ltA.  30),  follows, 
■nd  tbo  bridegroom  goe>.i  to  his  bther •in -law's  but  where  he  livM 
fmrn  It  viobV  In  tfareo  months  or  a  yenr,  and  (hen  tnkos  tbo  brido  to 
his  own  dwelling.  l1ioy  bury  tbi^ir  dui^  witboiit  fonn  or  ceremony, 
piling  a  few  atoned  to  mark  the  gmTe.  Stirnomes  common  amon^ 
tlip  S^nVi-il.x  nrti  Knlamba,  Vjdia,  Pipria,  and  Chav&nia;  and  among 
:  ia,  I'akria,  oud  Ghania. ^^_^__^ 

riv,  1  arlis,  and  DhAnkfta  or  Dh&nlcaarAn,  people  tbe 
stib-dtvisioa  and  parte  of  Taloda  and  SbAhAda.  PAxfl^, 
I  '  3PSS  homIb,  an?  raid  to  hv  Rajputs  who  were  dn?ftiihy 
ir  chiefit  from  their  liomo^  near  the  bill  fort  of  Palagad.' 
Ill)  from  the  Mathv^d  Htat«  north  of  the  Narbada  and  are 
l<il  Mathvndiis.'  Thoy  are  callud  I'Avn*  Bbils,  I'rivra  Niika, 
■nd  i'fivra  Kolift  indiffi-rKiitly,  but  they  are  more  like  Konkan 
MM  Kolig  than  BbiU.  The  l'4vr^  are  usually  short  and  stightlj 
botlfc.  Th«ir  fwrinres,  fiattor  than  thoso  of  iho  ordinary  Uindo, 
bL  !  'ligoQce  and  gnod  nature.     They  hare  low  ronnd  foreheads, 

r.  Ills,  and  thick  b'p6,  and  wear  tboir  hair  long  and  monstachee 

i!  'V  pbtok  out  tho  board.     The  women  are  stoul  and  buxocn, 

i  I  young,  very  Ciimely,  fair,  and  with  exjiroaaire  features. 

Tlifir  Jangaagvis  irregular,  governed  by  few  rules,  Kiill  of  rolling 
vxwelii  aud  diphthongs  it  t»  morv  lik<?  Gnjar&ti  tj^n  Mariiihi.  It  ia 
Ettver  written,  and  ther  are  alwayn  examined  in  conrt  by  interproterg.' 
Thuir  iisr\}  has  no  infinitive,  and  only  two  tcnsaa,  past  and  preoout. 
The  other  Ceasefi  are  formed  by  the  addition  of  an  irregular  verbi 
Though  they  have  inHny  woi-ds  in  common,  the  P^vriw  use  fc  where 
the  Viirlis  use  p,  and  in  words  drawn  from  n  forcijjn  eonrce,  tho 
P4vrds  change  <  into  a  and  «A  into  ha.* 

A  Panu's  bonae  ia  better  built  and   more  confortable    than   a 

Chapter  III 





'  TM*  aoomot  ol  Um  PAvrii  ii  Bunly  c«iniatcd  Irnm  ui  utkk  by  Lieut.  Rigbj 
(l9*9MnTnM  Bom-tle^.  8oc  IX.  74'89.  •  Mr.  ItevMlMm.  C.S.    ., 

*lifl.  Ant.  lU.  3M>.    I  woct  JctohwhoBHaiUoi  toino  gtMtsUln  golui  ihoio. 
It  «U1  b«   obscncd  thai  t)>ousb  the  |»i1ieipt«  ffglvi  apprMwIxa   lb«  Hantttii  gwfo> 
the  KMiiliTe  in  ih  axiA  tin;  lUMlaDilre  tcrb  iAo<»m«  aiora  like  GnjKrtti 

'  Tbe  toUowing  «n  •  few  el  Mr.  Rigb]f'a  exanplM : 




BttTT**  &BII. 




M*  ■bwiiw  naU»  ttOtt. 
Tn  Ml  khUaka- 



Avtit  bu**  dUTtlM 
Ha  Uilrl  Uofti  hal. 




t%  hhM  ctMnk  iboIUl 

[Bonba^  OftutUe^ 



ilipttr  III. 



VAr)i*9.  tastead  ot  letting  his  Mtlle  live  in  liu  hoDM,  tlic  Pd 
bus  Sstia])/  two  thatched  hut»  of  ioiorlac^d  bamboos,  one  for 
fiiinil;  the  uthvr  for  his  ciittlu.  (rvncrallT  scattered  about  in  k 
^^ups,  c!Kh  fonniug  %  Binall  farming  CAtnblishmcmt,  tho  honses 
onclo§ed  by  a  conrtynrd,  on  ouesideof  vrbichureamngcdnnuni 
of  cin-'dlsr  store  hooAes  for  graict  and  a  shed  for  the  oartlicii  vn 
TMKeU  which  wo  alvrays  wt  on  a  rnixud  bitmboo  frame.  Und 
neatb  this  water-pot  frame  is  usually  a  woodt-u  trough  wil 
water  for  thv  goats  and  fowlii.  Mango  and  othnr  troos  are  planted 
round  thn  hounefl  and  along  the  divi^iiou.t  bvlwoon  finldit,  and  are 
carefully  protected  by  bamboo  trelliii  work.  The  Pivria  eat  only 
^obIs,  sheep,  and  fowlt^  All  smoWo  (obacco,  but  Ihvy  never  uno 
opium,  aud  very  seldom  hemp.  Though  they  drink  a  grmt  quantity 
of  moka  liquor  at  tbcir  feasts  and  raarriagea,  in  ordinary  life  they 
are  very  t«nipenit«,  Thcinon  wwir  a  red  and  whit« striped  loincloth, 
tangoti,  generally  made  at  HoAhitid  in  Akrtiui  nod  c»tting  from 
8J.  to  (W.  (:ia«Mn«-4  a»*iiM),  and  a  flhouldercloth.  The  women 
have  gvneiuJly  more  clothci  than  tho  Varha,  but  they  do  not  think 
it  any  harm  ^>  go  naked  tn  the  waist.  Liice  the  VarllM,  they  wt>itr 
braaa  rings  on  tbeir  legs,  and  maRsive  necklaces  of  bratvii  and 
peivter  beads,  silver  aruilet«,  and  massire  earrings  two  or  three 
inchi-K  round.  The  men  alxo  usually  woar  a  pair  of  large  8ilv< 
earrings,  with  a  square  drop  heavy  enongh  to  draw  down  the  lobi 
No  chddroQ  of  eitbor  eeic,  however  young,  are  allowed  to  go  alio 
without  some  clothes.  Distinguished  fit>ra  tbu  Viiilia  and  the  !o 
land  Bhils  by  thnr  better  condition,  their  agriculinrnl  habits,  and 
their  language,  the  PitvrAit  deny  tliat  tk^y  are  Bhils  aud  consid 
the  name  a  reproach. 

Though  ahy  of  jtrangers,  when  their  confidence  la  gained,  tin 
are  cheerful,  frank,  and  talkative ;  they  are  very  honest  and 
hanlworking,  and  full  trust  may  bo  placed  on  their  wuni.  They 
are  very  fond  of  their  country  and  seldom  leave  >(.'  Affrays, 
chiefly  bounihiry  disimtt-ji,  now  and  then  occur  between  the  peoplo 
of  diHereut  villagcH,  but  robbery  is  almoftt  unknown.  They  aro 
very  ho)tpitHV>le  among  themselves,  tbeir  women  and  children 
constantly  visiting  from  bouse  to  house,  and  some  of  their 
headmen  spending  (heir  whole  alore  of  grain  in  entertaining 
guests.  Ftui.siounlely  fond  of  music  and  dancing,  their  chief 
musical  inBtruoienls  are  a  two-stringed  fiddle,  mnthi,  an 
'  i^trument  like  the  bagpi]>o  without  the  bag,  pattu,  a  bamboo  tife, 
pavi,  ainrge  drum,  m«>i(/(i/,  and  a  sinull  drum,  tlhol.  Their  musio 
iH  neither  harsh  nor  untuneful,  and  is  aupenor  to  any  beard  i»  thn 
plains.  In  their  dances,  about  fifty  men  and  women  pass  in  a  large 
circle  round  the  mn^idans,  gradually  iM-coming  more  excited  as  toe 
music  grows  louder  and  quicker.  Some  of  the  men  flourish  drawn 
ewords,  and,  at  iatervals,  all  raise  a  load  sbont  aud  turn  sharply 




'  A  ynung  P*vra  i;ini»»iil.  who  nu  htmod  <rt-i>r  lo  rivc 
irl*   c«M,    vrnnl  licnis,  iu»l   fcaviag  tip»k«n  vt  hit 

inmiediiitvljr  V0uuiutt<<t  muciOo. 

a  h«ankirl*   c«M,    vrnnl  licnis,  un\   fcaviag  tip»k«n  nt  hu  ilrowl  ni   the  uiptniivbu 

Uonl.  Risby  (1640)  ia  Truu.  Bom.  ~ 





muii]  hcing  ontwftrds.  Tbobalk  arehtulMu>(tmon,nianyof  tliem  very 
riallc<L  Tbey  mv  much  nttacbcd  to  tjitrir  tand  and  finul  oj  adoniing; 
th«r  boioesteada  witli  vroru  of  luangiM!*  and  duiroli  treesi  Some 
■re  carpenters  and  ttUdranuths,  bnl  none  borliers  or  abonniakGra. 
Badi  man  ia  hie  own  baibnr,  and  each  family  makce  iui  own  fi^^ld 
looU  And  biu>kelirark.  Rxccpt  for  their  Nhui»  whirli  they  bring 
Kuknrmnnda,  and  their  ailverand  broas  onuunents  which  nro 
it  by  Uiuda  workmotu  o!  Boahmti,  they  hare  little  need  of 
bivi^  craftsmen.  Tlic  womun  iiuvor  wurk  tn  the  fields.  Their  otily 
OBtdoor  work  ia  gathering  moha  fluwerii  and  e/uiroU  nuts. 

Tlieir  rulitrioQ   is   simplo.     Thoy  have   neither  nrieata,  temples, 

»or  idoU.     Thoy  womhip  n  itDprcmo  cn-aUJr,  hhufftnn,  and  strive  Uf 

pinse  bin  with  aacriiicuii  aud  offerings.    In  the  forest  near  each 

Tilla^  is  a  sacred  tree,  round  which,  before  harvest,  the  rilhigum 

iBt^C  and  prostrato  themwlvonjb^forx)  the  rising  son,  offer  com,  and 

f»Tilioc  gimtA  aud  fowU.     'l%atdoity  to  whom  tUu8C  ofToriDgs  aro 

Blade  ia  called  B&va  Kumba.    His  wife,  lUni  Kajhal,  haa  alico,  not  fur 

from  her  husband'^,  a  s!K'r(-<)  trro  to  which  ofFonngs  are  made.  They 

WtfTMbiji  the  tig*T  jTod,  t-AijhJev,  but  only  to  propitialo  it  and  prevent 

it  attiickinff  their  cattle,   or  when  it   has  carried  off  any  of  tboir 

people.  Though  they  aeknowk^lgeno  bonsidiold  or  village  deities  and 

rorentorti  nu  rivers  or  firo,  thoy  are  ^ery  super»titiou«,  boliuviug 

ia  witchcraft  and  sorcery.     Before  the  British  rule,  many  an  old 

woman   had   h^r  nose  slit  under  the  suspieion  of  being  a  witch, 

dakhin,  the  idea  being  that  tbo  loss  of  the  noMO  destroys  all  power  to 

work  ovil.     A  bt^Iiof  in  omona  U  ooinmon.     Udd  mitnbon*  are  lucky, 

Init  to  Aco  a  black  bird,  called  pifAi,  is  most  ilUoiuoned.     At  tlio 

begiiiDiu^  of  any  nudcrtaking  they  cnsC  omens  with  a  bow  and  arrows. 

Tbey  Kulut*'  frivnd.i  by  taking  the  two  hands  of  the  puraon  saluted, 

and  Haying  Ikaj,  bhaj,  that  is  worship.  ' 

Ko  cen-in'mies  take  place  at  birth.  The  child  is  named  on  the 
fifth  or  twt^lfth  day,  and  for  seven  or  eight  days  its  nmther  is 
considered  nncle«n.  The  fnlber,  mother,  or  oldest  member  of  Hio 
family  mil  the  child  whaU-vor  they  pIvMiU).  Thi^  have  no  names 
derived  from  gods  or  religion,  and  no  Aumnmes.  Bhiitia,  Rattria, 
and  Mangtia  are  some  of  their  male  names,  and  Jatoi,  Guri,  Badol, 
and  Chinki,  some  of  the  (enuilo  nMnies. 

The  Duirriago  censmony  is  never  porformed  till  both  tho 
hride  and  bridegroom  are  of  age,'  aud  the  young  men  nro 
generally  allowed  to  choose  for  thomiHrlvcs.*  Though  she  is  generally  ' 
younger,  caeCB  ore  not  rare  when  the  wife  i»  older  than  the 
husband.  Th©  youth,  or  his  father,  givei  the  bride  abowt 
iA  ids.  (Ra.  -15],*  but  if  poor  and  unable  to  pay  tho  fixed  amount, 
the  youth  gives  his  bullocks  to  the  bride's  father.  If  poorer  still, 
be  binds  himself  to  serve  his  future  father-in-law  for  a  period  of 


>  Licot.  Rigbjr  (l»191  in  Tnaa.  Boin.  Ooog.  Soft  IX.  77.  At  pnMst  (1676)  Hid 
tilth  tatrry  tlSar  Mnk  at  t«a  or  tw«lr«. 

>  I^tsr  (lS;fl)  BOMiinU  would  m«ib  to  tluw  tlut  r«laiiaai  look  oat  tor  a  wifo. 

*  0(  UiiMD  £3  wDra  tor  til*  bridt,  lb.  ot  14*.  (orlhnl)rid«grooin.aod  ilkenat  lor  her 
biW.  OI  UbetIi««iiiiibutmaia(raMd  to  £11  (Rt.  110),  tlio  lir>d(i  &ud  bridtgrooin 
B«tti>g  tho  •"»  M  Mont,  aad  tlk«  iacnaaed  bkUiu*  going  (v  Uia  bnd«'a  fsUw, 

B  411-13 


Chapter  lit 


•    l*drnU. 



eig^ht  or  ten  years,  becoming  wbat  is  termed  tlie  bouse  nouon-I 
ghnrjava!,,  iho  Gujanlti  yharjfiiniU.  Durinif  this  period  t ha  yon 
lives  witii  tliii  girl't  fumily  and  is  gcncrnlly  nmrriod  to  hor  wh4 
half  the  t«nn  agreed  to  in  over.  Miin-iii^eH'  are  hitid  only  durit 
Phd]min  (March)  and  Faiskaih  (May).  Tlio  fallier  of  the  yout 
firtt  dvmandH  the  girl  of  hor  father ;  if  he  aCToee,  the  price  demand^ 
is  paid,  and  the  tUja  ceremony  i«  oyer.  'llio  bridugrooiu's  woddii 
garments  coimist  of  a  waifltclotb,'  aboot  eight  or  ten  cubiu  lo 
and  costing  from  2«.  to  I0«.  (Rv.  1  •  Rs.  5) ;  a  tairbnn  from  2«.  to 
(ltd.  1  •  Uh.  2) ;  a  shoulder  cloth  *  jutha  ;  a  long  clonk  ;  and  a  liettd. 
cloth.  He  weauv  two  silver  bracelets,  six  or  eijcot  rings  on  tbo  right 
Jiand,  and  Koniv  rin^  •to  thv  v»rlob««.  Tho  bride's  clothe*, 
provided  Ity  her  father,  conaijtt  of  a  robe,  luqda,  costing  from  4«.  to 
lO».  {Its.  2-  Ra.  5),  and  a  bodice,  hifhoii.  She  wears  tin  bracelets. 
The  usiiul  ccromonios  begin  by  the  bo3r'8  father  taking  a  liqnor  jar 
to  the  girl's  bouRe  and  surinklitig  sonie  nf  it«  contents  on  the  lioor ; 
the  eldest  man  in  the  village  in  tbt-n  asked  to  perform  worship,  />iya, 
with  the  liquor,  for  which  hv  receives  \d.  (|  aniia).  Ofleriogs  of 
ric<(  and  kotint  \'n\aoT  an;  then  miidi>  lo  their  deity  Bitva  Kiinibn. 
The  next  day  tho  bride  and  briilt-gr*>om  arocovenHi  with  turmeric, 
ftnd  the  lalter,  clad  in  his  wedding  gnnncnts,  goes  in  procenaion, 
with  mttsic  and  dancing,  to  demand  the  brido  of  her  nnrents.*  She 
is  then  brought  out  and  sealed  near  her  himbiind  and  whilo  women 
chant  marriage  songs,'  the  married  piir  are,  with  dancing  and  music, 
rauod  on  the  shunldvrs  of  their  friends.  Tliun,  with  no  stint  of 
liquor,  tba  bride's  parents  give  a  feaiit  to  the  whole  ooin;iany,  luid 
after  the  feast,  all  go  in  procession  to  the  house  of  tho  bridegroota 
and  are  entertainw   t^ere   for  two  days.     After   this   tho   new'  ~ 


!■.  Aocoiding  (o  them,  on  the  diy  bdMW  maniice,  all  tba 
I  go  dudnf:  to  the  bri<i«'i  riOua  and  Mm  tiiMW  for  mt  night. 
manniA  ncit  mominiE,    and  tfaon,  one  <a  then  oarryiiiii  the 

*  Later  (1876)  aoomntt  ahow  that  tbia  rnk  U  u-'>l  ^wnva  kept.  \ 

*  Tlie  wait(<Jntti  J*  tliwl  nwnd  tbo  vaiat  after  pasting  coio  end  of  It  round  tha 
•hiiuhlor  after  th*  faahloa  ol  woan«D. 

VTbo  ilvoiUilfli  doU)  la  cither  |Jaco4  veil  (ald«d  em  tlia  sbouldtr  or  voni  ao  a* 
cover  tbo  li>i-k. 

*  Lionv   Rigby  IB  Tnw.  B-mi.  G<c<^  Sao.  IX.  TS.    Latvr  (1876)  aoooDBt*  differ 
■oveml  ol  tii«  drtaila. 
bridegroooi'*  roUtiona  _ 
parform   relj^ona   oernannii. 

l>rid«  nil  hia  waiat,  tlwjr  ooma  to  tlifl  brida^niMn'a  Tiilaga  lo  perform  the  mnrr-uge 
cemnoaioa,  whicli  genmllf  take  plana  id  ths  aftrmoon.  V\ni  tliny  wonbin 
KhaBiloba.  who  ii  repn>«Dlcd  hjr  a  hoa))  of  rioa  with  two  pine  on  it.  Thv  coiipfo 
ia  tten  avatod  un  a  atool.  Ike  oiuli  of  then-  (faniuota  are  t»d  togiathar.  and  they 

athrow  rine  aa  each  »tticr.     Wlun  Ihii  ia  dout^  it  ■■  a  cuatuin  with  aunu  lamiliGa  to 
talA  thu  pair  an  their  •haulitcra  and  dwiM. 

*  Odd  nf  Ihatr  ouirtuso  aoiiip  rana ;  Biva  Kamba  tUni  Kajbal  aaf^  viha,  Dola 
diilin*  Ki-U  Kate  *iha  ;  ItArat  KonU  awe  rod  dangro,  Rial  Kajhal  aaua  vlba 
vadaona  :  rUrelbi  ohulia  ponha  dekhno  )li  viha :  tliat  ta,  '  Row  hoautifal  ia  tho 
Marriago'-f  lUraKmnha  and  lUiii  Knjlul.  Itii  colcbtntfd  u-ith  »n^ia  ""^  mirthful 
nilaii:.  RdrAt  Knuilm  am-nar*  like  a  lahant  wBrrVir.  ItAui  Kajhnl  aj-pcan  l>eautifnl 
to  the  liohuliUr.  I«l  ua  dock  owratlvaa  mlj  and  go  to  tfae  tnarriaga.'  AnotliBr  nini : 
Runffa  ilovin'i  viha.  Saola  riii»  nutl  haoU  iacua  riha;  Vn  Use  liaol*  riai  U^n 
\AtaA,  Rant  Ka)lMl  l*«(*  babi  i  UAoa  KnnUia  li^tsa  hhii,  Baharo  ducar  rlba  hate 
dhataa  vigrari ;  Biiaa  jaou  rlba  bh«d  l^o  ohcwu  ndle  chobw  :  tliat  la,  '  Tha 
goiMea*  n(  tba  waoda  ia  aboot  lu  bo  narrjad.  lUna  Saala  and  lltal  llnoU  aro 
■hunt  to  be  uiiito'L  Rh«  la  tbe  aiu*r  of  the  wood  g.-dUpia.  ahe  la  the  aiatcv-in-Uw 
of  Kini  E«])ia],ah<i  la  tb«alatirof  Rivat  Kumha.  A  niarria^  ia  brang <elelir>tcd  in 
Um  KTttat  inuuntkiua ;  aiiniul  thu  happy  Couple  with  tarmoric :  Ut  tho  aaitetv.  aa  at  a 
rojraT ntarriagp,  Kait^  tbn  aactiNl  powder  aitd  wavit  tlie  tan  abora  Umbi,'  Ttaaa, 
Bom.  0«^  *»«.  IX.  78. 




'    -       I  1'dro  l"ft   together  For  fire  d*ys.     Od  the  eitlb  the 

.    .  .   uikist  tJie    girl  homo  «uil  f^ivM    ah    undMAiniboiit 

Lft  llu-  wltulu  villa^.     Two  (lays   ufter,  th«   briilogriKim,  wiUi    his 

feieadM,   gom  to    Ei»   father-in-law's  honso,   aad    pwst'ntiiijt   him 

villi  »  liiiuoF  jnr,   ih-iHiiniI«  hia  liriilv  luiil  vsvoi-t*  hur  home.   When 

he  leaves,  the  brulegreora  give^  the  headman  ot  the  girl'tt  Tiling 

mA  of  each  village  through  which   the    processiou  passes,   l)(i, 

'       inn).       SiiiifttB    fomicatiun    bvtwuen    ao    aniuitrriiM]    couple  ia 

'  IimI  by  A  Httiull  fint.',  nut)  il.  ia  not  tmcomniou  for  n  jrirl  hi  bu  Uio 

■  r  of  OHO  or  two  cbiWren  before  lier  iiiftrriagt!.     No  inai-riwo 

imy  is  performed  in  such  cases.     She  is  mert'ly  giren   to  tlie 

ihcr  of  hiT  childroQ   after  hu    hus    paid    tbo    regnlar  casto  fiae.* 

hough  the  girl  in  tint  fiiieil,  she  foregova  by  such  a  murriagu  id!  tho 

firivilogca  of  a  regularly  married  woman. 

Widow  marriage  is  allowed;  but  if  the  widow  hua  no  son,  her 
ti(*r>in-I»w  live*  not,  as  a  tule,  give  her  the  clothes  provided  for 
W  by  iiur  deooa»ed  hiiHliand.  fk<r  children,  if  young,  accompany 
Itfr;  but  rutarn  to  their  falher'a  houttA  on  coming  of  au;e,  iiiilvwi, 
<rliieh  genernlly  happoun,  the  second  hiuband  keeps  t^em  with 
himMslf.  I'olygamy  is  coinmon,  and  (hose  who  can  afford  it  have 
three  or  four  wire-i. 

Except  lepers,  persona  who  have  died  of  cholera  and  ftinull-pox, 
VDioeD  dying  in  child-birth,  and  children  undi>r  two  ertliroe  months 
wbn,  M  a  rule,  arc  bonud,  tho  Pivr^  either  bum  or  bury  their  dead. 
8t>  great  is  their  arerxioii  to  a  l«por  that,  when  living,  he  is  kept  in  a 
dkitant  cottage,  and  when  dead,  iii  buried  by  a  Mhiir  nntonchiM  by  a 
Pavra.  In  ordinary  funerals  a  party  of  them  carry  the  ivjrpse.  A 
Ttipeo,  or,  if  thu  family  bv  poor,  a  pice  is  placed  in. tho  deceased's 
mouth,  a  little  Hce,  turmeric,  and  nxi  powder,  ;/u/'i/?'ar«  rublu'd  on  the 
forehead,  and  liis  sword'  and  bowaaoa  arrows  are  placed  in  the  bit.'r  by 
hia  stdo.  With  the  sound  of  drnms  and  music  tho  body  is  earried  Co 
tho  burying  or  burning  grotind.  Tho  widow  wvarngood  clothes  on 
the  day  of  tier  husband's  deatli,  cooks  rice  iu  an  earthen  pot,  and  aft^r 
the  corpse  i«  cnrriod  away,  breaks  thepotoutitidethe  hou9edoor,and 
followi)  the  btiriul  ptirty  drvH^-d  in  new  clnthes^  On  her  rotom,  she 
|MitA  on  her  old  clothe.4,  and  nnhisa  tilio  wishes  to^marry,  never  again 
wcfirs  guy  clothes  or  ornaments.  All  the  furniture  of  the  decoaaed> 
diKlie:*,  cutt,  and  pols  cxevpt  drinking  pots,  is  buried  or  burnt 
with  him.  If  tlie  dead  did  not  own  thwto  articles,  tlicy  an  bought 
and  laid  by  his  side,  ilia  silver  ornaments  are  oUo  aometimes  b«rn£ 
But  shoen,  cows,  and  money  are  given  to  his  sister's  son,  bh'iclta. 
On  Ibu  ruturu  of  tho  funeral  party,  some  drink,  and  all  bathe.  Oo 
Uie  eighth  day  aft«r  death,  irieiHls  and  rclati'ins  meet  ut  the  house 
of  the  d<.-ceaeed  and  dj-ink  a  jar  of  liquor,  'rbnugli  the  death  is  not 
eonsidcrwl  to  hnvc  nuulo  the  family  impure,  they  perform  cenomonicg 
DD  the  twelfth  day  aft«r  duath.  i"ho  grunna  in  smeared  with 
Dowilnng,  leaf  plates  ore  spread,  straws  arc  hiid  to  represent  the 
dead  tnaa'a  fore&tliers,  liquor  ia  apriokled  on  the  gromul,  and  a 




yni*  twonl  and  the  lupoe  er  pice  pljiotd  ia  bU  igouth  g»  ia  Uio  Ml«i£»  ot  the 

(Bombay  Qui 





iliniier-  of  He?,  or  mixod  rice  And  pnlno,  is  giron  to  tbe  ctu<to*fc11o( 
Oa  Aat  dny  thoy  drink,  but  dft  not  danoo.     It  is  uol  obligatory 
perfurm  these  cereraoaiea  on  the  twelfth  day;  if  that  day  does 
Huit,  they  can  be  performed  on  any  day  within  tho   month, 
tbeae  ceremonies  arc  oven;  Uio  nmrest  relations  do  not  wcnr  tnrbui 
Like  other  BhlK  P&vr^  leave  a  boose  in  which  two  or  three  de 
bBTe  t«kou  place. 

F&yri»  have  three  chief  holidays,  litdraja,  Divali,  and  Shimga  or 
ffoii.  Indr^ja,  apparently  In  honour  of  Indm,  ix  held  only  when  tho 
year  is  Koud  or  wh«ii  a  tow  haa  to  be  dtticliarged.  It  is  celebrate^ 
«n  any  bunday,  Wednesday,  or  other  lucky  day  between  Dn^ra  and 
pivili.  Its  cliief  ocrvmouy  oonsisbi  in  pUuiting  u  ladamli,  Katiclua 
parvifolia,  branch  in  fnmt  of  a  laiidIord'8,i'i''>i)u'<ir'«,  house,  mu  an 
to  remain  one  <;ubit  iindorground  and  a  man's  height  abovw.  The 
brauoh  '\»  rubbed  with  vennilion  and  worship  begins  at  midnight.  A 
Boat  and  hen  aro  killed  and  oOcreil,  and  dnnoinjr  iM  kept  np  t4ll 
onybreak.  Next  morning  at  abont  ten  they  pull  up  the  braui'fa 
and  thn>w  it  into  some  neighbouring  rirer  or  pond.  On  returning  ' 
(hey  drink  and  danoo,  and  oat  the  ^at  and  hon  offerod  orumighl. 

IHvali,  sometimes  called  Nagdivaii,  is  a  yearly  feetiTal  colobrutod 
in  the  month  of  I'ush  (Jaiiaaiy)  on  different  dates  in  different 
villages,  KO  an  to  iaat  on  the  whole  for  nearly  a  month.  Four  or 
five  i)tuua-i  are  brought  from  a  neighbouring  river  and  placed  ontsido 
the  village,  but  within  the  limita  of  Ihu  villugu  lands.  They  are  then 
p<iint(-d  rod.  Mild  next  dar  at  noon  worship  begins.  Ijiipior  is  sprinkled 
on  thi>  gn>uud  and  fre^y  drunk,  and  goata  and  hena  are  killed. 
Dancing  bt-f^iis  at  nightfall.  Two  men,  holding  two  lighted  bamboo 
sticks,  go  from^oniw  to  hnuse  ffillonnd  by  the  villagem.  Every 
houwwife  comes  (At  with  a  lighted  biuip  in  her  hand,  waves  it  before 
Iheiii,  sputa  their  with  lamp  oil,  and  gives  them  drink. 
After  dancing  for  a  few  minutes,  the  procession  posses  to  another 
HbtiHo  and  lliero  go  thrniigh  the  vanie  routine.  Next  ihiy  they  feed 
their  bullocks ^ith  Indian  millot,  rice,  banii,  and  parol,  and  give 
them  drink.  ^ 

Shimga  or  Uoli  talf^  place,  as  clsowhore,  on  the  fifteenth  of  tliH 
bright  half  of  Ptuilgttn  (llarch).  Inimen^te  crowde  moot  at  Ohedgiion, 
the  central  village  and  polieo  head-<)iiarter8  of  the  Akr&ii  territory. 
A  pit  is  dog,  and  a  wooden  rod  thrust  into  it  and  lighted  about 
I  t|in  or  eleven  at  night.  Every  one  present  brings  a  pieuo  of  brood, 
some  rice,  and  a  cock.  Portions  of  iitette  are  thrown  into  the  flro, 
and  the  rest  is  hand>-d  round  among  friends.  Then,  with  the  help 
of  »ti  occn«iitiuil  dr»u}jliL,  they  danco  till  dawn. 

lo  each  village  the  oldest  man  is  looked  up  to  as  tho  chief  of  the 
community  and  invested  with  a  sort  of  natriarolial  authority.  Sitnpio 
forniciklion  K-tween  an  unmarried  couple  ia  punished  by  a  small  fine, 
and  adultery  by  paying  the  injured  husband  his  marriage  expenses. 

YXbus.'   like  Pivrfa.  foond  only  in  tho  mountainoua  tract 

*  FroiD  Lieut.  Kiglif'aarticla  on 

Um  Sttfuili  Uooal«iii»,    Trwu.  Bom.  Geug.  i 




•Ite:^  about  Uiirty  mi|pa  went  of  Aknini.  differ  ^rreatly  from 
in  anpearaoco.     They  are  tall  «ud  dark,  Tory  alira   htifwell 
witJi  foAtnrcs  Homewbot  ne^ru  iii  type.     Tbey  wear  no  heAil- 
1,  but  uarling  tliuir  hair  m  tuv  niiddlu  lut  it  flow  looeoly  orer 
shoaidera.     Tboir  women  tutuall;  go  naked  to  the  wai^t.     Oa 
I  legs,  from  tliB  anklfl  half  way  nn  the  calf,  tboy  wmu-  t«ors  of 
re    bniM  rings,   fitted    »o    tight   M  to  Ckuae  the    Beeh    to 
Tboao  rings  ore  never  liikoii  off,  and  are  bnried  witli  the 
_  Thongh  maQV  of  their  wcrds  are  Uio  same  a«  thoB«  osod  by 

Ffirr&e,  then  is  mncli  difT(.Teun»  buth  in  promiudntion  and  grammar, 
Idrit  iMigiwge  being  mum  liko  Oujuriti  t;liiin  tJm  Pdvriji'.  Liviog 
iHea  meaner  and  leas  cnnfortaule  than  the  Pirr^',  they  oat  alt 
,,  of  animals,  except  dogs,  cat«,  and  tigorc.  They  luad  a  pastoral 
\ih,  growing  littlu  com  and  having  luurgu  herda  of  cnUlu,  tho 
ing  of  which  is  tho  wonMin's  chief  occupation.  They  arts  very 
illing  to  part  with  their  cowh,  but  freoly  uiap-ase  of  thi'ir  btdlocks 
ith«y  si'lilom  niio  tiny  ploiiifh,  doing  most  of  thuir  tillitguwjth  hand 
1*beir  birilt  and  di-aih  oustoius  are  Ihu  BOiiie  aa  thato  of  Uio 
s',  and  the  only  difTercnoo  in  thoir  mairtage  customs  is  that. 
King  thorn,  marriage  takes  pla^^e  daring  any  month  of  tho  year.  , 
_Jiey  luive  no  divtindion  of  caste  or  soct,  nor  have  thev  any  priest,  ' 
jfvru.  Ail  among  the  Ftivrfci,  tho  oldest  man  of  each  village  acta  as 
ckJef  of  the  community  and  ia  invested  with  a  sort  of  polriardial 


j^[|]|{L>  Haitort,  orOXvirBnitA,  nnmboring  154,  dTrell  here  and 
there  onder  the  sliadow  of  Turanm&l,  and  along  the  hillit  lowarda 
Sh^hAda  and  Shirpar.  Though  ntimerous  in  Nondtirbfir  and  Nav&pur, 
they  »ri>  I'hietly  (ouiid  in  liie  high  wo-itorn  Pirapalnvr  platuaua. 
{tither  tall  and  fair,  they  are,  perhaps  from  the  v^oalthinesa  oi  the 
country,  wt-aker  in  body  tlinn  the  Akriini  PAvnia.  They  euDslantly 
change  ihiir  huts  and  more  about.  They  eat  beef.  They  uru  a 
timid,  inofTeusive,  cjuiot,  and  weil-behaTod  people,  rather  given  Jto 
drilik,  and  especially  tho  wilder  onus,  tmtlifol.  .They  are  Tery 
ignorant  and  Huperatitious,  tracing  all  disastoni  Db  the  inflnenoe 
of  witclicii.  Their  commonest  crime  in  tho^iurder  of  old  women 
supposed  to  be  witches.  Far  less  indnstrloHB  than  tlio  PiivniA, 
thoy  are  greater  drunkards  antl  very  fond  of  finery.  They  soldoin 
eater  Govi^niiiient  Hurviee.  Mainly  cultiv:il'ir:<  aome  have  of  late 
taken  to  carting  in  I'impalner.  Tlioy  worithip  Astamba,  Gnvlt, 
Vigbder,  tind  rnrmesbvnr.  A  bridegroom  Ium  ofton  to  serve  liia' 
father-in-law  for  a  Uirm  of  years.  Five  yeara  is  tho  ui*u»l  period, 
but  credit  ia  often  given  and  the  girl  allowed  to  live  wiUi  her 
hoiiband  before  the  fnll  torm  is  over.  Among  the  M&vchia,  iM 
among  tho  KaliAls  and  Khotils,  (ho  nuuriago  tio  i«  looso,  and  a 
wiinntu  may  le-avu  her  husband  and  marry  another  for  compara- 
tively trivial  reasons.  The  oasto  oommittoe,  ^ani:A,  naually  awarda 
oompBOsation,   but  cases  are   not   raro   wliun   tfa«  hnsband   does 



>  The  Mivuhia  arr  nkjii  Ui  Ihc  8<Ji)ri.<1ri  Rotii,  Mtd  ilerir«  (bgjr  namv,  [lariiApi, 
Emn  ■  eontnctKn  of  Hiv«U<Jio,  man  of  thn  minMt.  Mtval  ov  miMct  bcuig  a  tonp 
•iiedt«dia«««<nl  pMinofUia  OoMaa  totho  hickUuda  whiob  lorta  ita  WMlem  hotueo, 
Mr,  SucUir.  C.S.,  in  Ind.  Ant.  111.  187,  and  IV.  iS8. 

(Bombay  OuctttlP 








not  think  it  worth  liis  while  to  ftpply  to  IliO  cninmitt«!e,  nmloomfor 
bimdlslf  with  aunther  wife.     Ib  aucli  cnaen  iobiuts  t^iiierftUy  gt)  wi| 
their  mother,  and  (p-o»-ii-up  children  reuiaio  with  their  father.    'II 
bory  their  dcnd,  und  oflon  Iny  Ihc  diMX'asod'a  personal  property 
th»  grore  with  him.     'rfa»uyJi  mdetbcy  mn  ao  improvabio  cinw. 

MathtAj'IB.  also  called  F'AKAitiB.'  are  found  in  thfl  north  ,, 
Tak)da,  lu  the  Siitpiida  Bliil  %'i1[uge«,  and  in  the  trans- Narliiida 
state  of  Mathvild  from  which  they  take  their  iiitrm-,  nnd  fttim  which 
tliey~ure~sai3~~to  luiTe  cwmo  to  the  Sitpudas  before  tliu  BriliKli 
oonquest  of  Khtodosh.  Of  ordinary  gtit«,  they  are  geoorally  dark 
with  round  fii««8.  Thwy.  allow  their  hair  to  ktow  hut  nbave  their^ 
bcurdn.  'Jlioufth  at-  home  they  atill  apeak  MathvAdi,  aniixtnr'^ 
of  Gujar&ti  and  liangdi  Neni&di,  with  outsiders  they  talk  in 
biui^agc  which  ntn-nw  U>  Iw  a  mixture  of  Gnjarati,  Noinadi,  _ 
Unlu.  Formerly  they  dreeaed  in  UojarAt  fii.shi«n,  lint  they  havB 
now  taken  to  the  Uhil  loincloth,  langoti,  a  turhan  or  h<4ul- 
kerchief,  rumiil,  antl  a  piece  of  linen  coverinff  the  cheat.  At 
raarria^s  they  wear  nilk-hordereil  vraistclolbs.  ITimr  women  wear 
tim  robe,  »6di.  The  men's  omamenta  are  aniall  silver  earrings  luid 
,  the  women's  tin  rings  and  silver  bracelets.  Brass  noseringH  and 
round  silrcr  luiklcts  aro  nsod  only  by  the  rich.  Their  food  is  rice, 
millet,  ti(i;//i,  ati<i  hhaitli ;  tlio  flesh  of  !"hi-4*p,  doer,  and  hens,  but 
uever  of  bullocks  or  buffaloes.  Husbaudi-y  ia  their  chiof  occupation. 
The  few  non-vitltinitorH  vrnKo  oatUo  and  m-II  f^ss  and  fuel,  and  their 
womvn  gnilier  ehiiroU,  unchanania  latifolia,  nnt«.  Their  houses, 
which  they  share  with  their  cattle  and  change  once  every  thrve 
yew,  are  generally  gnuta  hut«  witli  bamboo  partitions.  The  well- 
to-do  use  bniS8  vcHseln,  but  moat  of  them  havo  only  earthen  pota. 
They  keep  cows,  ^utfaloes,  sheep,  kena,  and  bullooks  for  mIo. 
They  worship  Vdphdev  and  the  liyer  Nnrbada.  They  have  no 
priesto.  Their  chief  fcstiviiis  are  the  thirtieth,  amdiyUya,  of  AthdUh 
(Jyly-Augu.lL),  Shimija  or  Hoii  (March- April),  and  IHtxili  (October), 
when  they  eat  and  drink  freely  and  ^wayti  end  with  a  dance. 
After  the    foriAl  c'etnaud,  mdgni,  Uio  betrothal  of  a  girl  takd^_ 

Klace  generally  at  the  am>  of  twelve,  and  she  in  married  about  n  ye^H 
Iter.     The   bride's  father  gets  JEO   (Rs.  60),  besides  clotbea  aii^" 
ornaments  for  tlie  bHde.     Tliey  hare  tlie  regular  Knnbi  marriage 
cwTcnioniea,  tying  the  knot,   and  joining  luinda  and  walking  round, 
ehavri  fihavri.     There  is  no  officiating  priest.     They  burn  their  dead 
'exaept  young  children  whom  they  bury.     With  the  deceased,  hii| 
clothc«  und   onmmi;nt«   are  coiTied   to  the  burning  ground  wher 
tlte    Mh&r  takes    them  away.     The  decuoMcd's  widow    follows  ht 
husband's  corpse  as  tar   as  the  village    limits.     As  on    inarria^ 
occAsiomi,  cu«t«  people  are  invited  and  liquor  drank.     Though  they 
bare  special   headmen,  mah'tjant,  dinpatca  are  generally  eettlod  by 
some  old  men.     If  the  accused  is  found  guilty,  tJio  punishment  is 
genarally  a  fine  in  tliu  form  of  a  compulBOTy  caste  ejit«rtaiuinent.      ~ 

Qmi^  and  Uogj^,  living  in  Uio  hills  to^the  nortli-west  aboal 
Akram  and  Dbedgaon,  ai-e  despiged  on  acconnt  of  their  skill  in 




1  B«v.  Bcc  308  of  I8S8,  laSL 




bi«ket-wearmg  sad  cnltiratioa.  Tliogsh  Ihoy  are  genflnUv  bo 
tlaased,  Ihc  Doi^pia  do  not  l'aU  tlieMg^U-wM  llhilis.  A  poor  ninid 
Hoe  thvy  ■ro  vcrj-  ^<csiitily  clotlied,  and,  nvoiilinjf  olhi-r  ]>tv|))o, 
rn^TsUy  builii  a  uukI  i>f  IuiIn  ud  a  Hsinif  f^iind  about  Iwo  miles 
'  he  Diain  village,  lliey  botil  iu  ptiiut  nf  n'9i)K.-rl(t1iilil  v  » )xi«ition 
,.-a  th(!  Ktinbi  nnd  iLe  ordinary  Bhil.  Willi  uu  aUuulimeub 
lo  any  tnrticular  pW-n  tbcy  movu  (rum  otw  villoRo  to  anotlu-r, 
W  Beldom  leave  the  dialriot.  Sucli  Hkilfol  aillivatore  aru  thoy 
iW  tbo  villnn)  hiiadmoQ,  pdtih,  are  atwaya  auxiuui  to  eDOourage 
Uwa  lo  aortlt!.' 

^itoflfi",'"   ^  Dj(so  Bmij,  living  bolov.  ths  Sfthytidris,  nni  the, 

iii(»t   nDLivLlisedofaU^  tlie  wild  triliet,  Htunrwl  in  biidy  l>y  tht'ir 

''-  ■'l:pu  tlisMolnte  life,  and  dulled  in  mind  by  tiardahipA  and  bilter 

-'■y.     They  aru  wry  dirty  fvodtTS,  I'Atin);  monkeya,  rats,  and  all 

(iiiaij  vermiu,  not  ta  meutiou  catllo  killod  by  tigcm  or  thi'm^i^ilrvM. 

Even  on  f^rand  occaaioDs  their  drasa  is  <^>uly  a  luittrloth,  luifjoti,  aud 

;>  (if  ni^  round  thu  liend.     Th^  always  carry  materiaU  for 

riugfirc,  a  Bint  iiuil  fteel  and  Homu  8ilk<.<ottoD  in  a  small  gourd 

r-jund  the  waiat  by  a  strone  tliiu  ctinl.    Tlu-y  luin:  a  v«try  high 

-  .L  if  thHr  dif^iity  asIUjAsanaK^i^' kith  and  kin.     llie  Koiikanis 

■nd  V'^li!*  art)  not  abovo  helping  aboat  ramp  and  carrying  loads. 

''■  ■  '  be  Bhil  K4itla  never  condcscvud  to  such  work,  fit  only  for  tlifir 

>iB,  and  wBen  they  arc  not  roatinjr  or  idliug,  wander  about 

aiUi  twwn  and  wrrown  in  svarcJi  of  such  small  game  as  peacocks  and 

bares.    Thoroughly  unwilliiig  to  work  thoy  do  very  little  cultivation, 

a&d  live  on  the  share  th(>T  take  of  ibo  har%-oitt«  of  ihcir  «)-<-Jil|pd 

ryot«   tiiLi  Eonkania  and  Vw-lis.    They  hold  the  tigor  sacred  and 

worthin  ViUAdev.* 


Besides  these  triben,  which,  in  spite  of  their-  differences,  are 
peoerally  Inrlndcd  nndor  the  term  Bhil,  thiirc  arc  three  mixed 
clasM*.  one  ibe  Ilhi!iilrL'<,  hnlf-Bliih>  mid  hnlf'Kajput«  or  Kuabi», 
aad  two,  Tadvis  and  Ninlhiji,  baif-.MuHiiliiuiii  hnlf-Bhil. 

HtULJlSs,  foand  at  DbanU,  Taij^pnr,  and  Chirmqra,  and  north 
and  wisi'or  KhJindt-ob,  m  Nimiir  and  the  t^^lpnda  hills,  claim  to 
be  Tibile  Knnbis.  But,  nn  ihi-ir  iiamc  shows,  tbcy  uru  gwiicniliy 
Bupp"  portly  of  Bhil  descent.*     They  m-e  small,  sturdy, 

and    "^  n-i.vl.       In     addition  to  the     luiucloth,    langoti,    for 

wiuring  wliicli  arconlinff  to  tht-ir  story  thoy  wore  uioknamod 
BhiUlas,  they  sometimes  wear  a  waisti:l»ih  or  Irousent,  aud  alwaya 
carry  a  long  whit«  sheet  worn  as  an  outer  robe.  Their  turbans, 
ggular  iu  form,  are  geuvmlly  worn  wiih  a  point   lU  front,  and 

1  Aer.  R«c  308  ol  1839.  ISS»  *  Ur.  T.  &  Frr,  Ant.  Coaurvator  of  ForMla. 

~>  la  Cottnl  Ijiilia  Uw  BhUlUa  ar*  halt  ItajpotK,  llie  tkiatt  of  thv  Blub  in  the 
noMoaauuii  imsInKiatall  BbiUlda.  Malciibn'a  CmtnJ  India.  11.  \iX  Tlie 
I UAnilUta,  aa  JiUail  in  the  KailMula  about  aixtyfovr »ilei  north  ot  Ithnikral, 
.J  ■  BhiUla  cbicJ  ttoiwipg  deaomt  frrcn  a  Chi^ka  Hajpat  BfaamUiug  wbo  ia  aud 
b)  baTD  taken  the  iaknd  Itob  a  Uiil  cliirf  io  I  lb&.  'tin  Central  I'rovincs  BUUIaa 
•TV  all  dawaidod  from  allmnnv  u(  fUj|iata  iiith  Bbila  and  take  the  iiatnu  erf  tlia 
Kajliut  dan  to  whivli  tbcy  tnoe  tbdr  oHgiu.  ('«utial  I'Yvviiiuo  (iaBcttovr,  SSa 
Mi. J.  f\Jlaii,  AnriatantCi^kctor,  Khiiwlcali,  liolkvia  tlicnt  tab«"tha  dMctiiiUnU 
M  tine  OMO*  flouri>htu  ooHivatvia  oC  tbe  Hefa  Sdliiuda  ralkya  vho  in  *u«ne  way  got 




Cbiipt«rni.       those  wlio  can  afford  it.  wour  plain  silver  bracelets.     They  «pc 

PopiJ«tiOii.         NinWr   IWt,  »  mixturx!  of    liiniii   oiid    Mnriithi.     They  iiru    liii: 

j,^^^.  Working,  but  iud^tiif  tv>mi  their  pnverty,  unakilhrd  hiisbnndinei 

Tril)««.  ^°    rehgrion   tVy  are  Uindua,  bat  are  not  particular  abont   "' 

Bhltdhu.  presence  or  Hornco  of  a  BnUtman.     They  DRme  their  own  chil<h 

nnd  bavo  no  ptuliculiir  birth  cereinoni4>s.      Tboy  cclcbrnto    tl 

iQarriAgeii  at  sundown,  one  of  the  cuBte  being  set  to  watch.     As  the 

BUD  diawpean  the  wati^hinan  clit{M  his  hnndfi,  and  the  younf^  women 

of  boUi  the  bride  and  bridegroom's  families  fasten  the  bridt.-^r(iom'a 

wai^tctotli  to  the  bride's  gown,  lugda.     Present«  are  miido  and  a 

feast  to  thepoiuA  follows.     The  wt^lding'  costs  each  fauiiJy  from 

*£2  to  £S  <B*.  20'Rft.  5(<).     They  have  no  headman.' 

3Wvi*^  Mi.'3al«Xm  Bhilb   are    of    two    classes.    Tad  vis    and    Nir 

Tadvis  iivn  cfc'iiUy  in  the  villages  at  the  foot  of  Ihc  Siitpiida  hills 
trom  Asirghad  (o  Obopda,^  and  Kirdhis  along  tho  Inxse  of  the 
Siltni«(la  ranjje  in  the  J&mner  and  Pichora  sub-diTtsions.  Tl>e 
Tadvis  are  said  to  be  the  dt!a6cudiinl<«  of  lihil  women*  and  ^lusalmlln 
men,  and  M  dat<>  from  the  Kmperor  Auninf^cb's  reign  (ItioS-1707). 
In  H{>{>earance  they  are  tall  and  well  roadie,  and  when  well  fed,  grow 
into  fine  men.  Many  aro  fairer  and  much  better  featnred  than  pors 
Bhils.  They  wear  earrings  and  many  dres«  like  ordinary  Khandeah 
cnltivatora,  llie  better-to-do  inclining  to  the  kItvm  of  the  Muxalmlin 
aipohi.  They  wear  the  sword  and  niaI<?hlock,  seldom  the  bow, 
Like  other  Khiindetih  Musalni/msi  thiiy  are  liixynnd  poverty -stricken, 
and  dislike  hard  work.  To  the  AiusalniSn  fault  of  liixiue^  they  add 
the  yioee  of  a  qtutrrolvomu  and  vindictive  temper,  and  a  great 
fondnem  for  liqnor.*  They  make  ^ood  itoldieia  and  constables,  but 
are  poor  enltivaturs,  generally  livms  by  wood  and  graiw*  cutting. 
Their  women  ani^ girls  help  by  carrying  loads  of  wood  and  bamboos. 
Their  religions  beliefs,  as  well  n*  their  manners  and  customs,  aro 
like  ihoBe  of  other  Kh&ndtwh  NtuKalmiiuH.  At  the  same  Lime,  like 
wlbiir  H  iiidu  converts,  they  have  a  doi-p  regard  for  cn'rtaio  Hindu 
deities.  Among  theiie  the  AdAvad  Tudvii<  hold  in  reverence  M&iilbai, 
a  godde«.i  in  whose  honour  a  nliriiie  hntt  been  raised,  in  a  deep 
gorge,  near  the  dewrted  village  of  MAnfipur,  about  fir©  milea 
from  Adgfton  in  Ydval.  The  hixi  attends  their  weddings  which 
cost  from  £1  lOt.tofU  (Ra.  Id-Rs.  l&O).  The  village  moneylendcir 
freely  advances  them  fundi*  taking  payment  in  wood  or  money.  All 
are,  in  name,  )fiib<.>nli until  to  lien^diutry  chiefit,  siich  as  Itnhini  Kh&n  o£ 
*    AdgaoQ  tJie  head  of  the  Ad&rad  Tadvis,  Doula  of  Borekheda  the  h    ~ 


'  la  th«  Bativo  «Ut«B  on  the  north-w««t  boanduy  «l  Khiiulab  tlittj  ars 
iadiwbiaai  ud  pe«M«liU  i»m,  tad  u«  tbo  princiuil  cnltivatan.  Mr.  HoM'*  Trla, 

*  Hie  dotail*  are.  to  lb*  1r<ru)e'i  Fntbcr,  tnrbaii  4a..  ibaiddtfctolk  !«.,  rica  Sil,  uid 
[«Mt  «ipniiiK9  frotn  3(h.  tot*  I0>.  (Iti.  15-IU.  U):  to  ilM.liricl«gro<im^   faili«r, 

rm.  (lurfn,  S<..snBl«t4«.,  mkU«m  10*., clothe*  £1,  and  food  oxnauaM  ftiwD  30«^  W 
lOf.  Mr.  J.  PoU<ui.C.a. 
*TlMgrMUrniuiibeTiahabit  the  vilhgw  «t  the  toot  of  th«  SdJptKta  Mil*  in  SinU, 
AiUvkI.wkI  RtTcT.    Mr.  Gibcme,  Collocbir.  b  Rev.  Itoc  :!OS«f  ISSS.  llTiG. 

*  Thon^  thiT  own  that  th«T  «ret«  tnnDorly   niniiua.  tlior  do  not  >ckiio«lMln 
that  th•T4r«^  nr  nvor  intFt,  lUitb.     lUv.  lUc.  SOS  of  19^   1^. 

'  Tbt  Mte  Mii}nr  Fonrth  call*  thoiu  HualMia  Bliil*  aiad  givM  Umb  •  my  bud 
ch»nct«r.    lad.  AatiV.SSS. 





ul  tb>:  V<v»l  Taj\-i8,  nnd  Sal&bai  Khin  the  b«ad  of  tliH  Rivw  Twlvu. 

These  cbiefd,  calltn)  kiidn  mkebi'  aot  nmk*  or  cbatidhru,  receive  from 

'"•■■'""■  ■■"'■"■Qtcertainallowan(!Haa»herwdil«ryUill-k«*i»wrs.raiAcn/di»r». 

<o  social  diBpflWa  and  are  appealed  to  iu  all  iniittwn>  of 

I  ly  by  (lie  TV)vi«  ii(  thoir  own  sub-division.     Thoufjfa  a  li(tla 

ivilised  tbaa  the  BliiU,  (lie  Twlvis'  knowledge  i>f  UIao)  may 

'    I  from  Ibe  l»ct  that  the  ^eater  niiinber  da  not  even  know 

..    r'  uHt^  when  an  aiiimal  is  sUugbtered.     As  a  class  they 

vu  muerably  poor,  and  tJiougb  tlieir  fonncr  rubbing  and  plundering 

f^'l"  IwTc  been  slopped,  Uiey  are  stiU  ratber  given  to  theft.' 

-  ^am  M-NlLDi  BniLH,  the  B9«and  Mu^1in£n-Bfail  tiibe,  dw«U^ 

-  the  bane  of  the  8iitmiilis   in    the   JAniiii-r  nnd   Piirhora  mtb-* 

lis.      Distance  alone  preveuta  their  inU'ruiurria^  with  the 

-,  fur  thi>ir  cr«od  and  idean  are  similar.     In  forioer  times  they 

,1,11-1^  flrjuflfl.t      During  sousous  uf  revolt  tlio  most  atrocioos 

invariably  the  work  of  the  Nirdhis.* 

P»rtifularly  anmcroim  in  the  ijftjt  i^pd  aoatb  of  the  district,  tlie 
KoUh  are  a  fine  ntnnly  elaitR,  both  physically  and  montliy.  Tli^ 
generally  hold  the  laferior  ofHces  of  the  viilatfe  police,  Aucb  as  thuae 
at  the  }^<!'ii-r»l  vraf^.'hmnn,  jiglia,  gat«  ward,  tard'i,  sentry  of  the 
villiw^  jKilii-n  Htiuiou,  i'lUxiula,  iind  village  hnvilJdr,  who  ui  tho 
bead  of  the  village  police  under  the  headman,  fxitii,  in  whose 
abeenoe  ]»•  is  respoiiiiiblo  for  order.  Iioss  given  to  crime  th^ 
moot  of  the  early  triV-ji,  they  are  lur  cultivator*  and  often  greiU. 
huDtsmen,  as  slulfut  in  woodcraft  as  the  Ithils,  and  far  cooler  and 
Bteaiiiur.  On  aoconnt  uf  their  sntitllur  number  nnd  lt.>ss  tronblesome 
sr  they  do  pot  attract  n  mV"''  ^t^^"''""  <"  'I'"  RbiU  ' 

fvAoadfo  are  a  pocaliar  race  of  drovers  who  aonietimea  via9(|ha 

rn  foreivts  of  Khandesh,  though  tbatir  prop«-  pastnrea  are  in 

J,,  .lurtli-wut^t  comer  of  Ibu  Dt^-can.   Thoyappoar  to  bo  desocndod 

Chapter  IH. 



IS,   thon)^h  often  confoundei^with  them,  hold  themaelven  Koaia 

num,  nnd  miiieriur  U>^    Bhils.     Living  in   the    samo   part 

country  as  tfe^  CJivitii.  thev    rank  below  them,  and  unlike 

have   no  special  dialect.      They    say   that  tUeir  ancestoni 

inally  auae  from  tlii?  Konkan,  and   thiM,  their  name   and  their 

iDce,   which    very   cloaely   rccembiex   that    of  the  Konkan 

(Icars,  bear  oat.'     They  are  more  settled  than  the  TbiikurB,  and 

"ce  thom  (ximtnoDly  use  the  plough.     Thuy  do  not  often  take 

wrviire  or  Ittave  their  vUIageK,  ujid  many  uf  them,  lik«  tho  GivitK, 

illa^je  headmen,  jx'Uih.     Thev  bury  their  dead,  and  in  their 

ry  niise  iiqunru  sinj^lu-stone  pillars,  sometimes  as  much  as  eight 

•ghj , 

iiifve  are  very  few  B^rooai^  in  the  district,  as  ^ho  BhisH  KoIib, 
in  addition  to  their  own  duties  am  water- boa  rent,  liifhcr«,  nnd 
ferrymen,  take  the  fUmuslM'  placo  between  the  settled  and  nnitettied 
triWs.  - 


<  Vr.  3.  PoUm.  C.3. 
>  IbA.  Aut.  UI.  IW. 

a4il— 1< 

*  Onh«ni'>  nha  TriW,  Bon.  Oov.  a«L  JbtTI.  SOO. 

•  Ina   Aul.  IV.  xaa.  *  luJ.  Aot.  IT   33«. 

r^aptcr  III. 



from  Dravidiao  immi^ranhi,  >iiit  havo  no  traditioti  to  tliut  (effect  nii 
no'Bpecisl  ian^a^.  Mon^civiluted  and  rettpect«ble  Ihiiii  imxtt 
wnndurinff  lu-rdwiieii,  tbey  differ  little  from  Mar^tha  htinlaiudiiteii, 
aud,  i»  porta  of  N^ik,  ljav«  tak«D  onliridy  to  o^ii-ulinro.  They 
have  a  peculiar  bre4)d  of  blavk  and  whiUt  outtlo,  hailnr,  which, 
thouf^h  not  largo,  iu«  much  pmcd  for  their  atreag^th  luid  opirit. 
llioy  wondiip  fCri&hoa,  tho  divinu  hordttoian,  nod  take  good  care  of 

m    tBo    Canlral  Pronn 


<ltMb;  Qonda,    wboeo  hMd-qnttrton  nn 

especially  at  Niiffi^ur,  are  wandering  cowherda  foand  cbit'fly  at  Ch'ilio- 
gaou  in  Uie  soat^-wesb  of  the  diatnct  and  a  few  at  Bhuiwvul.  They 
"are  a  martial  mcu  nnd  miwlo  gOoel  KoldiiTS  under  the  HnsalmaD 
Naw-ilh«  of  Kizttm  Uaidarabad.  They  xpcak  Mar^hi,  at  least  out 
of  doors,  and  do  not  seem  to  keep  any  connection  with  GntidviiDn. 
Tliey  oat  flesh  and  drink  liquor,  and  do  not  t»ke  footl  cooked  bj, 
any  Hindus  but  i)i-&hiiiaus.  In  their  marriage  processions,  tlul  ' 
bride  aud  bridegroom  ride  tm  bollocks  instead  of  ou  horses.  They 
worship  Ntirayan  Kfahildov,  Dhanb^,  DhanthAkur,  IDhangoiiul,  and 
Bhavlini.  In  inciuiring  into  any  alloged  breach  «(  caste  rolea  they 
meet  together,  aad  if  the  offence  is  proved,  the  gnilty  party  has 
to  shave  his  be&rd  and  monstaches.  His  tongue  in  then  branded 
with  n  rod  hot  gold  bar,  and  upon  tli«  brandtxl  part  they  compel 
him  to  lay  a  basil  leaf  wiih  a  lilile  earth  and  clarifiod  butbi^. 
After  going  through  this  ordeal  and  feasting  his  fellow  tribvtunen, 

ha  m  lei  back  ioto  caatc.* ^_ 

rutliMa  ViinXBn,  nnmhering  36^72  souls  and  found  all  over  the  distriMl 

are  of  fen  sub-di^-Jsions,  Ch£ran  or  Gav&r,  M&thure,  IjabhSmi  OF' 
Laiiianc,  I/id,  Khudiiu',  Ldmgho,  Mchnrone,  Bhush&n^*,  Awitkar, 
and  lUvgia.'  0<  these  the  Bfau»hitrt\  Aw>tk«r.  and  Itav^n  ate  not 
fonnd  in  KhAndesb.     Of  tlio  othent  Clulranft  are  foimcl  in  all  the 

sub-diTJsioD 8 ,  M&th nr&s  and  Labhduis  in  Taloda  and  NandurbAr,  IjAds 
ifi  Shirpur,  Dholia,  and  KantlurbAr,  Khtidiln&s  in  Amalner,  L£mgh&9 
in  Dhulia,  nnd  Mohnnm&a  in  Erandol  nnd  Jalgncm.  Though 
ns  a  class  robost  and  well  bnilt,  tlio  several  sub-divisions  diffpr  ia 
complexion,  the  MAthurds  being  generally  fair,  the  Lids,  Mehui-unis, 
nnd  L&inghlis  soniowhnt  duskier,  and  the  ChArans  and  the  I^bhAiids 
dark  and  martial -loo  king.  h&An  and  Liiiiighitit  speak  ^rly  correct 
Idarlitbi,  but  Ch^rans,  LabhAuAs,  and  Mdibut^  use  a  rough 
peculiar  dialect  full  of  Hindi,  and,  in  some  ca»va,  Gujarnti  (ormH. 
Those  who  have  settlod,  or  are  ttottling,  as  huiihandmen,  live  in  the 
ordinary  mud-walled  flat-roofed  houses.  Of  those  who  aro  still 
carrient,  some  of  the  chief  mon  have  good  brick-built  bouses, 
while  the  poor  live  ontaido  of  villages  in  gran  huta  which 

it  (ISW)  tb«w  Ggnda  wmd  to  htn 

'  lad.  Anl  IV.  336. 

*  Nr.  J.    Tolten,  C.  S.     For  tho 
CbtKBgwD.     Mr.  A.  F.  Woodbum,  C.  :% 

*  Vaajiri  iDMiw  k  forest  Wkodcrcr  [mm  mH  [orett  tad  f&nr  to  wander :  ChirMi 
eoBie*  from  U>o  udm  root ;  Gurta  ■  uov'kooiwr  from  gan  a  cow ;  BkniluUe  a  onua 
cuhor  ttom  Mkm  «)uiS>  l^hino  or  l.aailiw  a  uJt  eanua  trom  tavan  salt ;  MltKaro 
ffi'ta  Mathunt  ia  Upper  Indb  vh«nca  tbcy  wida  i  aod  Jdvltumne  from  tbc  village  at. 
If  ahimiiie  now  Jalgwa. 





take  with  them  from  place  ia  nlaca.'    The  staple  articira  of  food 

•ru  wh<ml  nnd  Uil>  two  milldU.     Kxcoat  the  M&thur^  luul  iMhhim&a, 

■"  ■  il.  fle*h  nrnl    <irinlt  Iii[uur.     Tliu   IjiUI  wointin   dnsia   m    Mar&tha 

u  ;  Cbiran   woroea  wear  a  tipht  trooBer,  Ihenga,  aurl  a  rolw, 

'     'ti,  to  cover  the  oppor  pnr(  of  the  body.     They  wear 

I  Ui,    an<l,    likci   Uii;   Millhurii.x,  jin^Iiri^  bnuia  anklotA, 

ti*.     The  Mdihuro,  Latibftoe,  nad  Charan  women  weor  their 

Ir.tpvd  over  a  jKji;  net  ou  the  top  of  their  headn.     Among  the 

.inil  l^ihlinniiis  this  pog  is  made  of  cloth  nnd  is  two  iiniheH 

■  ^^ I)  the  L'bdmu'it  19  frutn  aix  to  uight  inches  loiig  aud  itt  tnndu 

Ahk«  tn  l«^mper,  brave,  pron^,  spiteful,  wiil  loachy,  the  Mfithure" 
lAlihiine  and  Chiinui  VnojiiHs  dilTcr  widely  in  the  miittvr  of  (.'toan- 
liDBBs,  thc^  Matho]-^  b«itig  vurv  itEtal  aud  careful  to  waab  daily,  whila 
1^'  IinhlninnK  nnd  Ch&rans  do  uot  bathe  for  moti(h!i  at  a  tiue- 
/b^onumily  {lenirvfnl  and  well  boh  a  rod,  Iho  wiwdertng  Tnnjtiris 
*if  undtT  police  aurvt;illunco.  Tbei»  cftrryiag  tnide,  unticwl  by 
almoH  nil  Eiiropean  travellers  of  the  lost  three  ceuturie^,'  has  greatly 
goffered  nincB  the  opening  of  cnrt  ruad^  and  milways.  They  used  to 
wrry  liifir  wares  ou  pack  ballooks,  moTiDg,  Boiaotimea  io  bwidK  or 
■  •  *',0OU  strong,  to  Snrat,  Navsari,  and  Kaly&o,  OQ  the  westy 

ai  ir,  N%pDr,  and  J  a  bill  {HI  r,  to  the  north  and  ««st.    Frotn  the 

inlaad  distriits  tlioy  ua^d  ditetly  to  carry  wheat,  and  from  Lho 
KDnkoD,  salt,  dates,  dry  cocoa  kernels,  and  botelnuts.  Though  tlie 
ffreat«r  nninbcr  are  now  settled  as  huslmndmun,  a  few  find  a  living 
by  driving  twrttt,  spinning  coarMO  hemp,  t'uj,  soiling  grass  and  fui'l, 
lud  working  as  labonrerH.  Except  the  poore«it  wnoaell  wood  and 
gnuw,  tlii^ir  women  work  oidy  at  homo  and  in  the  dairy.  They 
mostly  worship  lUlitji  or  Khuudoba.  Their  priet^  are  Bnlbnians. 
They  kec-p  all  the  ordinary  Uindu  holidays,  but  vxpecially  Gokal 
Aiihliimi,  8th  Shrdvan  Fadya  {Angiist- September),  in  honour  of 
Krishna's  birlhdny.  Thongh  uoine  Bub-divisioDs  est  with  each 
other,  intermarriage  i"),  aa  a  rule,  forbidden.  Lids,  KhndAo^, 
and  MidiamniiH  diue  together  but  not  vnth  LnblianA^  and  Char^ns, 
thoagb  tbeso  tsat  out  of  l)ii-ir  Iiands  and  can  give  them  wat«r. 
LfUls,  Khuddnia,  and  MeburutijLi  do  not  eat  with  Lttmghds,  and 
LlimgliM  have  an  Pfjual  objec-tiou  to  cat  with  them.  M/ithiiris  eat 
food  cooked  by  members  of  thvir  own  tribe  only,  aud  soniearo 
bclioved,  like  Uie  Pnrabi^ii,  to  nifuite  to  eat  food  cooked  even  by 
thtiir  own  tribesmen.  At  the  same  time  they  eat  food  oookod  by  thvir  ' 
women,  who  are  privilegod  to  eat  with  all  Vanjiri  Hub-diiisiouii. 

KveiT  sotUement  of  Vaujiiris  ha-t  its  horeditarj-  headman,  iidi'ft. 
Bo    m  bound  to  help  the   rose  in  timv  of  aced,  and  to   be  their 

Chapter  Iti 




'  ThxM  0vn  buta  iro  almyt  moved  ■ftnr  ■  il«sUi.  At  fint  sn  opraing  ii  inMt«  io 
tbt  twdi  of  thfl  hut  Bod  iw«ne  coten  it  bjr  tWonlinuy  door,  u  the  dixit  it  beliuvol 
tn  liBV))  b«aa  poUnlod  hy  Uia  pMwm  n(  the  tfitH  of  Uw  ih&4.  Afterwards  the  kut 
Is  Ballad  d^wD  and  act  up  at  a  littla  diilanM^  *  8m  b«k>w,  \'.  1  tO. 

■  In  1938.  under  lh«  aama  VoD*fini.  ibaj  *r«  aotie«d  \ry  MandeUlu  m  buviiig 
^but  aad  riro  offorvd  tat  ulo  id  tha  Dmcaii  townt  once  s  week,  and  oarryinit.tnnM 
LBinliutia  ia  oatavaiu  of  five  at  uK  aikl  anmatiiBa*  n)n«  or  teu   tlin»Maa  kBlnial*. 
,  Uiom  iTMit  tkcir  fcBuloi,  «ap«cully  tbcir  nivc*  "hn  kmrw  to  ir*ll  Ii(**  to  wield 
I  bow  that  tii«  Kajpuu  dand  not  attack  tbcm,    MtudoUW  to  Uania,  1301 




108  DisraioTs.  ^^ 

represdutative   and   arbitrator  in  caste  disputos;  to  nccotntn^^^ 
bII^bbU  comin;;  In  hu  e>Kwitii>iii<.<iit,  t/miln  ;   aiid  t<>  din^ct   tbo 
moTamnntH  of  the  caravau  wheu  trarc^lting.     U  the  old  family  has 
representative,  a   fnitih  mftn  of  some  rioh  and  ^ood  fnmily  la  chos 
mtik.     On  vloction  he  ib   pnynnt^d  with  n   turban  nud  olothws 
tolfon  of  allegiance.     At  every  council  meeting,  the  ndik  is  pre«iiiJ 
with  ten  or  twelve  adnit  muw  a»  membera.     Witoeseea   come 
r^nlar  ordvr  and  f^vn  thoir  evidvnoe  ooo  «ftvr  anotbor.     Once  thuj 
have  itat,  the  paneh  uwer  rise  without  Doming  to  ft  final  deciaion»  , 
ereo  if  it  be  at  tlis  xncrifico  u(  thi>ir  rcf^ular  work.  fl| 

There  iiia  bo  littlu  doubt  thnt  Che  VnnjinM  will,  in  time,  mvrnii  i9 
*Uio  general  mass  of  cultiraton.  Alreod;  one  of  them  is  a  village 
headman  in  Jamnc-r.  Theycat,  if  theydoQot  marrf,  withKunbi§,  and 
even  Cbin»n  wunum  arc  iilr<!iidy,  in  some  raro  instantx-n,  K-friiming 
lo  lay  a.iide  thciir  picUireaque  dresa  audaKHamo  the  ordinary  Kuubi 
robe.  Careful  in  matt«r8  of  aocotmts,  of  simple  habits,  and  of  a 
BBvinff  di«p'}r<ii(ion,  thoy  promiso  to  become  a  wualfhy  cIims  of 
onltivutorii,  and  when  they  loae  (heir  Kiniiigi)  lieliefs  about  witchcr^^ 
and  death,  they  will  provo  a  tractable  and  uneful  Ceoaotrj.  ^| 

Amon^  wondering  ViinjAris,  children  aro  often  bom  away  from 
rillagC)-,  and  in  the  absence  of  midwivea,  womttn  attrnd  women  and 
no  oereinouies  are  performed.  Afterward?,  when  thi>  enravan,  tantla, 
meets  a  Brahman,  a  i?utincil  ih  r»ll<-d.  THk  lime  of  the  child's  birth  is 
explained  to  tlie  Itr^bman  and  he  fis6.s  the  name,  iho  f.ilhvr  paying; 
him  2«.  (Ke-  I)  and  the  oommittoo  giving  him  6d.  (l  antias),  or  some 
other  prci*ont.  Among  ttottlc!  families,  when  a  child  is  bom,  they 
bent  drtim!<,  Gre  guns,  and  distribute  sngar  among  roliitiotm,  frli^nds, 
BhittM,  and  prieats.  On  the  fifth  day  women  worshiji  Sali  aud  uro 
given  a  few  grain^and  some  pnlHoand  flowers. 

Among  Chiiraiifl  Muthnni«i  and  Labh&ulU  who  are  of  TJpj 
Indian  origin,  girlo  remain  unmarried  to  twenty  and  thirty; 
winoug  Uecc&D  Vanj&ris  the  marriageable  limit  in  for  girls  from 
ten  to  twelve  anrl  for  boy-t  from  twelve  to  twenty.  On  marriage 
oo-nsions,  two  days  before  the  ceremony,  the  boy  and  girl  are 
nibbed  tvith  tnrmuHc.  On  the  marriage  day,  with  music  playing, 
they  aro  smtod  aidu  by  sidt,  on  low  wooden  iitooln,  the  girl  on 
the  boy'it  left,  and  the  hems  of  their  garmenta  are  tied.  Ttie 
priest  repeats  verses,  and  the  women  ra  botb  hooitra  sing  souga 
and  sprinltlo  handfiiln  of  mPlet,  jvdri,  on  the  conple'a  brads,  the 
ffprifmony  cloning  with  the  interchange  of  clothes.  On  the  morning 
of  the  second  day  the  boy  and  the  girl  aro  bathed  together,  the 
women  standing  roiiml  them  siuging  t«ong«  whilv  thw  boy  and  girl 
■plaah  water  over  each  other.  After  this  the  fatliers  intrtrc^hango 
preeenta  of  turbnns  and  waistclotbit.  On  tho  third  day  there  is 
gri^t  fnuitiug,  and  if  ib^  pri<>«l  is  pi-eaeut,  hu  ia  pelted  with  onions 
nud  shells,  kavdU.  Another  feast  closes  the  ceremony.  Tho  boy's 
father  retmntB  to  his  village  taking  with  him  the  girl  aind  her  sister. 
They  stay  for  a  day  or  two  aud  are  then  sent  far  by  their  father, 
with  whom  tbo  bndo  lives  till  she  cornea  of  ago.  Except  Aliltbuiii! 
and  LabhinAs  all  allow  widuw  niarrin;je. 

When  a  \'unjiri  dies,  a  white  cloth  u  spread  oa  a  bamboo 

tire  , 





tad  the  body  ia  brtmfcltt  frotn  tfau  hoiiitu  nn<l  laid  on  it,  nnd 
rxc:i';rt  tbnt  the  bead  is  left  bare,  it  in  covered  with  a  wkito  nheeC 
lietl  with  ntrinff  ia  five  places  from  the  neck  downwards. 
iled  powder,  iiuldl,  is  «prinkk-d  ovit  the  Wlj,  and,  ou  tho 
KTs  nf  ftmr  i^lntioti-t,  il  ia  tiamed  to  the  biink  uf  tho 
t  i^tn^am  nud  borut  without  reli^ous  ritos.'  On  the  third  day, 
four  |)»ll-boaivrs  nm  given  n  dinnurof  ri<'e»nd  milk,  a  ceremony 
^erfonned.and  a  featit  i»  held  cnnting  about  14)<.  (Ita,  M.  For  oina 
iiy»  nfter  death  the  nearest  relations  are  considered  impure  and 
iireuiit  nllowod  to  mix  with  other  people.  On  tbe  tenth  day  th«y 
the  and  ^ve  a  taiHte  foMat  with  flvKh  and  li<)Hor.  Iti  tlio  firat 
"  Tch)  or  Vaiahdkk  (May),  after  the  death,  a  caste  feas> 
.  but  nut  nlwaye,  fpvon.  Except  that  kunku  instead  of 
.  nuklcd  OD  tbtr  lH>dy,  Ihi'  (dminilof  awonmn  in  Ibu  sameM 
1  il  of  a  man.     When  a  iliild  die^.tbe  b-ady  ia  wrsipped  in  a 

dean  white,  c  luth,  and  carried  by  the  father  in  his  arms  and  boned. 

The  available  detailx  of  Vanjiri  divinionn  miiy  bo  thun  Huranmd 
:_yp-  „ab^QU  Vnrjiiris,  about  one-half  (lS,OiiO)  of  the  wbtile  VaajiSri 
~  ,   anil   in  many  ways  the  moat  peculiar  and    intertwtiog 

.1  Crit>eft,  itre  found  nil  over  tlie  district,  i>(ipeoiall]f  in  nnrt« 
f  itarer,  Stlvda,  J^mner,  Shirpur,  Chopda,  and  JIaeirabad.  ilioy 
~  m  to  be  Rajputs  and  art^  divided  into  Poriirs,  Chavh&ns, 
a,  and  JniUuirK,  who  eat  together  and  intermarry.  Thoae 
in  Sivda  aud  ChoixU,  n)iin)|(  the  base  of  the  S&tpud&i, 
bolnnirlo  lheCbav)ian,  It^ibud, and  Povfir  dons.  The  Chavbins  have 
six  Kiib-divini'inK,  Pnltya,  KorcJi,  Lovua,  Banod,  Alodh,  nud  Sap&ral, 
■11  foond  ill  Khaiidi-ih.  The  lUthod^  have  i'lgUt  Hub-divinionH,  of 
which  >(ix,  Bukia,  Kiliit,  Muua,  Vat,  Vartia,  and  Turi  arc  found  in 
Kh&iidesh.  And  Ihu  Foviirs  have  twelve,  of  wliij^b  neveu,  (iuramD, 
LoQs^vad,  Vuihravat,  Am^t,  Vahiot,  Jarrtbola,  and  Viniarvat, 
■re  found  in  Khiindesb.  These  intermurry  and  cat  togetlivr,  llK)Utfb, 
as  nmoDK  Rajputitj  no  marriage  tn  (lie  aame  clan  is  alluwcd,  that 
is  a  HfLthod  may  marry  a  Chavhiln  or  a  Povdr,  bat  may  oot  man^ 
a  Kathod, 

Ohiriin  VaiijArif  may,  for  wnvenience,  bo  dividod  into  those  who 
keep  to  their  old  trade  ot  i-arritTs,  luid  those  who  have  begun  to 
aetlle  as  huxbandmen.  In  appearance  they  are  strong,  well  mad^ 
and  ^ toil. looking.  The  men  tuke  a  epocial  pride  in  their  looks. 
Mid  (ri'uendly  t-irry  n  sraiill  oumb  iiinl  l'itikiii)|r  iftass  in  the  folds 
of  their  white  luriians.  Tliey  wear  the  hair  long,  and  are  hirer- 
akincil  than  th^Bhil  or  the  ordinary  Kunbi.  Thoy  have,  as  a  role, 
regular  and  while  teeth,  full  Itpvi,  l»r^  eyea,  ^r  hair  between 
brown  and  yellow,  strai);bt  noaca,  and  a  bright  wide-awako  look, 
llietr  women,  though  some  are  pretty  enough,  are  by  no  means 
cleanly.  Thi>y  never  botho  more  thnft  once  a  week,  and  their 
oiletl  and  plaited  hair  i«  coustnnlly  titled  with  dirt  and  dust,  while 
the  tiers  of  bracelets  and  anklet«  keep  tlieai  from  eleiuiiuo;  their 
limbs.  Their  pettieoata  are  aeldom  washed  and  look  much  like  a 
well- worn  quilt. 




'  AMong  CMnai  Iht  body  ia  bnnit  or  bnriod  with  Iba  Uoe  dotm. 

•  ■--_i 

IBomtojr  Qautt 










Ctillrun  V»njtlrui  Bpeak  wlint  in  locally  known  aa  Vanjdri  bat, 
mixkure  of  Mar&thi  and  Uindw  Jealous  to  a  iegKo,  paBntonnto  am 
headetroDg,  thoy    mro    u  Ughl-hwirri-d    rnex\   HimpU'-mindiKl     an^ 
eswily  iiittniigi.x].     Tliey  nbt^j'  their  chief  liku  children.     Kxtremot 
credulous  awd  superstitions,  they  beJiovo  that  all  minfortnnes,  cvi 
tbe  sligfateet,  are  the  work  of  witvlH;^.     Tboy  arv  fond  of  danci 
and  siof^ng  and  hajLfaaiiy  pocaltar  war  dances.     They  like  iiothi 
b»lt«r  ihun  li.4teoil9%  son^  and  tnnaic,  and  their  women,  at  tim< 
join  with  the  men  in  a   wtlil  whirliDg  daiicw.     A»  a  rtilv  tht^y  ai  _ 
not  macli  (fiven  lo  lying  and  have  pood  menioriea.  They  tell  a  atory 
naturally  and    weU,    pi'viuf!^  the   minntoet  detail.     Though   foud  of 
4iqnor  they  seldom  drinkV)  iiKCt^tts.      Like  Ktmliii*  lliry  iifNind   larg« 
Guiiie  on  niamiigi»  and  other  festivals.     Uut  especially  in  Amain 
and  Erandol,  they  haT«,  aa  a  rqlV)  a  naa^for  being  gr««dy  and  to 
oE  driving  bard  burgainDu 

Except  that'  tlKj    wenr  tlio  long-pointed   HindnstJini  Hhnp  anj 
ttHnte  turban  act  janntily    a  little  on   one  aide  and   penerailj 
EaKteci  witu  a  strip  of  rvd  cloth'Vonnd  across  it,  and  that  thf^; 
are  very    fond  of  omiunen)!*,  the   Nilika   wcuring  bmcelvta,  gol 
cliainfl,  eMringii,  armlelii,  and  finger  ringw,  the  inim's  dr«tt»  does  no 
differ  from  that  otioioet  lower  class  Uindus.     The  women's  tight 
fitting  bodice  an^1k>ng  foil  potticoiil,  their  BJlvct  ornaments  plaitW 
into  the  hair  and    falling  over  the  cbeek,  their  huge  i<ilvcr  anklelH 
with  iangliug   bells,  and  the   tiers    Of    brass   and    ivory    bracelets 
Btrotcning  froin  thij  wrLtt  alinoxt  to  the  arm-pit,  uro  strang*  in  ^^ 
ManStlia  couDJljby.     But  more  strange  than  4lieir  ornaments  ta  tb^^ 
iashion  among  married  and   nawidowed  women  of  drawing  thei^B 
flltoalder  robe  ovur  Uio  point  of  a  narrow  stick  about  eight  inches 
long,  cnp-nha]>od  inhere  it  roata  on  the  head  and  narrow  at  the  jioint 
standing,  like  a  huge  comb,  from  the  knot  of  bair  at  the  liack  of  tl: 
head,     jiie  mnk  of  the  womna  is  said  to  be  shewn  by  the  angle  . 
which  she  wears  thicJc  atick. 

Pack-carrying  Ch&rans  bay  cattle  in  Mtilwa  and  lako  them  t^| 
sell  in  Poona  and  S&tdra.  They  titay  there  during  the  raina,  ao^^ 
about  October,  novo  to  MAlwa,  where  tbey  buy  cuttle  and  load  their 
bullocks  chieflv  with  vrhont.  ^Iiia  they  carry  to  the  Dec«an  where 
th«y  Mill  it  fvnii  such  cattle  aa  they  h«To  for  sale.  Then  they  go  to 
the  coa«t  and  bring  back  loads  of  salt.  They  move  with  ponies, 
bullocks,  cows,  and  dogi",  the  whole  procession  being  called  a  Itimla. 
*  Thoy  occnsionuUy  halt  at  one  or  two  places  when  travelling  with 
loaded  cnlile.  In  the  rainy  aeaaon  they  buIR  huts,  kudi 
encamping  on  aomo  dry  spot  where  there  is'fbod  graxing,  T 
hnvu  groat  nkill  in  driving  caltlu,  four  men  managing  a  bund 
bullocKs.  1'hey  say  that  by  their  slkDula  tlK'y  can  make  the  buDoc 
charge  and  overrun  a  tig«  or  amBsU  body  of  men.  WTien  they 
halt  they  surround  their  cajSp  with  a  pile  of  sacks,  mn.<(kct- proof  ivnd 
too  high  for  a  horse  to  jump.  Of  late,  in  consequence  of  the  decay 
of  the  carrying  trade  under  cart  and  railwity  competition,  many 
Ch&ran  Vanjiiris  have  taken  to  husbandry.  Tbey  make  excellent 
cultivators.  They  clear  brushwood  in  a  wonderfully  short  time,  bum 
the  useless  wood  as  uunore,  use  powerful  ploughs,  and  thoroughly 






break  tlie  soil.  Many  are  ricb  and  till  lartre  tractH  of  laud  uobikly 
in  RitVf.T,  Jnniner,  Oiojxln,  i^ntl  Shirpyr.  It  is  more  than  pi-ntttble 
Uuit  iluriojf  till-  riiiiis  tUny  ttlwiiys  tilled  i  littlu  whenever  their 
enc&inpiuent  hapjttm^d  to  be  near  waste  land,  lliey  Ibox  tooh  to 
hnabAndry  niitur.tlly,  thougli  they  felt  it  aomeWjiat  dognulinfj, 
kurin^  Alwaya  mn^idored  tii(MiiitcU'(*4  itlwru  niatiiuil  labour.  By 
"  I    thoir  chiefs  found  that  till^e  pai<t   b«tli>r   limn  cnttlo- 

•»nd  (^D-carryin^,  and  bef{»t  bo  settle  aaLintlholders.  Soma 
iu  lUver,  S&vda,  and  Sbirpur,  uro  nlmoet  outiroly  peopled 

The  marrying  age  depenidfl  on  the  parents'  nn«anH.    In  a  rich 

Ennily  th«  suDJi  aro  marriod  bvtwMin  twelve  and  fifteen  and  tbtf" 

daug^tcTii  bntwiN^n  t«n  and  lifteeu.'  Aiiioiif^  the  poor,  girls  sometimea 

remain  unmarried  till  thiriyMtd  boys tlH  forty.  Wlicnnmiin  can  afford 

ta  pay  for  his  son's  marnnge,  hl'i  nL-arest  ^yelatioas  fiud  him  a  n-ifo, 

bKtri)ib»l,  m-iyni,  fiiUnvfn ;  ihn  Iwy'u  falhor  wid  other  relationH 

ig  on  ponios  and  bullocks  to  the  girl'a  houxo.   On  arrival  (he 

'a  bthpr  oumos  to  meet  them,  and  embracing  the  boy'ii  fatliar, 

him  into  his  houHe  and  seata  biiti  on  a  blanket  or  carpet.     Tlio 

ceremonies  are  the  promise  of  the  father  to  give  hia«d»ught«r 

marriage,  and  tho  dUtribitlioii  of  molattaca,  tatel)  and  liquor  to 

llui    wholo  unciunpmeut, '/i»'/a.     The  betrothal  irVitniTSHvd  by  the 

caste  committ(>e.     The  fathers  of  the  bride  and  bridegroom  uliaru  (ho 

betrothal  enpeuses,  which  generally  amount  to  £•)  (Ks.  50).     In  tlie 

Chopda  and   HAvda  S^tuudiL^  tho  fixed  price  of  a  wife  is  £12  lOt. 

~ii.  IS.'i],  and    the    boaegroom   mnv     givu  moro  ^fat   not    less. 

itrotha)  is  binding  on  both  parties.  ^.The  marriage  may  tn\to  place  a 

inth  after  tlte  betrothal,  but  for  want  of  money,  it  is  often  delayed 

for  ycorx.     1'hu    britle'a  father   ia    expected  to  jfive   her  eiiongfa 

olotkoK   and   ornantenta   to   laat   hor  tor  life.    For  the  marriage, 

(he  boy  and  his  father,  with   n^lationa  and  h'ionds,  atart  fi)r  the 

girl's  village,  riding  on  {tonioH  or  walking,  for  carts  are  forhiddcii. 

On  arrival  thoy  art-  given  aeparate  todgmgs,  with,  in  front  of  then?, 

H  booth  covered  with  mango  and   nimh  boughs.     Marriages  take 

place  at  or  near  midnight.     The  ceremony  is  itimplo,     The  presence 

of  a  Bniltman,  muidly  the  ivitrologer  or  the  beredifar^'  priest  of  the 

nearest  vili-tge,  in  essential.    'IVo  Acacia  cat«chu,  kner,  posts  ore 

fixed   in  the  ground,  and  at  each  comer  of  a  Hquaru  nine  earthen 

pot«  are  piled  one  on  the  other.    The  nine  pots  probably  reurcwat 

the  niu4;  plaouts,   nuvu'jraha.     Near  the  posts  ttit  the   briae  and   • 

bridegroom,  wh<%-jHBt  before,  have  been   rubtwd  with  tarmeric  ana 

bathed.     Then  the  Bi^ninii  worships  (iaupati,  joins  the  hauda  of 

the  p<n'r,  and  tiuH  the  niot,  in  the  aame  wny  ^  ut  a  Kanbi  wedding, 

except  thnL  H  rupee,  given  by  the  brido'it  father,  ia  lied  to  the  knot. 

Then,  between  tlio  points,  the   Ut^^an  Iv^ta  the  sacred  fire,  and 

mntlering  some  naci-ed  verses,  manfrag,  teads  the  pair  seven  times 

rounil  tho  lire  from  right  to  loft.     Thiti  endif  the  nujitial  curemunies, 

the  Brdhman  being  paid  2s.  t'ul.    (Ktt.  1{).    A  feast  to  the  whole 

encampment,    Idnda,    with    plenty    of    liquor,    Collowa,   and   the 

Chapter  IU. 




'  Ago  doc*  not  matter.    CaM*  m  nut  rorv  wImu  a  wile  ia  oliteir  Ibu  b«t  baifaaml. 

IBomb«7  Ouettcer. 








liridcgrmoTO  ^TMja  wiUt  the  bride  to  lier  fnthor's  booM  and  stays  tbi 
frov  two  jnoDths  to  a  year.      , 

Widow  marriage  is  allowed  and  practised,  thoir  rule  bcinj^  that,  if 
t)iC)'  can  bvlp  it,  no  woman  should  leave  a  ^miiy  into  wbich  sho  h<L 
nuirried.     When  a  woman  b<*<Tome8  a  widow  her  btisibnnd's  youngS 
brother  takes  her  to  wife.     'J1ie  caste  cooocil  meeta  and  the  fact  ™ 
ootod,  but  DO  ccr(>inoDtfS  »r»  nooe«Miry.     If  tho  voungur  brother  itt 
dead,  t>r  n.-fiiHi.'H  to  take  her,  the  next  neansat  male  relative  ih  callajta 
on  to  marry  her.     They  a4:kuowU-dfre  all  llindu  gods  and  believe  ^| 
witchcraft.  Thry  have  no  regtilur  priiist^,  tint  ihiiV  n^jijKxrt  »ud  LimHaH 
Bhagats,  and  employ  Br«hiuans  toconduct  their  religions  ceremonioal 
yrhcHigh.  as  a  class,  they  fiavv  sufFcrud  from  the  docay  of  ibvir  atllin^ 
aBcarri«ni,  many  of  ibcwi  are  pni^tK'ruuii  trjidors.  fv^iiio  of  tho  leadem 
have  been  most  auoce»afuI  in  dealing  itt'oattle,  trading  in  grain,  and 
carrying.     The  poorer  families,  when  tbair  fi«td  work  is  over,  brini; 
wood  and  liatnbooa  from  ihu  hills. 

Itjjl"),  "'■"  probably  came  up  the  Tnjiti  from  sonlh  Gujarit,  are 
ftmnd  in  large  nombeii  in  Nandnrbir,  Uhulia,  and  Shirpur.'  Liko 
KunbiH  in  appuaranc«,  thoy  xpcnk  ^fa^filhi  and  drv»t  in  Mar&thi 
fashion.  'Mitd  in  diHpneiition,  ihcy  aro  moHtly  Im.tbandmen  and  cart 
driverc,  and  afew  have,  for  the  last  tifti^en  years,  taken  to  selling  dried 
fisb.  Though  none  do  so  in  KhAodcsh,  many  Litds  hold  pAtil^liipH 
in  the  Deccan.  Thoy  worship  all  Hindu  god»,  but  oapeci.illy 
Khandobain  whose  bonoar  aGondhal  danco  is  oft<^n  performed  in 
discharge  vt  a  vow  or  after  tho  comph-tion  of  ii  marriage.  On  the  daj 
after  UoH  thej  carry  in  [imoessiou  tlie  desceniftnt  o£  a  L^  warrior  wl 
fellinbattle.  TheceremonyiBcaJledlbe warriorji-ifippoceiwion.  Th( 
keep  the  ordinary  Mantthi  fiiHtx,  and  rvspoct  BrlUintnnii  calling  ibet 
on  marriage  occj^jpns.  Their  religious  teachent  arw  (los&via.  Thej 
marry  only  amongthomsclvesandhitvea  rale  against  tho  intermarria^ 
of  two  families  who  have  ihesame  guruame.  Their  girls  inntit 
married  Iwforo  thoy  niK-h  wf.niiinlnxHl  or  ihey  are  pul  <ja%  of  v*»t 
UB  the  wedding  day,  two  niarriwl  coiipiea,  one  forettch  party,  bareJ 
fact  tho  wholw  tiay,  and  at  night  cook  four  pounds  of  nco  and  thfl 
of  aplit  gram  with  raolasiM^  iiud  uluritied  butter.  While  cookini 
thoy  ooTPf  their  laves  with  a  cloth,  as  the  tonch  of  ntoain  from  thf 
dish  is  thought  to  bode  bad  fortnntt  to  the  couple.  Wlicn  cooked,  the 
dish  in  eatru  by  Iho  meq  of  the  party,  and  anything  that  reinaioa 
muet  either  be  eaten  by  cowa  or  tlirown  into  a  river.  To  allow  a 
stranger,  or  the  son  of  a  slave,  to  rfiare ,  is  a  great  ain  bringing  a 
liaavy  cnrwe  on  the  family.  Thi»  is  calfedThe  vroru^toV^hi  J>aivat 
or  lie  god  of  increase.  If  Va4ki  Datval  ia  not  worshippod,  tho 
wedded  pair  are  looked  down  on  by  the  whole  commnuity.  Widoj 
marriage  in  Ihe  (iandharva  form  Ls  allowed.'  Alter  death, mourn' 
goes  on  for  ten  days  and  ^neral  eeremoni«<s  aro  performed  on 
eleveutli  or  tlurtecDtb.     The  authority  of  their  headman  who   livcN 

I  T1«N  1*  B  loal   InrfitioB   Ibkt  th«y  «iiiiw   In   KtULadoli   fro*  th«  Mutbeni 
&b^idii«,  Bih>^>,  »1ioat  100  rMn  ago  nartlr  (or  trad*,  ptutl}-  1««*i«pa  a  tuuiiM, 

Vftuit  uiid  till  K«ahtu,  tbalr  mdm  poiati  to  LU  or 

Bat  like  lb«  Ud  wil  Uilukka 
Ut  D«ah.    Sm  abortv  p.  97. 

'  See  abora.  p.  73. 





in  the  Bilegb&t  rangfo,  in  the  Nixim's  dominions  to  the  so<itb>eaflt 
of  Ahmodnagar,  ia  merely  nomiiiiii,  his  power  Ikiio^  chiefly 
rocogoised  hy  the  pftytnBnts  mada  to  him  or  his  agents  by  tho 
caaie.  Social  diaputeif  ore  HUtllcd  by  tho  nuijorily  ot  votes  at  a 
luetitin^  of  adtdt  niale  memberti. 

t.«lili.<nv  Tuid  MitthoTB  VanjftriB,  found  in  Talods  and  Nacdorb^r, 
have  come  Eroiii  ITppiT  Iiidin.  Thoy  are  gonorallj  fair  and  stoat, 
speak  a  peculiar  dialect,  aud  do  not  «at  aoipial  food.  Their  heiartlu 
arc;  Rieru  hoopa  of  vowilunff  cakea  or  other  fuel.  VThile  at  their 
tneala  they  are  very  careful  to  kut'p  fire  barniug  in  their  hMu-thn,  and 
eat  nc  more  if,  by  any  chance,  the  fire  goes  oat.  They  eat  wiUi  no 
other  tribe  of  VntijAris.  Both  MiUhur&a  and  LubhiiDis  wear  the  sacred* 
thread,  worship  lUIijt,  and  celebrate  Kriuhna'a  birthday,  thj)  Qok(U 
ilaAtomt  holiday,  wiln  f^at  rejoicinga  aad  public dioners.  Their 
pnest*  are  Bnitmians  and  tbuir  religious  tMcheni  VaMgis.  Their 
widows  are  not  allowed  to  marry,  but  though  their  bracolott, 
cknddg,  are  broken,  their  heads  are  not  shaved.  For  nearly  a  yoar 
after  her  hoaband'it  death,  tho  MAtharc  widow,  boforo  tlw  uvuniog 
meal,  with  her  dish  in  front  of  her,  mounu  the  losa  of  her  huabaaa 
for  aliout  au  hour. 

Mmgh^  living  ia  Dhnlia,  Kjj^^jtmi*  in  Aiiuilner,  and  MehunnKJa 
in  ^rumlol  and  Jalgaon,  are  like  one  anotlier  in  many  respects.  Like 
Udfl  ih^'y  all  marry  their  widows  in  Gtandharva  form.  Tho  widow's 
father  formerly  look  from £4  to  A6  (R».  W-H*  60),  but  of  late  he 
has  raised  his  demand  to  from  £10  to  £20  (Ra.  100 -Rs.  200). 
Except  at  tlie  Qondhal  leatival  in  honour  of  Rhandoba,  thi>y  nover 
eat  meat.  Their  roligioua  guides  uro  G<K*iLviti  ur  M^ubhiivs.  They 
all  mourn  for  ten  days  after  a  death,  and  pi^rCunu  funerHl 
oeremoniea  on  the  elvrenlh.  Kbudlijids  and  Me^ruuds  dino  witli 
one  amrtheTj  bat  not  with  Leimglidji^ 

VXnonn,  a  low  wandering  tribe,  commonly  hnoters  and  gnarer*, 
are  found  all  over  Ehdndcsh,  cspucially  in  tho  Amalner  and  Erandol 
sob-divisions.  Ttwy  aro  of  two  oIas»e«,  Pirdhis  proper  and  Phis 
Piirdhi«i.  Pirdhis  pnipiT,  known  as  Gujariti  and  MarAthi  PArdhis, 
are  found  in  most  large  villages.  Though  some  aru  t<till  fond  of 
hunting  and  poaching  and  have  not  got  rid  of  their  turn  for  tliieving, 
many  have  taken  to  labour,  somu  fretting  stones  for  grinding  grain, 
and  some,  especially  in  Amalnor,  proving  snccoasful  cultivators. 
Othera  act  as  village  watchmen,  i'i'jU''ni,  especially  in  JSmner, 
Amalner,  and  Knuidol.  The  Pliis  Pdrdhi,  a  wandoring  hunter,  •« 
noarly  always  isggod  and  dirty,  walking  with  a  sneaking  gait.  He 
wanders  all  over  the  district,  iiegai,  and  eats  whatvvcr  ae  can  find. 
He  will  eat  food  cooked  by  a  PSi-dhi  proper,  though  tho  latter  will 
not  eat  with  him.  They  wander  from  place  Co  place  in  bands  of  one, 
and  sometimes  of  five  or  six  £arailies.  1^  man  with  the  nets  and 
bsskots  is  followed  by  the  women  carrying  the  rope  aad  wood  of  tba 
cota  and  tho  t)amboo  fntmework  of  the  mat-huts,  and  the  children  with 
earthenware  pots  and  pans  or  a  brass  drinking  poL  Occasionally  there 
is  a  bullock,  or  more  often  a  buSalo,  loaded  with  tattered  blankots, 
baaketa,  bamboo  sticks,  and  extra  neta  and  mats.  Though  they 
Kimotimca  tret  millstones,  their  osual  calltog  is  to  catch  pig  and 
•  411-lS 




TBombay  QuetUOTd 







d«cr  by  m«uia  of  a  looped  rope  featonixl  witli  rnnnini^f  nooses 
guW    This  ihey  \ny  »lon^  tho«gT«untl,  fastened  with  jwk*!  ^I'l  (''*'< 
drivo  tho  ftiiimaltt  towards  it,     ITieir  plan  for  calciiiiiff  ({uaiU  snc 
rairlridffeB  is  much  the  samo  on  a  smalltir  dcade.    Aitor  imitatinff  than 
call   of    partrid^cfl,  thoy  pLiice  on  the  ground  a  rook-liko  Iwrnhoo 
mil  about  four  iuchea  high.     Thia  rail,  or  frainv,hiu  npright  pieces 
of  bamboo  fastened  in  it,  nbout  four  incheit  apart,  like  s  paling. 
Betwoon  the  piilvs  in  u  running  noose  of  horse  htur.   In  trying  to  |wis 
biytwveD  tbi3  pales  the  bird  ia  caught  in  tlio  noose  by  the  liBad^ 
neck,  or  foot.     Anotlior  plan  ih  to  throw  the  net  over  a  hedge,  a 
troo,  or  a  well,  and  anare  all  benenib  it. 

'  Vadam,  a  wandering  tribo  from  the  souUi  Deccan,  are  tonnd 
cbiorty  in  CliAlisgwni,  Kmiidol,  au<1  the  oentral  sob^diriHrnns.  Thoy 
ore  divided  into  HhojAs,  BhcndiSf  Manna,  and  Krili*.'  The  last 
three  divisions  oat  tugrllior  and  int«miariy.  Stjwng,  dark,  and 
with  regular  features,  their  home  tongu^is  Te)agn.  and  thi-y  live 
generally  in  cano  huts  in  tho  outskirts  of  vitingos.  'Fheir  dresa  ta 
liko  thiit  of  low  caitto  HimhiH,  their  women  wearing  a  mbe  with  nu 
bodice,  and  round  their  wriata  brass  or  silver  bangles.  They 
eat  millet,  vogotsbtot',  fish,  fowlv,  goat*,  and  mt«,  and  drink  liquor. 
Hanlworkiug,  thrifty,  and  hospitable,  they  sell  charcoal  and 
oement,  prepare  the  comb  which  Koshtis  and  S41is  wm  to  Kcporate 
tbothrends  inweaving,  cut  atones,  do  cftrtfc  work,  ilrjve  carta,  kill 
nts,  and  beg.  They  worship  all  Uindu  deities.  They  nse  Briihmana 
aa  priests  and  consnlt  them  as  to  their  children's  names-  Thvy 
have  ot'rtain  ^tocial  oiTonionios  at  l>otrothal,  jnibi'rty,  and  marriage. 
They  choose  a  headman,  obey  him  in  all  social  matters,  and  leave 
bim  to  aottJe  social  disputes.  None  of  thuir  children  go  to  »chool, 
and  none  of  them  have  riwn  to  wealth  or  position. 

Leather  Workers  are  of  three  main  diviriooa,  Dohoris, 
Chibnbhitr«,  and  Mocfais,  with  a  totnl  iHrtngth  of  I3,87o  suiiIk, 
^DoHOBis,  found  in  all  parts  of  the  district,  but  nbiefly  in  Uhnlia, 
Piirohi,  DharonMon,  Amalner,  Shiihiida,  and  Taloda,  include  four 
anb-di visions,  MarAtlm,  Jdtuva,  J&ngada,  and  Ahin-Ar,  who  nvithtir 
many  nor  ent  togother.  Among  them  the  Mardtha  Dohoris  hold 
a  specially  high  piucu.  TtioJaluvas.Jdn^^iis,  and  Ahirvirs appear 
to  he  foreign  immifj^rants,  fianlr-'hi^,  mid  thvrv  in  a  tradition  that 
thuy  came  from  Bundelkhand.  The  AJiirv^ra  make  leather  jars 
for  clarilted  butter,  and  oobblti  old  bIiook.  Mocuis  make  all  kinds 
OMnaMrt.  -  pf  shoes,  boots,  and  other  leather  artideM.  CHAHitR.iRs  have 
e^hr  Kub-divisions,  Mar^tha,  Kitthi,  MitrvAdi,  Purbhai,  D&bhoU, 
Uijsslm^n,  MAaa,  and  Pardeshi.  The  MariithiU  are  of  two  cUeeos, 
Dukhunis  and  HarAlbhaktae,  of  whom  the  latter  hold  a  specially 
high  place.  I'he  village  Ch^mbhAra  preparu  native  shoes  and 
(he  luathoT  wnter  bag,  mot.  Though  at  preheat  the  Dohoris  and 
Ch&mbhfira  prepare  bIodb  n«  well  aa  sew  leather,  the  Chdmbh&is 
declM^  that  fifty  years  ago  they  uBod  uiily  to  «ew  shoos  fi-om  skins 
prepared  by  Dnhoi-is,     They  chiefly  worship  Man&i  and  call  thoir 

■  Ad'ording  tootlm  wcouiita,  Vndu* ue  of. (our  (tlviiiotia,  Vidnn  proper inolndtM 
BhBDilia,  Bhuj&i.  Kalb,  and  M*niw  )  Utdia  or  w«U  buUd«n  i  JitU  or  MiU  nuk«n  ; 
ud  HUtit  «r  well  dignvn. 





prieat  Bh^t.  This  Bhitt  is  a  Cluiiubb&r  and  o«t«  with  tfaem 
khougli  tbe^  do  Dot  eat  witli  hiiu*  His  part  id  tbo  •  marrtii^ 
ceremonies  is  to  beat  the  dmin  and  repeat  holy  vitrscs,  aud  bo  is 
geDerally  paid  5*.  {R»,  2  «*.  8)  for  his  services.  Miirnugc  cuatoina 
nntoDK  ChflmbhArsaQd  Dohorisaro  ftomcn-hiit  ptx-oliar.  (ibniTitllj 
no  BnihinnD  utUiDds,  but  villaRe  Br^unaua,  atttrulo^TrH.and  beggar 
Brihrnana  help  tbu  (lli4nibliiir  by  iJxiu^  the  luarria^o  <luy  nod 
tolling  thu  hour.  Thouvb  tboy  dctiy  it,  Ihvri)  can  be  little  doubt 
th<i  Bnibnuui  receivee   soni«  pay  for  bin    tiomcos,    and  is 


out-of-tbe-way  rillagitis:,  it  is  prubiiblf  tliat  the  BnthmaD  would,  for 
a  consideration,  attend  a  CiidmbliAr'i*  wi>ddinf;.  The  tnarnam 
curiitnony  UKUidly  takes  place  in  ike  monii%.  Tho  hnsl^und  of  tb^ 
bridegroom's  stMter,  ur  Itis  putumul  uncle,  acts  as  boatman,  and 
tflkes  a  leadioff  part  in  tbe  centinouie^.  \N1iea  ho,  as  he  usually 
dooM,  bas  tied  the  knot,  the  married  pair  and  walk  seven  times 
round  »  |»iat,  usually  of  Boswollia  thiirifera,  galai,  wood,  aet  up  in 
thp  middle  of  tbe  marriage  shed  utid  Murixmnded  n-ilb  twenty-one 
earthen  pots,  maticas,  A  son's  marriage  ooMi*  about  £10  and  a 
daughtei^.4  uothing.  Tliey  Iniry  tbe  nnmarried,  bum  tbe  married, 
and  monm  for  three  day».  Death  expcusoM  uinoitnt  to  from  £1  &i. 
U»JE2  (Rs.  I4-R«.  20).  Widows  marry,  but  not  with  the  honoum 
of  a  fimt  weddiug.  It  w  a  favour  conferred  on  tho  widow,  and  her 
father  pays  all  chargea.     The  catite  hag  a  committoo,  pantk,  to  settle 

^pressed  or  Tmpiire  Castes  number,  besides  the  Chimbhira, 
six  classes,  with  astrfiigtln.(7'.',.'j2l  R')ulKortt;J2  per  centof  tbe  whole 
Hindu  population.  Of  these  tJtt,ti2ti  were  Mbini,  scarengets ;  10,067 
MAup,  Iwtlier  dreHSers,  indndin)^  27-^  Bh)irot4ts  Dr'DcnlA6,tfaieve8  ; 
447  Boruds,  basketmahera;  iJ8l  KitlkiUlU ;  and  one  E'arT&ri  MbAbs 
Are  said  to  be  of  tho  following  twi^lvo  and  »  Uttlf  cast«s :  Soma, 
LAdhaii,  Andhon,  Tilvan,  Kochrya,  Bikmya,  Bunkar,  Uoblr,  Balhi, 
Konkanya  from  the  south,  Khar»e.  Oond  from  N4gpnr,  and  GoptUs. 
All  of  thceo  8tib-divi:fion»  art-  known  in  Khiimliuli,  but  the  bonft 
is  niueli  the  largest.  GondU,  the  ludf-tvuite,  are  iMImr  itHiH'tioH  who  are 
fount)  in  the  Brandol  sao-diviaion.  They  arc  said  to  take  their  name 
from  serving  at  a  shrine  at  Domigirhan  on  tho  Qodilvari  near 
Kaygoon  Tlmke  in  the  Nixttni's  territory.  They  wear  a  neckbico 
of  sheep's  hair  and  wander  about  begging,  clashing  little  cymbsls, 
and  invoking  blussingv-  llioy  do  nut  eitt  bread  preparod  by 
Mhdrs,  but  iJiey  take  wheat  flour  and  other  alms  from  Mli&^  and  , 
make  their  own  bread,  llie  communoHt.  Mh&r  snmumes  are  Ltid&T 
and  Surytt.  The  first  four  sub-divixiima  eat  togelher  bot  do  oot 
intermarry.  They  vary  much  in  appearance,  and  when  not  suffering 
from  hereditary  or  oGber  disease,  am  well  made  and  mtisctdar.  Liku 
the  Knnbis  they  speak  a  Ktuindeidii  diab'^t,  a  kind  of  aborteucd 
Uar&thi.'   Theyliavenepvoialformof  greeting,inBloadof  'taldm'  or 




Wtnea  have  rmMOwt 
Wlilttaf  u«  T<™  fins  > 

Kcikon  UU. 

KMbE  jltM. 

KdhMhnll  DDt. 

Chapter  in. 


(MaMdn.  ' 


IBomba;  Oawtt 



(waptor  in.       'ratn  rdvt*  Buying 'johdr'^  to  astran^n^,  and  to  each  other,  namasttt 
Popalatioa.        or  •  1  borf  to  yoa.'   Though  Itfty,  uuthrifty,  mid  fond  nf  plRatuiro  and 
PrpriMcd  drink,   they  are  trusty   viUag»   aervantd,  fairly  free    from   crime, 

CtMMB.  int«Uigunt)  quick,  and  kecQ  observers.    Tbevilla^Mh^  Hwoopa  tho 

Mkdn.  village  stroi^,  avIh  as  giiido  and  measeng^r,  and  carrios  off  dead 

cattle.     Other  Mlidra  earn  their  living  aa  laboarera  or  busbandinen, 
chanting  TnkitrlUn'B  verscB,  ftd  Bulling  fuel  and  grass.     They  make  , 
nxcvlk-ut  milvDiy  gang  Inliitun^ra  aiid  liftTo  gained  almost  a  oionopgHI 
of  the  unskilled  railway  labour  Aarket.  ^| 

Tbey  livo  ont«idu  of  tho  Tillago,  a  few  in  houses  of  the  better  class, 
but  moat  in  ihatohed  ahe^a,jAo2uf(itf.  The  houRes  have wallsof  unbunit 
*  brick  and  mud  with  only  a  ground  floor,  a  email  front  verandah, 
and  tho  initidu  di^-idcd,  according  to  tho  sixo  of  tho  family,  by  one  op 
more  partitions.  Each  family  has  aa  many  metal  cups  as  there  are 
tnumlwrs ;  ono  or  more  earth,  wood,  or  me^  water  jugs  and  cooking 

Gt«,  and  a  wooden  or  nwt«\  liidio,  a  stone  ciirry  Biab  and  roller,  a 
ndmill,  and  a  large  knife  for  outtirig  vogt^tables,  and  a  col  or  two 
with  a  blanket  or  patchwork  covering.  Their  food  ie  millvt  broad, 
carry,  curds,  iv  mixture  of  garlic  onioiiB  and  chillies,  veg<'tablefl,  fish, 
and  the  Qe»h  of  goatii  and  doiul  uctttlo.  Ca»to  ^linnorfi  are  given  at 
births,  betrothals,  marriages,  and  doatha,  and  when  a  man  who  has 
brokun  unv  of  their  ikkiiu  mlvs  i»  received  book  into  oaHte.  Theea 
dinneni,  generally  cooked  by  their  women,  consist  of  rice,  wheat- 
bread,  spht-pals^  one  or  two  vegetables,  and  a  dish  of  milk  and  augar. 
The  dinner  in  serred  on  bcIl-mot<l  plntos,  belonging  either  to  the 
boat  or  to  his  caste -fellows.  They  dine  without  taking  off  Ihoir 
impor  garmonts,  and  four  or  five  cat  from  the  eamo  plate.  Children 
dine  with  the  men,  and  women  and  grown  girln  when  the  men  have 
finiabed.  At  their  caste  feasts  tbey  uoe  neither  flesh  nor  liquor,  and 
except  at  funeral  feasts,  end  with  music.  The  men  wear  a  waistband, 
waistcloth,  turban  and  coat,  and  the  wornvn  a  robe  and  budice.' 
The  children  of  the  are  murriod  before  ibey  grow  up.  But 
in  moHt  ciusiua  want  of  money  forces  them  to  pot  off  marriage  till 
the  girl  is  from  Conrteen  to  ai.vtoi,'n  mid  the  boy  from  eighteen  to 
twenty.  Polygamy  and  widow  marriage  are  allowed  and  practised. 
A  yoonger  brother  may  marry  hi»  t^lder  broUier'3  widow,  but  thei 
appear  to  be  no  traoea  of  polyandry. 


nTion  a  marriage  is  arranged  the  boy's  £athcr  auks  a  Gosiivi,  fihd 
or  SfUlliu  of  liLH  own  cante  to  &x  llie  lucky  day  liud  hour.     This  hQ 
generally  does  after  consulting  a  Brdhman.'    Before  the  roarriagoMd 

■  /oMr  oMnu  from  tha  Suukrit  ToddJ^rak,  ricton.  It  U  th«  nnul  BhrivAk  or 
Jaio  erMtini(. 

■  N«u  th«  nil<iroy  Mici  in  lufo  toxma,  Uinre  la  no  ptcvlianlT  in  tb«  pment  drem 
of  Uie  HhAra.  Ii>  out^f-lbe-vfty  Tillage  Uio  MUr  ia  readily  known  by  hJi  long 
Btipk.  Utt«r«d  tarbaii.KDddirtjrcloUioa. 

*  TfjUuDaU-iSm  that  tlitfy  aver  tetc  part  (n  a  MhiU  w»iiling.  And  Moorallf  aU 
the  hdji  theyciv*  u  ttuit  thoy  aillow  a  UUr  to  look  on  at  a  KiiiiU  wvdilniK  and  tail 
their  Qiru  Mhjr  pricat  when  lh«  Brikman  haa  clap|)«d  hb  liacda.  In  aoino  (if  tbo 
largei  towna  Brihrnaiw  are  aald  Monatiiiin  to  he  amci1uy«d  by  Mbtni  to  pre  tham 
tha  ngnai  for  the  hicky  nnment.  But  llify  do  thia  aumliug  at  a  diatanon 
aod  naver  inti  with  the  p«oplo  o«  t«)i«  an  airtiYa  part  in  t)>a  cRramony.  Abont 
Rrifanaa  pn«ata  tho  Imtli  aMini  to  be  that  in  t)i«  ninr«  civ  ilia  ivl  (<.wTia  iticyilii  niiejid 
Uicw  w«ddiayi,bmia  ranot^  TiUxgea  ooly  Uu  SUbuoi  Bhit,  htnuoli  a  il\>At,  atlenda, 




dinner,  nalloci  gadcujner,  \»  f^ven  either  to  the  boy  or  to  the  girt  and 
their  relatione  and  friends.  Then  qDmos  tho  tfli-moric  cerenwny, 
whon  turmeric  ia  mixed  witli  water  and  rubbed  on  tho  boy's  body, 
and  K4>mo  of  it  is  t^ikun  t^i  ihu  ^t  by  a  party  of  the  boy's  relationn, 
who,  at  the  same  time,  make  her  a  present  of  vli>thc«  and  omamenta. 
Ruth  at  tho  hofi  and  girl's  houses,  booths  are  built,  and  at  tho 
ffirl'a  house  an  altar  \*  rained.  mOa  tiie  marriago  day,  an 
Hour  or  two  before  the  time  fixed,  which  ta  alwayii  sunset, 
tho  boy,  ridiDir  on  horsoback  ^h  a  marriage  ornament  tied 
to  hia  turban,  gov^^,  with  musio  and  a  company  of  bionda  both 
mon  and  women,  to  Mfiruti'a  t«mple.  He  \»  loDowed  by  hijs  sister 
carrying  a  walor  jar  with  five  copper  'coiite  in  it.  Meanwhile  thtt 
girl's  parents  and  relations,  going  with  music  to  lh«  same  temple, 
present  tbe  boy  with  a  turban  and  waistcloth,  and  bring  him  in 
proceeeion  to  the  girl's  house.  On  reaching  the  bouse,  either  k 
coooanut  or  a  ptooeof  broad  is  wared  round  his  hvad,  and  thrown  away. 
Then  the  boy  and  girl  are  mndo  to  Kit  in  btuket«  vuntaining  Hoe, 
betolnuts,  pan  leaves,  and  red  and  yellow  powder,  with  a  cloth 
between  them.  McMmwhilo  tbo  Albar  priest,  or  if  one  has  been 
bribed  to  help,  the  Br^tnan,  tttauding  at  a  distanoe,  mutters  texts 
and  watches  tho  sinking  son.  As  he  watches,  the  brntket  is 
twisted  round  five  times,  and  as  bo  claps  his  hand  to  show  that  Uio 
moment  haa  come,  the  baskets  are  turned  a  sixth  lime,  ihu  cloth  is 
snatched  a^ide,  and  tbe  bride  and  bridegmom  tlirow  garlands  round 
4»ch  other's  uocks.  Bet<>lnut  aud  Icavosare  handed  round  among  tho 
men,  ami  twrra«ric  and  nxA  powder,  kunktt,  among  tho  women.  At 
the  sacred  fire  lighted  by  the  priest  in  the  c^iiilre  of  Ihc  booth,  tho 
boy  and  girl  offer  sesamuin  seed,  ricv,  and  clarifiod  bnttor,  and  after 
walking  three  or  four  times  round  the  fire,  present  the  priest  with 
money  and  metal  pots  or  othur  gifts.  Then  tbe  boy  and  girl  are 
seated  on  the  altar,  and  the  laps  of  five  married  women  are  filled  with 
wheat,  rice,  five  diy  dates,  and  an  equal  number  of  betelnuts,  and  the 
boy's  and  piH's  right  wrists  are  bonnd  by  yellow  strings  with  piecen 
of  turmiTie  fiv«leii<?d  to  them.  Next  they  are  taken  to  Marnti's 
temple,  aud  on  reium  to  the  girl's  honse,  at  the  booth  door  an 
oart  hen  pot  tilled  with  water  and  floating  mangolcaves  is  waved  roond 
their  fact-s  and  wich  guest  dropM  oiio  copper  coin  into  the  water  pot, 
and  waving  another  round  the  faces  of  tbo  con  pie,  gives  it  to  the 
mnsicians.  These  coppora  nro  then  equally  divided  among  the 
bridegroom,  the  prie«l,  and  Uie  musioiaas.  Next  day  the  girl's  ^ 
mother  lakes  baskets  of  sweetmeats  and  split'palse  to  the  boy's 
housA,  aud  after  washing  hi»  mother's  feet,  pn^scnts  her  with  the 
basket*.  Next  comes  a  ceremony  caWeAphiMhami',  when  the  girl 
is  given  clothes  and  ornaments,  and  her  lap  is  filled  with  wheat  or 
rice  grains, a  piece  of  coooH  komot,drydate«,nlmond8,  and  botclnuts, 
the  mother  and  relations  exchanging    presents    of  ckiCbes.     Tbo 

Oiapter  lU. 



JU&dn.      < 

As  mimU    tlio  otdinur  tnatmant   ti  MUn  by  BnUnnMu,  Ur.    Poltui  write*, 
•  A  BrkhnuB  clerk  will  uot  ■•«  *  Mh&r  touch  IiU  ovt,  nor  will  be  Ulu  •  pipor  or 
anilhiiifl  fron  tlio  lunil*  of  *  llUr.     Tbo  Mhilr  Uir»ini  ly  toff  tt«  p>pt:rdii»n  uid    / 
Utaduikpioki  imp-    So,  in  rMiiniiiig  ■  iiajiur,   Ui«   OtOmta  Rla^  it  towards  Uia  A 
Mbit,  bvl  dot>  not  hud  it  Imk&  toUai,' 


[Bomhky  Oai 





boy**  mot)i«r  luid  hor  njlatioiut  And  frinn<laare  then,  vitii  rauiito  si 
clolJtea  apread  for  tbem  to  walk  on,  takon  in  procoesiou  to  tlic  girl'a 
faonse.  On  rciacliinff  tlio  houi^  the  boy  unii  f^rl  aru  mlilKtd  with  ail 
and  batbud  in  wurtn  wuUtr,  umiuiiiig  thonirtelvea  hy  squirting  walw_ 
at  each  otbor.  If  tb»  girl's  &ther  can  a&ord  it,  g'lass  b&n^es 
put  round  the  women's  wrist«.  During  this  timv,  till  tlw  rutiu 
procpB»ion,  tho  boy  and  girl  luniuio  tlicuiselTBS  by  biting  pivcoH 
betvlDUt  or  cocoa  kernel  from  between  each  othvr's  teeth,  by  hnntii 
for  A  betelnut  hid  in  vach  olhur't  ctutlivs,  and  by  funding  each  otln 
While  tho  boy  is  at  hi3  botiae  the  giH'a  father  gives  two  dinnor8  t^ 
guiA4ts,caate  fellows,  and  tvlutious.  Bilhoron  thr  third  or  fonrth  diiy 
•after  mnrringtr,  llio  bridi^nnd  bridi'gi'uinn  are  Keatod  on  a  borHO,  and 
wilh  Groworks,  mnaic,  and  a  large  body  of  friends,  are  takvn  to  the 
boy's  house.  Koxt  day  the  boy's  father  ffires  a  dinnor,  tho  yellow 
tbnmds  itro  btkou  from  tha  wriKLt  and  tieiMCH  of  the  boy  njid  girl,  and 
Ibcy  tire  again  bathed.  The  ordinary  marriage  expenses'  in  a  poor 
fomilvrarr,  in  tht)  case  of  a  bov.froni  £2  10«.  bo£IO  (Rs.2f>-Rs.  lOOk 
and  in  tho  c»»b  of  a  girl  from'fl  lOo.  to  £2  (Kit.  15  -  Ra.  20}.  la| 
well-Lo-do  family  the  expense  is  nearly  half  as  much  again. 

When  a  member  of  the  family  is  at  the  point  of  death,  the  heil 

S've  alms  in  the  nnmo  of  tho  dying  porson,  and  when  lifo  is  goi 
<i  iKHly  i»  laid  on  a  blanket  or  a  pieco  of  nlotb,  wiuthed,  and  pla 
^thor  ou  a  bamboo  bior  or  in  a  sling.     The  thumbs  are  tied  with  a 
p'ece  of  silvor  wirw  ovor  tho,  rolut.ions  pour  a  littlo  water  into 
th«  nionili,  and  tho  wife  or  husband  drops,  wiib  the  water,  one  or 
more  false  p«»ris.'    Tho  boily  in  thtn  carried  to  tho  burjHng  ground, 
laid  in  tlio  grave  with  the  ctolhes  on,  and  earth  thrown  ov(!r  it,  'irsb^ 
by  the  chief  mourner  and   afterwards  by  the  rest  of  the  eompauni 
When  tho  grave  is  filled,  tho  cbiof  monmer,  with  an  earthen  wataff 
pot  on  his  shoiildltr,  wivIkH  round  it  three  times.  Ikfaking  a  «iimll  hole 
m  the  pot  with  a  stone,  the  water  trtcklQa  out,  and  witen  the  pot  is 
empty,  he  daslies  it  on  the  ground,  calls  aloud,  aiid  returns  home. 
From  Uiree  tu  teii  days  the  mmirning  family  is  impure.   On  the  third 
day  the  grave  is  Iwollod,  and  on  the  tenth,  Uie  cbiot  mourner  with 
a  priest,  relationa,  and  friends,  giving  lo  (ho  river's  bank,  has  bia 
head  and  monstuchcfl  shaved,  and   after  batbiug,  offors  rice,  doagl; 
bulls,  and  oaken  to  tlie  sjiirit  of  tlm  cK^ud.     Then,  placiug  some  call 
for  the  crows,  he  throws  those  otfered  to  tho  dead  niati'ii  spirit  iut 
the    river,    and  returning   home,  feasts  hia  relations    and    caste 
,  follows,  and    in    presentod  by  them  with  n  now  turban.     Death 
eVpeniiea  varv,  in  a  poor  family,  fi-om  £1  t<i  £1  10«,  (Us.  10-Ra.  15)^ 
and  among  the  woll-to<do  from  £2  10*.  to  £5  (Ha.  25 -Ra.  SO).         ~ 

Mh&rs  keep  tho  r«gnlar  Hindu  fasts  and  feasts.     Their  favonriJ 
doitii.«  arc  Vilhuba,  Khandoba,  Mhasoba,  Bhalroba,  and   Aibbav^i, 





'  TIm  dDl«ll«  an*  :  datliM   R*.  SO,  two  Uisnan  Ri.  2i,  drink  Rb.  6a     Mr.   J. 
Pollou.  0.  S. 

*  Ho  «<i»lnm  vaiita  in  dllfiMBt  piMM.     TTi*  Mhln  of  Pa3dlii  my  that  at  Ibc  time 
o(  itmoriitg  tb<i  AfA  bchly  ii(  a  uiAnicJ  luaa  truiu  tlio  lioaM  Hit   nUiifnt  put  mtn 
luK  Baath  juda  loaf  villi  s^i4il  timl  nriibwifa'sneL'kUcv.  AtthegnrcUic  dccna 
In«Ul«r  or  KUi  wuU  Um  «ad  at  hi*  torbut  uil  drops  a  littlo  wat«r  on  Um  da*d 



whose  imti^s  they  keep  in  theip  houeos  fttui  wrmdiip.  It<,>s)d«« 
these  they  wonliip  siiakeB  and  Um  spifits  of  the  dead.  Thi-y  bhvo 
on  ffpeoial  places  of  pil^m»^,  vitiitin^  ^11  Hindu  HhriacK,  Ik'nai-os 
iBcluded.  In  m>mt  OMes  MhAr  Sddbua  luivo  Ix-oii  w<inihi|)}M'd  by 
olbiT  Hiiiduit.  Their  priests  arc  Gosivis,  Sddbus,  and  Thiikui-a 
or  Bb&t8.  T1h3  SftdhiiD  orw  Jlliiln*,  wlio  Iikto  bwn  inilistod  by 
other  Uoif^vtH  or  VuiriL^iii,  and  wbo  have  devoted  theni»elTe8  to 
a  religiooa  life,  chieHy  to  the  worship  of  Vithoba.  The  Thikurs 
are  called  Mhflr  TltAknrH,  and  are  prvbnhty  Bhfilii  who  hare  br-cn 
def^nulcd  by  mixiuK  amonj;  Mhiirs.  Their  form  of  ^^reeting  ia 
different  from  the  llb^r*,  enyitig  '  ram  rAm '  to  wwth  other  nnd 
*hrahn>a*  to  stmntri>rii.  Ui-Midea  officiating Oi  their  pHeiit,  thti  TbAkiira 
•CtAM  tbo  Mhfirfl'  banker.  ITe  eats  from  a  Mb£r,  but  no  Mhjlrwill 
fiat  with  him.  To  csrapo  from  lliu  iinpteivi<»iiliii,-:«8  of  their  po^ittoa 
as  an  '  impure '  cImk,  some  Mhiirn  dre^m  like  devotem  and  pn.«i  aa 
QotAvh  or  as  MnsalmiiD  lie^^rs.  But  as  a  dIosh  they  aocopt  tJicir 
podition,  live  by  thomitelvca,  and  nro  citreftit  not  to  touch,  or  cv(mi 
tn  out-of-tlie-way  parts  not  to  allow  their  shadow  to  taXl  on  a  high 
oasle  Uiuda. 

1n  cnch  group  of  Tillairea  there  ia  a  chief  &tbAr  hiradnuui,  who  in 
Jauuier  is  called  jiaderfar  and  in  the  south  wnehetur.  The  office 
is,  as  a  nUe,  horodittiry.  The  most  »cni<iible  luid  worthy  of  (ho 
sons  is  ohoiKCu  in  the  room  of  hia  &tber.  Failing  sons  some  other 
member  of  the  family,  and  failinff  the  bmilyi  an  ont^sider  is  chosen. 
Caete  disp«t*i»  ar«  Delllcd  by  tho  mnn  of  the  viilw^i  with,  or  without, 
the  help  of  the  headman.  The  offt-uces  puntshiHi  by  t^xpitlitioii  am, 
the  ^iluro  to  pve  c«flte  dinners,  diuiui;  and  smoking  with  one 
of  lower  ciuttv  Kiich  aa  a  Hiing,  and  aduitory  or  iMnt'tibinsj^.  Men 
haTfi  games  of  chance  sach  as  drafts  n'ith  shells  and  canls,  boya 
play  marbles  with  wood  or  stone  bullets,  and  girS  luivo  tboir  dolls. 
Men  imwliito  athletics  sodi  as  prostrations  and  club  ezercusos. 
They  have  no  profcssioniil  JMters  or  story  tollers.  Thvy  arc  fond  of 
masic,  plnying  a  onc-»tringi^l  instrument  tunlune,  a  lute  vina,  S 
tambourine  da/,  and  a  smiill  druin  dM. 

Of  lata  bi-tw(.<en  liuidhoidnrs  and  viltago  Mh/Lrs  complaints  and 
foods  have  gn>wii  very  common.  I'heir  hnrvt^t  grain  doloH,  which 
nsed  to  vary  from  fonr  to  forty  pounds  from  every  hnabandman,  have 
l>e«n  lusst-noil  or  withheld,  and  tn  some  vilhiges  Khaofips  have  Ik-vd 
cnllod  U>  do  iheir  work.  But  as  a  nile  Ihejia  diaputefi  are  sottJcd  in 
the  Mb^r's  favour.  Tho  railway  has  done  much  for  tho  Mbfirs.  * 
Thoy  mako  excellent  gangmi!ii,  and  Komo  of  them,  ^theriitg  (Nijiital 
as  petty  oontractors  and  m on ny tenders,  show  much  indepeudiiuce, 
and  manage  their  business  withottt  the  holp  of  any  high  caste  clerks. 
Of  tote,  too,  they  have  begun  to  send  their  boys  to  school.* 

MiNQS,  foand  in  small  numbersall  over  the  district,  belong  to  three 
cl&Mes,  the  tocnl  Murjtha  Mfings  who  have  settled  in  tho  district  for 
generations  and  ilo  not  eat  with  the  other  clftHH<-!i ;  Miing  Gilmdts, 
wanderers  and  dealers  in  buffaloes ;  and  Ddk&lrili-  Mdngs,  beggan. 



'  Dayrwnd 


>  A  Uliti  mIumI  «t  Yivnl  hM  tliirt}-  f  ujiUi,  aiid  unther  hM  bora  Utdy  optnod  u 

IBomlwr  Oitzet 

pt«r  ni. 

•  PopnUtion. 


Ma  »iji. 




The  G^nidifl  sbaTa  and  clcnft  bnfhiocfl ;  tliey  beg  and  wsod 
abcMtt  but  uover  «|k;ii<]  tii<>i{  mouey.  The  D^ktUvi&ra  are  M^iu^ 
beggars  takiug  aluia  from  their  own  caste  only.  Tho  repiilar 
district  M^ngB  are  gvncraDy  dnrk  uud  Dtronglj  made,  ptuwioimtv, 
rcrenfFoful,  rudo,  nn<]  greatly  feanMl  aa  soroeretv.  They  apeak  a 
Kb&»deali  dixlect  like  Mhdra  and  Ktmbis.  Sturdy  and  fit  for  hard 
work,  thoQgh  truBtnrorthy  villugo  itorvantfl  and  not  addicted  lu  crime, 
they  uro,  as  »  clnett,  Inxy,  unthrifty,  and  fond  of  pleasure  and  drink. 
Some  who  hare  recently  comit  from  the  SitmAlds,  csltod  tho  Ghjit 
Ullngs,  make  ropw  of  coir,  twine,  and  leather,  and  the  Khindeiili 
or  &UingM  proper,  with  the  help  of  their  wives,  make  bamboo 
•baskets,  tent  screens,  and  ropes.  They  are  nlao  villngv  watchnwn, 
giiidpi>i  luid  niuMicitiTi»,  MungHtvra,  acnveugera,  and  hangmen.  Tho 
proudcat  moraeut  of  a  Ming's  life  is  said  to  be  when  he  hangs  a 
Mh&r,  the  hereditary  rivals  and  enemies  of  his  tribe.  I'boy  live 
ontaido  of  villogeii,  •  few  in  bouwa  of  tho  better  olaaa,  but  must  in 
thatched  huts.  Their  food  is  millet  bread,  cnrry  curds,  vegetables, 
fiah,  the  Rcsh  of  goats,  sheep,  dead  cattle,  and  except  those  who 
keep  au  iiitage  of  Khandoba  or  Devi  in  their  houses,  pork.  ChmIo 
dinners  are  given  at  births,  betrothals,  marriages,  and  deaths,  and 
whi-n  a  man  who  has  broken  one  of  Ihftir  .toeiitl  nilus  is  received 
back  into  caste.  At  their  caste  feasts  they  use  neither  lleiih  nor 
liquor,  and,  except  at  funemi  feasts,  end  with  music.  The  children 
of  the  well-to-do  are  married  before  they  grow  up  with  lite  same 
rit«8  aa  the  Mhdrs.  On  the  eveuing  of  va&  nmrriage  day,  the 
Mitngs  generally,  at  a  respectful  distance,  attendaKonbior  M&rv&Ii 
weddiivg,  and  at  mindown,  n.t  koou  a^  the  Brithman  clap»  his  hands, 
they  tie  the  knot.  Tho  marriage  is  generally  performed  by 
Hang  SidhuB  each  of  whom  has  a  group,  of  from  twelve  to  thirty 
viUiigi>»  to  wander  ov(<r.  The  Sdtliiu'a  preaenoo  is  noi  eaaential. 
In  his  absence  the  beadntan,  meketar,  who  must  be  present  nt  all 
weddings,  and  if  not  he,  Home  member  of  the  marriage  party 
^>erforms  the  marriage.  Polygamy  and  widow  nuirriage  are  allowed 
and  practised.     They  gonernlly  bury  their  dead. 

Their  favourite  deitiott,  all  of  Minn  n^d  stones,  and  their  fasts  and 
feastH  are  tho  same  as  those  of  the  MbArs,  and  liko  MhiG-s,  their 
prieiits,  (losAvis,  Htiiii«,  and  S^lms,  fix  their  children's  namaii,'  toll 
the  IucIq'  day  and  hour  for  marriage,  and  |ierform  the  ceremony 
with  ParAnic  verses.  Like  the  MhflrB  they  have  headmen  called 
mehetart.  The  offences  punished  by  expulsion  from  caste  are  tho 
failure  to  give  caste  dinners,  the  dining  and  anuiking  with  a  DAkilv&r 
or  Oirudi  iiiug,  a  Vador,  or  (t  PhAs  Pirdhi,  adultery,  and  killing  a 

Some  few  MAngs,  who  have  driven  a  suceetuifnl  trado  in  boffaloes, 
are  well-to-do;  but  the  majority  are  poor  and  obliged  to  hibonr 
constttntly   for   their  daily  bread.      They  arc  much  looked  down 

■  Tb«  tUUec  BrlhiDui  oatoe*  tb*  ehfld  il  Mkcd  by  th«  iiiat,  ud  tbongh  be  AeOM 
it,  upud  for  tin  trouble 

*  Thii  i>  duubUnl  though  «omc  Micin  aMerttt.    Th«  J»IgMa  Mian  Mrtftiiily  wt 
the  Stoh  of  Um  oow.    Mr.  J.  Folleo,  C.  8. 





on,  but  to  some  exteot  comfort  ttiemiielveft  bv  holding  in  coDteit^t 
tbe  Mflug  GirudiB  and  the  DAkftlvArs,  " 

BcHUDH,  found  in  &niall  numbera  at  Pfipola  and  Dbulin,  say  that 
they  came  from  Ah mudnugitr  about  two  gonorations  ago.  According 
to  their  itt'iry,  V&rv&ti,  on  re.-iching  womaohuod,  was  prvwntvd  by 
tlie  matrons  with  tbp  nsnal  Upfiluog,  ottbharan,  offering  of  whi:at, 
cocosnnte,  red  and  yellow  ]>on-<Jor,  betel  leaves,  and  u  oomb. 
To  niuktf  n  nhoveUaliaped  winnowing  basket  to  hold  ihcso  ofTvriiigs, 
Khiv  tailed  the  Buruda  into  exifitence,  and  allowed  them  to  cut 
down  five  Uimboo  troe-s  in  PAi-vnti's  garden.  Instood  of  five  the 
BnnitU  out  ten  troea,  and  through  llit?  u-mth  of  Shiv,  lost  tht-ir  < 
ciule.  There  ia  nothing  poctUtar  in  their  «p]iearance  or  dialect. 
They  live  inside  the  town  nvar  Yiiuts  and  make  bamboo  baskets, 
tup  and  1114^1,  littlu  winnowing  faint,  cagcn,  and  oradlM.  Ktinbin 
«moke  with  them  and  ibey  do  not  eat  with  MluLra  or  M&nga. 
They  risii  MAheji  and  other  fairs,  and  their  priests,  the  LJng&yat 
JanguniB  and  BrilhmaHM,  ntu-ud  thrir  wtnlilings.  Thoy  h»Tti  no 
beitdman.  They  are  hardworking,  all  the  tuombers  of  the  family 
helping,  and  but  for  the  money  tbcy  waste  on  their  weddings,  thoy 
would  hftvo  n  giio«l  rhanw^  of  rising  frnin  their  present  low  pwiition. 

KaikAdis,  found  al  Aiiuiln4>r,  Bhndgaou,  Cbopda,  Dhulia,  Krandol, 
Jdmner,  N&xirabad,  t'irola,  flivver,  and  8dbli,  am  of  two  clans, 
Jfldar  and  fJdikwiir,  who  eat  and  marry  with  each  other,  aa  no 
marri.tgi^  brtwt-vn  two  nn'mbers  of  the  same  chin  is  allowed.  They 
aity  Ihoy  know  no  homit  but  Kluindctfh,  ami  tluit  they  hnro  no 
tradition  of  having  come  from  the  aonth.  They  have  houM^  in  some 
central  viliagvs,  but  for  xeven  months  of  the  year,  from  October 
till  April,  they  wander  in  iMi^trch  of  work.  Their  H«ttled  abodeii 
ore  often  well  built  houses  in  tbe  middle  of  Villages,  as  at 
Grandol  and  Siikli;  tbi;ir  wandering  htirn  art;  mado  of  matting 
Hft  np  on  bamboo  polea,  which,  as  they  move  from  place  to  nlac«, 
they  can-y,  with  their  bou6eliold  goods  and  dishes,  on  the  back4  * 
of  asses.  Like  all  wanderers  they  are  a  suspected  class  always 
undvr  piilioe  supiTviition.  Tlwy  wkoiI  to  make  biiskot-i  of  lliu 
branches  and  leaf  fibre  of  the  wild  date  or  dwarf  imlm  tree, 
shiwi*,  which  formerly  grew  freely  tbrougliont  KluLnaesh.  The 
fewnoss'  of  date  trees  now  forces  them  to  make  these  basketa  of 
cotton  litalk.s,  aud  they  plait  Iwig.t  of  the  Hiiino  material  into  wicker 
work  cages  which  husbandmen  smear  with  cowdung  and  store  grain 
in.     This  cott<m.8calk  wicker  plaiting  is  their  only  work. 

They  worshipj  they  H»y,  nil  Hindu  i;<>*i*,  nnd  apjK'nr  to  be  a 
religions  race  rovfirenring  Muhamiuadan  Hsint^.*  They  deny 
^^^at  thoy  eat  cow's  flesh,  but,  except  iho  followers  of  Musultnllii 
^^Ksta,   they    admit    tboir   fondnusa    for  pork    and   liquor.     They 

F ■■ 

■  ElOfrpt  t-- [    wbcrn  itimtitt*  tT*«*  jiiiattm  l«nk*  «f  all  tba 

■tmumritti:  il*W  t>  iiou'iinlilnna  (uuii'l'  .Mr.  .1.  rolUn,   C.S. 

■  la  oiraibuii  1. 1  [..I  ti'i.  iIjikIiih  llity  hnv*  »  vvcy  Anfi  rvvcrDit-^  for 
Dinlinalik  iIm  fuiMmi  taiul  itt  Miillirr  in  SHUiTia.  Hia  dnxilMa  k*np  •  ttiuk.  jnli. 
la  tlwlrbooMB  wrApiMd  in  x  mnn  clnlli  or  tuu  in  miiis  raoou  ia  hMioDr  of  ibu  inuit, 
and  it  U  no  uaonul  Uilug  to  k«cp  tlia  Mini'*  ]iiti  ud  Hi*  itai^ie  of  tUuniUn^.  Mt 
liy  Bib. 






IBombar  Gtmtteer. 

iptor  III. 








have  oo  fixed  age  and  no  flxml  time  for  their  inatTiaReB.     Though 
they   cohsnlt  tlie  Tillage  Bf&liniBn  as  to    tlioir  children's   nam**, 
he  has   no  Toico   in   mnniage  mstterB  and  does  not  att«iid  their 
wpiIdiiigM.     IHie  only  wedding  cervmonies  are  the  anointtDg  with 
turmeric  und  the  knot.     The  ponsent  of  the  girVf  pamnttt  i»  all  tluiL 
is  necessarv,  and  Ihin  ih  obtaint^l  on  payment  of  »  lump  (lum  nf  from 
£2  10«.  to  £10  (Ita.  20-  Ks.  100).     A  feast,  wiih  [ik'nlj-  of  liquor,  ia, 
then  ffiven,  and  the  pitri>nt«  of  the  f^ir]  tie  her  K>bc  to  the  hn<k'grooio9d 
waistcloth.     ThiM    finishes  Ihc  rcn^mony.     (lirl.*  urn  miirrii-d   bi^«H 
thoir  tenth  vear.     Though  ui;irrtngv  is*  cheap  and  eaar,  it  ia  burdened 
by  a  couditiou  that  reouirea  the  son>ia-Iaw  to  live  with  hia   wifo'ft  | 
family  an  (I  help  lo  Hupport  them,  until  he  hM>  thr«e  i-hildren.    If 
i<«pArut4»l  from  hia  wife  by  muliml  conaent,  the  huaband  ix  bound  to 
make  an  allowance  to  bis  wife's  parents.     Tbe   Kaikadis  recognifls, 
no  heudmiui  ud  HOttle  dispntee  by  a  committee  of.any  four  or 

PartAbi,  tboTigh,  especially  by  the  EIngltNh,  often  applied  to) 
IfhArs,  ia  said  strictly  to  helong  to  the  musical  Mhir.  lie  uaea  a  ' 
double  drtim  vnlled  tnmhal ;  a  email  flute  of  trnmpi't,  nifulc  of  wood 
and  tipptxi  with  bniH.'<,  called  fitnnt  ;  a  long  lrum[>et  or  tliilo  rallt'd 
itur  or  turai,  with  a  paint-leaf  mouthpiece ;  a  thin  dram  stick  culled 
buk ;  and  a  homeci  or  crooked  stick  called  rh^p.  Thiwe,  with  a 
wooden  flate,  ali/iua'r,  are  thechief  inKlntinentK  used  by  the  mu»cnl 
iib&r.  Ocoasionatly  he  blows  tbe  bom,  tiit^u,  but  uerer  beata  tbe 
tambourine  or  btowx  the  big  tnimpot,  Jtamo,  these  being  exclnsively 
M^ng  insCmments. 

Devotees,  and  religious  und  otber  beggars  of  rarioa«  names, , 
number  about  J2,0(lO  souls  or  1*24  percent  nf  the  whole  Hindu 
population.  Of  thi'se  7220  wore  Qoa^ris;  1318  Minhhive;  1054 
Ghondlie;  IGU  Kolhitiis;  467  Shil&vants;  435  Gop4U;  274  JobArtg; 
,230  Holsrs;  IbS  PAngid-n;  r>9  Bhflnds ;  39  NAlhs:  32  KApdig; 
Vibiadevit ;  and  10  KillTieliU.  Of  tlwa©  GosXria,  recruited  from  all 
olassee,  worship  either  Vi^ihnn  or  Shir.  They  rub  onhos  over  their 
bodies,  and  wear  the  hair  dishevelliKl,  and  xonielimes  ooited  round 
the  head.  They  wauder  about  begging  and  viiuting  places  of 
pilgrimage.  They  wear  oohre-ooloorc'd  cloth<-«  and  vni  al  the  hiinda 
of  all  Iliudni.  At  death  their  txKlios  ;ire  buried.  GosAvia  M>em 
inclined  to  give  up  begging.  At  Piichom,  a  G<3sdvi  is  a  revenue 
•peon,  and  otbero  have  takeu  to  labbnr.  Their  local  hi-admuD,  a 
grral  saint,  mahant,  tivits  at  Nngardevla.  Gondrlis,  called 
BluinldiH,  aro  a  set  of  wandering  iM.'ggurs  recruited  from  all  castes. 
They  wear  long  dirty  clothes  and  vasder  about  chanting  son^  in 
honour  of  Amh^b^i,  Saptaehringi,  and  other  goddoSMOs.  They 
attend  marringi;  nnd  oilier  ci^nrmonii-s  and  diinco  with  lighted  lamps 
in  their  haua».  MAnuiiAvs,  found  throughout  tbe  district,  birt 
especially  in  Cbili^gaou.  PAchora,  PrakisFut,  and  SbAliiida,  aro  a 
sect  of  Krishna  worahippvni  who  wear  black  gannrrits.  Of  Lite 
nwny  hare  given  up  begging  and  aetlled  to  tmde  and  husbandry. 
Borne  are  labourers,  some  cxtrso  cloth  weavers,  and  some  carriers  , 
with  cartii  and  bullocks.  Their  dislike  of  idol  worship  lias  inada 
theiD  Tery  unpopular  among  Brdbmautc  Uindas.      Bt^hmaas  attend 




their  mamsf^.  They  Mt  with  Kunbis  bnt  not  with  Tvlis  or 
9'4tuboli8.  They  bury  their  dewL  Their  Ik^iIhioii  iaa  wauderintf 
ftuiDt.  mahnitt.  Hi«  office  is. eloctiv«,  kiiU  whuit  bu  diuH,  oiiv  of  ms 
disciples  is  geaerally  chosKti  bitiidruati. 

KoLaAns  or  tumblers,  taking  their  name  from  kolAit  »  term 
Dimiilly  np|ili<-d  to  th«  loofir  bamboo  polo  on  which  they  display  their 
featfl,  ore  a  very  JMeliigi'tit  looktug  race  anxioas  lo  r'rne  from  tbeir 
|>rc»eut  poeitiou.  Sbgnl  aud  native,  of  fair  complexion,  with  dark 
eyvB  and  eliort-cut  black  hair,  tbuy  Npcak  a  mixtnre  of  Marfithi, 
Gujar^li,  and  Uindu»tnni.  Rxccpt  during  the  minn  whoa  they 
generally  lire  ontoide  villagea,  they  have  do  fixed  Beltl»ment«  unrl 
no^-e  from  plaoe  to  r^nce  carrying  with  them  tbeir  loog  low  mat  ■ 
iul8,  kiiiiimaluitt,  Thoy  live  tof^lJiiT  in  wDall  groups  of  foor  or 
ire  families,  those  who  can  afford  it  keeping  pouiea  and  donkvys, 
fhom  tlioy  use  in  traTollinp  from  place  to  place.  The  men  earn  » 
iving  by  Itinibliu^  and  thcJr  women  help  llicin  in  tho  p*'rffirmane©. 
I'b^y  abo  muke  tbc  HTtinJI  biifTolo  born  pullii^  which  nrv  iirx-d  nith 
art  ropes  in  faeteuiog  loads.  Iliey  worship  Khandolm,  HnnumAn, 
('ir,  and  the  godd^  Mari.  They  believe  in  fjhosta  and  spirits. 
>a  reaching  womanhood  every  Kolhiti  girl  ia  twllod  on  to  choose 
vetween  manage  and  prootitulion.  If  she  prefers  marriage,  aho  is 
esloosly  watobed  and  ia  usually  well  behaved.  Ifeho  choose  to  bd 
i  prostitute  and  a  (MmbhT,  h«r  pari'nU  tnko  tuT  before  tho  tribe 
;ouncil,^iricA,gct  llit-ir  liravc,  and  ^ivo  thi^m  a  diunor.  The  children 
)f  nomarried  Kolhiii  girls,  tbotigh  held  degraded,  are  supiwrted  by 
ho  vusto,  and  are  marrH'd  to  other  bastard  Kolh&tis,  Suca  couplee 
nv  oonitidcrt^d  oi]tai»tox  and  vat  by  theniMlve«.  Bat  their  chilaren 
tre  admitted  to  tlie  full  privitegt-s  of  Uie  cast«.  Snvh  of  thvir 
romon  na  practise  prostitution  are  always  under  police  surveillance, 
IS  thi-y  aro  euvpcctod  of  kidTsiipping  high  canto  girk  to  bring  up  Ha 
iroatitiitex.  UoPAr.t  are  Mh&v  in-i^Ai^  who  sing  and  dance,  and  also 
vreatle.'  IIoLAea  are  Mdng  bfggars  f/x^m  Burh&n|nir,  who  dance 
fith  a  stick  oriiiimvntod  with  iK'«oo<'k  foiithent  and  hung  with  beils.*- 
'AXOCLa  lire  a  rrtco  of  Mar&tha  Kunbi  Wggar^,  who  wander  through 
he  Htrects  early  iu  the  morning  shouting  oat  the  names  of  Hiudn 
tida.  They  dance  and  sing  and  often  climb  troesj  calling  oat 
'ithoha'M  name,  and  shouting  for  ulro>i  to  the  pajt^rs-by.  Tho 
'ilnguU  of  E'aiaMkhedii  iu  ildtuner  are  chiedy  Mar&tb&s,  some  of 
hem  culnrators  and  some  beggars.  The  latter  neither  dan«?  nor 
ma.  hilt  big  in  tho  iiamo  of^Vlthoba  going  about  with  blankuta 
H^hru  over  (heir  headii.  They  eat  from  Marathiia  and  Brdhuuius; 
Kboth  bum  and  bury  their  dead.  UrUhmane  attend  their  marriages. 
Iioy  liavR  »  council,  panch,  to  itottlo  di.-s{>uteH.  Nj^tsa  are  a  class  of 
eggnrs  touad  at  Navlrabad^nd  here  and  there  in  the  eastern 
a&-divisions.  They  are  also  called  Sitip&dris  and  biivo  bwn  for 
eneratior?  in  tlte  district.  Thoy  wear  huge  glass  earring  and  live 
eDttrallybybeggiag,  though,  when  pre'tsed  by  bunger,they  sometimes 
o  a  little  bed-tape  weaving.     They  worship    Mahfldov.    KAfdu* 

Chapt«r  IIL 

■SMaboTcv  p.  115. 

>  fWtbur  dctiila  oi  tlw  Kipdia  m  giir«u  in  th*  BonilMr  GaMtt««r,  T.  S*. 

[Bombaf  Guett 



cbipter  ni. 



are  a  clan  of  bef^rs,  n-Lo,  when  hvgKiog,  dmw  their  wniHtcIc 
nviy  theij-  hciids.  CK>«>elj'  itlbbd  witti  tliem  are  VistTDsrs,  who  heg 
dothod  in  Ituifi;  robes  aud  with  a  head-dress  ot  peaoocfc'a  fi-aih^n^ 
KjlNPa.vTAs  or  slit-eared  beprgant,  fonnd  in  ultnofll  nil  (Mrtn  of 
Kh^Dde«h,  are  follower*  uf  ihc  grt-nt  "aiut  (iiinikhisiiOi  wnd  worship 
Shiv.  'ilipy  wit  with  Kuubi»,  driuk  liquor,  iiud  eat  HeMh.  Girls  am 
marrivd  l)«twe«u  lire  aad  ten,  and  remarriage  ia allowed.  They  bury 
their  dead  and  observe  mourniDpf  for  suruti  dny^.  Tliv  cwrvmunjr  j 
oittiDf?  tho  car  t8  {X^rforuied  by  tkvir  |iri4>tit  when  the  boy  ia 
ypnrif  uld,  and  'in.  GJ.  (Ita.  1|)  are  ]Mid  to  liini.  At  the  close  of  i 
cereniotiy  a  fraat  ia  given  to  ralatioas  and  friends.' 

MBMtndnt.        •      According  to  the    18T2  ceiiwUK,  Khltnili^sh  Miiwlmitnfl    iiiiml 
75,090 Bouls,  or  ("JJ'i  ptir  cent  of  the  whole {Kipulaliuu.*  Thevarefoi 
in  every  sub-division  and  in  almost  every  village.     The  balk  are 
oonvertt  from  Himhiintn.     8iioh  of  tJiem  as  haves  Strain  of  fon'ij 
blood  arv  pi-o)»ildy  the  descend  a  tit»  of  tlio  Aniba  lAo  took  Bprvjco 
nnder  the   FiJruki  dynasty   (lltro  -  laOtt),  and  afterward^  hired  by 
MojthalB,  MarAthiH,  and  local  chiefs,  »rere,  along  withtbeir  countrf 
boni  or  Myrallad  twnw,  w  linyo  and  TorinidnbW  u  bolly  of  men 
the  time  of  tfae  British  conquest.*     OihetH/ftf  foreign   extrat 
are  the  Malika  the  descendants  of  the  first  Mubainmadan  codi 
in  the  north,  who  followod  tlio  antiies  of  AIn-ud-din  (1912)  aud  ot 
Ghori  kingK  and  ohii-fit.     Betiides  thosi!  wlio  claim  Arab  desc 
some  KbAndesh   Mui^lmiina  hare  a  tradition  that  their  forc-falh^ 
belonged   to   KhorSaiin,  whilo  othors  reft-r  vaguely  to  llindiisti 
and  niithy  >i;iy  that  they  came  onginally    from    Ahmodnagar.     Kiicl 
Moglial  espedilion  seems  to    hare  brought  fnfsJ*   settlers  ti-om   the 
north.     Of  Khrindi-sh  Mnaalmfins  about  one-fourth  are  auppoaed  to 
bo  servants,  and  tho  rv»t  traders,  critfbcmvn,  husbandnirn,  laMmre^ 
■nd  bi^garK.      They  are  potir  and  prond,  Jind,  except  the 
Buhonla  aud  a  few   wfao  Qa|£    lately    bdcoine  Wahbabis,  are 
Buiinis  in  name,  bnt  careless  ^pot  their  religion,  almost  half  Uiadll 
*tD  thought,  feeling  and  castomn. 
^^     Tho  diiTcrcnt  chiHMM    into  which    tho  Mnsatmin  population' 
divided  may  bo  arranged  Dudi-r  two  gmtips,  one  including  tlut  fa 
general  classes  of  Syods,  Shaiklla,  Mogliids,  and   Pitthana,  and 
other  ombi^ng  tho   KCjMrate    communitio*   which    are  based  on  ' 
aamcticss  of  origin  i;^  of  employment.     Of   the  four  gencrai  chutsefl  ' 
the  Mogli&iti  are  very  few.      The  three  other  clasncs  ivro  nominally  i 
■    large  bodies.     Bulvosl  of  the  memliarit  have  no  claim  to  foreign, 
descent,  rcprvsvntinB  loi-al  Hindu  oouverls,  who,  following  the  Deccao  \ 
custom,  have  enrolled  rhem^elveK  in  tho  class  to  which  tndr  pntron, 
•       OP  (converter,  belonged.     Thus  the  Ttflvis,  converted  Bhils,  and  the 
NAilcvndiK,  probably  Hindus  from  Mysor,  hare  chosen  to  adopt  the 
title  of  PatlUns.     To  this  rule  the  only  laceptious  are  some  famUioa 

■o  iff 



■  PnrUim  dcUiU  or  tbs  Kdep!»U«  m*  tilvan  la  th«  Banter  GuetU^r,  V.  SK, 
■TIm  datailt  am  ot  little  vkIuo;  lSi$  Diijiri*  or  <«toii  clransn.  OSCMci 
tir«rMVim^S3SK«aii««rb>Dt«lMn.  2IBMaaiinor   bncalct  iiwV*r»,  VIS  Bohntixir' 
tmjkm,  SOI  Bhaagi*  or  nreepcra.  ]30  F«kin  or  Iwiiinn,  1$  Kilbanib  Vt  Uniar 
KamkiUi*.  8  ShBdH,  uhI  Tiw*  Otbtn. 
•  D«tallB  arcgiirn  twlow  under  "  Uaitwy." 




of  Syeda  of  undonbted  foreifrn  deaoeiit,  auil  in  tlia  [iorfcb<east  sonw 
Sbuiklis  tho  rDprCMMttutirps  uE  the  Fi^niki  kiiic:^. 

0(  the  tweiitr-two  local  commumlius,  <if  n-liJch  infomwtaon  haa 
lieeu  obtaio|d,  oae  are  traders,  twelre  craftairieu,  four  ItunlmndiuoD 
Bad  cattlo  lSsi;dcr«,  four  servants,  and  one  aclora  or  muaicians. 

T\w  uiu'  :<pe<!inl  communitir  vi  tnidiMM  is  tliv  BouokAs/  Shiiiis  by 
religion,  and  followers  of  the  ituUa  .SiUioli  '-f  Suiul.  Sinm;  fnmilii^^ 
of  tradint;  Uofaor&s,  i mm )g rants  frum  tiujarat,  are  foimd  in  vnrat 
KtulndcHh.  But  nio«t  of  tlicm  have  come  from  Burhdnpur,  once 
the  boad-4]Diirt«r!i  nf  their  mxi,  mid  arc  fotind  in  tho  cnat  of 
the  district  in  Bhilsdva),  Ohopda,  R&vor,  nnd  Jalgaon.  Dunne  Ibo 
Wt  five  yi-Ars  their  oitmbor  hsH  incrcasH) ^xinHiderabtf .  Id  JalKatm 
tlicn*  nrv  iii>w  hcvch  or  int-'ht  Bohoni  idiopkw|jcrs  #hvrc  there  used 
to  bo  only  one.  I'roluiWy  with  i»  ccrlniu  utrniii  of  Amli  and  IVrsiiaii 
blood  thoy  are  chiefly  nescendanta  of  Gujaraii  Vdniis,  They  are 
wisily  kiimvii»fn)m  other  Mu«alm&D»  by  their  small  tightly-wound 
whiti^  II^Ikum  and  litUo  ykull  cn[<«,  and  their  long  lluwing  nhito 
robes  and  Jooae  tr<ouH«r»  widening  from  the  ankle  upwardH,  and 
fautuuvid  rcrand  tl^  Kaifit  into  puckers  with  a  string.  Tboujjh  their 
Ordinary  biitttnc^.t  Wif^nng^u  is  llindustiini,  thoy  ittU  spKik  OajarAti 
at  hdine.  Tboy  ruarrv  uuly  ainmig  th«;ni!*i'ivc«.  TlH-y  hnvo  UO 
special  pluAof  worship.  They  do  uot  attend  the  regular  Sunni 
nio»quuH.  At  c-acli  of  thcJr  BOttlomonta  theii<  is  an  ofiioe-benrer, 
Jdullii,  under  the  Mukilitir  of  BurlitiDpnr,  who  (x>aduot«  their 
uarriaji^e,  death,  and  otJier  ceremonies.  Thoy  nay  a.  yearly 
c^tributton  of  one-Sftb  of  their  incomes  to  tbe  Mulla  fijUio))  at 
Surat ;  thoy  nro  all  traders  douttng  chiefly  in  iron  and  hardware 
^nids.     A.HacIiiAA  iht^y  are  pro^iperuuH  with  a  ntvodily  growing  tntde. 

The  twelve  c*inmiiiiiti(s>  of  ci'aft^men  are  :  Attiirs  or  perfumers, 
Bhondeknrs  or  nottors,  DholdlioyA*  or  CnrtJi  Vnnhon,  Kiulia»  or 
brickl»ycn>,  GAi  KiiHiibttor  \n:i>f  buli^era,  Kh&tkiit  or  mutton  butchers, 
Alomnia  or  weavers,  Nilbandsaftr  farriers,  Saikalgars  or  knife 
grindoi-4,  Sliisbgars  or  gla^H  bracelet  makers,  Sot^n  or  citrpcat«1%, 
and  Takiirix  or  milUtonegriuden).  ^ 

AiTAirf,  p<tFuwo«<,  are  converted  tUndii^.  lliey  are  tall,  spare, 
and  rather  fair.  Tli«ir  home  language  ia  ilindostini.  They  drcs« 
like  ordinary  DbcoMi  Musalmans  oxcopt  that  thoy  vmnr  smaller 
turliiuix.  Tbv  wonifin  aliti^  wear  the  &iui44)n&n  sbirt,  kiidti,  and 
trousers,  ijdr.  Tliev  have  no  great  name  fathoneaty,  but  aro  tidy, 
ardworking,  and  thrifty.  ♦They  uxtract  Ph-fumw  from  flowjrsj 
od  sell  coKUioticx,  dentifrice,  aud  hair  oil.^BtloxnEX.iiLS,  potters, 
are  a  aniall  claaa  of  local  converts  thinly  scattered  over  tho 
district.  Thoir  homo  ton^o  is  Hindu^tiini.  Their  dn-as  oouaista  ■ 
of  a  large  UaritJm-iiko  turban,  a  jacket,  and  a  waietcloth. 
The  women  wear  tbe  Mosalm&n  dress.  Tliey  niak*«arthvn  pots. 
PuuldhOtas,  cir  JuAiUs,  are  a  mixoil  class.  I'bcir  home  langoage 
is  Hindii.-<lani.  Of  a  modiuui  height  and  unare  habit  of  body 
they  are  of  a  light  bniwu   or  saffron   coniplexioii.     They  drcas  in 





'  01  tho  oii^  lit  Um  aMM  mtmwI  ilmiiatiMW  an  givaa. 

CBombAf  GuettacrJ 










tho  ot^insry  DeccAn-MiisnlmAn  fiubioa  except  thiit  tlioy  wear  tlia 
waigtclotti,  ahnli,  itiMtvftd  of  trouaer*,  tziir.  Tbey  wnsh  tbe  .twcopin 
of  gvld  or  itilver  Huiitlia'  BJiflps,*snd  gaUier  the  particles  of  giAd 
silver  tliej  6ud  in  ttie  daat.  Their  ecsrch  go dv Tally  yields  a  very. 
poor  return.  Tlicy  im>  aobcr,  bitnlw-orking,  tlirifty,  luid  olflsnly, 
Gil  KAaXu,  beef  butchers,  are  local  converts  calliDg  UitmiMdroa 
Bhailchn.  Their  lacgaage  is  HiaduBlini.  Thoy  are  tall,  welUutado 
men  with  wheat-coloorc^  complcxion-i.  Excopt  thnt  tho  turban  ia 
large  and  folded  sumuwliat  after  tJie  Mar&dia  fiiKhion,  Ixith  men  aad 
woinvD  winT  the  Mosalmiu  dreas.  A. butcher  i»  a  bye. word  for  whaB 
is  raeaii  aud  shabby,  but  viccpt  for  tho  tricks  of  their  tmdo  which  they 
]y«ctioe  without  shiitnu,  tjn^j-  tiru  religions,  thrifty,  and  »ybcr. 
iwU  oitly  btief  or  buffalo  8esh  as  beef,  lliey  bavo  a  w»ll-orgnni: 
community.  KkmAs,  bricfclayers,  are  local  converts.  They  spi 
HindoDl^i.  Thvy  aro  of  middlo  height,  dark,  and  strongly 
Tito  men  and  wonten  dresit  in  Uu«alitidii  fiiahion.  TJiey  aro  qniut, 
Kober,  skilful,  aud  thrifty,  but  owin^  to  the  scarcity  and  uopertaitity 
of  work,  poor  and  sometimes  in  debt.  Thoy  have  a  well-organia  ' 
community.  KnvlTEia,  mulluu  butchcm,  arc  1u<;iil  co»\tlrt«.  Tfa< 
home  lanenogo  in  a  low  Uindust&tti.  Tbey  iire'V^Hl,  ratJier  etontlf 
made,  wttli  black  or  brown  complexions.  The  men  wear  a  large 
three-coruer^  turban,  with  a  oA  and  the  Hindu  vrni^tojoth  instead 
of  trousers,  and  a  handkerchief,  '  iiioh,  iii-doon*,  ihey  wind  round  iho 
hew]  on  laying  aside  their  turban.  The  women  dress  like  Hindus. 
Their  character  is  much  like  that  of  the  beef  bat«hcr«,  except  that, 
being  believed  to  practiclc^  many  Hindu  ril^'tt,  they  are  looked  down 
on  by  other  Muaalmina  who  uoithor  ask  them  to  public  iliniit-ra  itbr 
eat  with  them.  Thuy  sell  mutton,  but  neither  sell  uor  eat  beef. 
I'hey  are  sober,  thrifty,  and  untidy,  but  well-to-do.  Mo»>.U,  or 
JclXbXs,  arc  local  inverts  who  embraced  IsUm  during  tho  rcigu  oE 
Auraugzeb.  They  speak  Hindustiini.  They  are  short  spare  mon 
with  wheat-cotourcd  Gomplexions.  They  havo  large  t^ii'bans  of  a 
r^hor  jaunty  make,  au<l  iuntiwd'of  trouser*  wour  the  waistcloth. 
Tho  women  dress  like  ordioary  Mnsalm£u  womeu.  tjimple,  timid, 
and  stupid,  thoy  are  wunvvrx  by  trade,  making  turbans,  cotton  roboH, 
Nud  small  wui.itoloths.  NAlsaxm,  farrii-rt*,  are  Hindu  converts. 
Their  home  language  is  Deccan  Hindustani.  TLi.ty  arc  thrifty, 
hardworking  and  sober,  but  untidy.  SiixAbaAKs,  or  anuourem,  aro 
a  mixed  cliu^  including^  both  local  and  foreign  Mosalmiua.  Those 
amr^ng  them  known  asGhas^riits,  have  lately  embraood  IslAm  under 
\h»  preaching  of  Syofl  Safdar  Ali,  the  K&tX  of  Nat  Irahad.  Thoy 
»till  lire  by  tucmHclves  in  tho  village  of  Kotiamba  iu  Jalgaon,  and 
speBk  their  own  dialect.  They  liave  not  us  yol  mixed  with  the 
Saikalgare,  and  beyond  the  profeasiou,  4iare  nothing  iu  common. 
The  Kaikffllgarv,  both  mon  and  women,  dress  like  ordiimrv  Deccan 
Uasalm^s.  ■  'i'hey  are  hardworking,  sober,  and  tlirifty.  Formerly 
(buy  used  to  make  knives  and  lazois,  and  even  swonis  aud  diggers. 
The  order  again»t  wearing  arms  and  the  com|>etition  of  English 
hardware  goods  have  niiuod  their  businms,  nnd  they  now  earn  a 
poor  livelihood  by  grinding  knives  and  sharpening  raxors. 

SHianoABS,  or  MakiIks,  are  a  mixed  class.     They  are  tall,  spare 
aud  muscular,  witli  wfacat*cok>ared  complexions.    Both  men  and 






fromeo  wear  Hba  ordinary  Deocan-Mi)Mlrn£n  drasa.  .Thej;  are 
sober,  nleadj,  ttiriftf ,  and  witll-toxlii,  and,  except  in  Ihtt  dxorciKO  of 
their  profeMion,  fairly  trutliful.  They  makugliiss  iknd  lac  bracelet*. 
On  acconnt  of  thv  oomprtitiori  of  Jahalpar-raauufnctured  gl&sa  tiia 
KhiLndeoh  tmdo  lias  tat«ly  Kiifferod,  but  still  yields  a  fair  roium. 
SttrXm,  carpenters,  are  the  descendants  of  onnvorts  made  daring  the 
reign  of  AnrsngEob.  They  are  of  middle  beigbt  and  tniiscuW,  with 
wbeat-colourcd  complexions.  Thiiir  itomo  language  in  Hiudu^Utni, 
and  the  dress  of  men  and  women  is  liko  that  of  ordioary  Deccaa 
Mtisnltnftns.  Thry  aro  sobor,  st«ady,  industriona  and  thrifty,  but 
poor.  TAKj(RAa,  known  aw  Phanibaxds  «r  UlKiue,  are  a  mixe^ 
cla&s.  Their  homo  langua^  is  Uiniluat^ni.  Dark  in  complexion  and 
of  modinm  height  they  havo  n»gnlar  features.  Except  that  thu  mim 
wear  tnrbanK  with  twintod  bands,  both  man  and  women  dress  like 
Deocan  Klosalmflns.  Tbey  are  fond  of  aniit»emonl,  thriftless,  and 
poor.  Thoy  mako  and  repnirmiltstooos.  Moat  of  them  liave  some  skill 
msorgery.  cutting  for  Ihiistoni',  and  cowobing  for  cataract.  TAiia4-ra, 
coppersmiths,  are  immigrants  from  UirvAo.  They  arr  wotl-mado 
men,  with  whcat-coToured  complexions  and  regular  features.  Tbear 
bomt^  litnguago  is  Hindual&ni.  The  men  droia  like  common 
MuBalm&ni^,  and  so  do  the  women  except  a  few  who  slill  cling  to  the 
MarvAd  petticoat.  They  are  sobor,  hardworking,  thrifty,  and  very 
r«Ugiou«.  They  mako  copper  pota,  and  some  aro  cuiutaltlea  and 
messengers  in  Oovemmeni  and  pri rate  service.  A  few  hare  risen 
to  high  places  undor  GoVernraont. 

Till?  fonr  commnoitieit  of  hnsbandmon  and  cattle  brooders  arw: 
BiighbAus  or  gardeners,  BohortU,  ManUs  or  Deahmukhii,  and 
HultAnis.  BAuubAxs,  gardeners  or  (mitorors,  arc  local  onnrorta. 
Tbey  speak  both  Ihlan&thi  and  Hindustani.  "RiBy  are  of  middle 
stature  inclined  tti  stontneiw,  with  wheat -oolourod  complexions.  The 
women  are  Hghtor  colouritl  tbim  the  uten,  and  as  a  rule  are  band- 
Bomt'.  The  mtm  dress  in  Musalm&n,  the  women  in  MarJtba  ^hict. 
BoNiilc^  working  as  gardeners  they  sell  fniit  and  v«^t(iblo»,  buying 
them  wholesale  and  retailing  th»m.  Though  hardworking  and 
thrifty,  thwy  are  fund  of  plesaore  and  fairly  well-to-do.  BuhobAs 
are  fotmd  in  amall  number*  in  the  west  of  Ehindeah.  Tbey  aro 
Sannia  by  religion.  MacLi^s,  masters,  also  known  aa  Deahmukbs, 
are  the  ropreseiitatires  of  district  rerenne  officers  and  village 
httndmen,  ao(!onn taut s,  and  scrrnntjt,  who,  to  preserve  their  olHoeaud 
pay,  or,  on  the  promim.'  <>t  griiiitM  of  laud,  embraced  IslAm  during  ihe 
izeign  of  the  l-'mpitror  Aurau^;aeb.  It  oflon  happern.!*]  that  of  tba 
samt!  family  one  branch  became  Iklusalm&o  and  the  other  remained 
Hindn.  Not  having  mnrriAl  with  Uusalm&ns,  except  that  the  men 
wear  the  brartl.they  remain  Elindn  in  apponrance,dnt.->«,nndolutraoter. 
MultXxis,  husbandmen  and  cuttle  breedera,  are  the  descendants  of 
oomi>  followers  who  came  with  Anranpwb's  army  from  North  India. 
Their  homi!  tmigiie  iti  a  mixture  of  ^(ult^ni  and  MarAtbt.  They 
drowf  like  Uindu  Kunbiii,  the  women's  robe  bein^  something 
botweou  that  worn  by  Di-^caniand  Vanjiri  women.  Though  quiet 
andpoacoful,  (hooe  are  not  wanting  in  oountgc. 

Of  thefour  commnnitics  of  servants,  three,  the  Maliks,  Nitikviidis, 
and  Tadvis,  are  chieBf  employed  oa  constables  and  messengers,  and 












■ptar  nL       one,  ,Uio   Bhangis,   m    menial^  servanU.     MiLita,  kiiiOT,  are  tlio 
AipaUtiotL        ilwcendante  of  converts  mode   prubnbly    during  tUo   bral  (13C 
„_,  ,   .  MDliAinmadAn  invasion.     Tbey  flpeak  Deocan  Ilinduitt^iii,  and  ht 

'  aoiiuag  (tpodal  in   th«ir  Rppcaninpo.     The  mon  wpar  tur}>nRB  wi| 

fcwisted  banda,  conta,  iiud  tiglic  ti'nii.ierH,  and  iV  women  the  rcgul 
MuBoIniAn  ahirts  Jriii/fiM,  tronsers  iifirt,  and  a^-arrea  iklhnii:     Uijii< 
tbriftloM  and  sober,  thoy  fin<)  (•iiipi<iy(niuit  in  pablio  und  prii 
iwrvipc  and  as  Irtbiiiircm.     N.iiKVAms  are  noliprcd  to  be  deacondat. 
or  tlio  MilctiPntof  Tippa,  who,  during  the  diacorhancea  that  fo)lo«ri 
hia  overthrow,  settled   in  thp  north  DeccBD   distri«ta.     Orif»ino 
Hindns  llioy  aro  said  to  1)Ato  l>««n  converted  And  named  by  Hy^ 
Niiik.     Bbtck,  with  high  oheek  bones  and  Marilthn-like  fealur 
they  am  t&\\  and  strong.  •Thoir  home  tongoo  is  Ixith  Hindnatiinr 
and  Mnrdthi.      They  arc  OoTOmment  mi'Hitciijri'ra  and  husluindiueu. 
11u>  int'n  and  Honio  r)f  the   women    dresit  likfl  AtarAih^      They 
hardworking,  ("^ber,  and  thrifty.       Somo  of  them   hare  a  l(«nii] 
TadMt.  towards    Iho  WahhAbi    faith.       TAPris,  ko  calkwl   from  forming 

wpanth*  branoh.  tnil,  are   Bhila  said  to  have  b<ten  converted 
Auraiigzeb.    In  appearance  they  preserve  tracoa  of  their  origin  bflii 
Hwarr.hy,   thick -hpixid,   and   mnxcidar.      Among    tbeauolvm 
Hpmk  a  hHir-UiudiiHtJlni  half-Ithil  dialect,  and  low    HinduatAni  wij 
others.     The  mon  droas  liko  AtiiKnlmanK,  and  the  women  like  Guja 
TFindtia.     Thev  are  hardworking  but  thriftleiia,  and  fond  of  plottau 
•ud    drink.     Thi-y    are    generally    police    ouii!<(»l>li'!t,    CJovernment 
raflHM'ngDra,  or  Inlwurors,  except  tnnt  tlioy  novofiwurk  fur  hire  i 
t4iD  fiohlft.    The  women  help  the  men  by  gathering  and  moling  sti 
na  lirewood. 

BItaofit.  Uadev  tho  hctul  of  Servanta  also  come  th«  Biunoiii,  anvon 

of  two  clasWM,  ^Bcal  ponvcrl.t  and  recent  Hotllem  (rtmi  (ho 
north.  Both  speak  HinduRt^oi.  llw  men  are  Mwnrthv,  tall  and 
Hpare,  and  the  women  inclinud  to  pluuipni'SK  and  generally  WoU- 
fantiired.  'I'lio  men  have  ni>  (larticnlar  drea^i,  wearing  nay  sort  of 
cloth  they  may  gtit  from  thoir  employeni,  be  th^  MTiTiamma<lan  or 
Hindii.  'Ite  women  have  a  rolw,  jwi./r,  jicculiarly  worn  and  a 
poltiocat  which,  when  at  work,  they  Inek  above  their  kne<w^  Thev 
are  bonvat,  (jiiidt,  thrifty,  and  hardworking.  ^■ 

ilirt.  Of  Actont  and  Sitigera  tho  only  clam  aro  the  Miim,  or  noWos 

inimigranta  from  the  north.  Their  honu>  tangmige  i»  Hindagtjtni.  T 
,iueu  are  black  and  spare,  and  tht-  women  well  featured.     As  fiddlei.^ 
or^am boa rinv- players  in  tho  serriot  of  dancing  girls,  tJiev  bear  no 
T«fiy  good  character.     Their  women  siug  and  play  in  ZonAnite   orf 
marriagea  and  other  ceremonies. 

Ptoli.  rAiisi«  nnmhercd  forty-threo  souls.     Almost  all  are   shopkoopera 

and  liijuor-sollvr*,  mo-st  of  thom  from  Bombay  since  the  onemuir 
of  the  railway,  and  aomo  from  Snrat^  where  they  are  the  chief 

EuKiMuu^  Etrtopitisa   nombored  552  souls  or  O'OS  por  oonf  of  the  whole 

ire  i^^ 


■no    ^ 

population.     Bcaidos  tJie  Govornimmt  ofHciata  and   a  few  Kuiopi-ana 
in  tlie  Jatgaon  cotton  inilla  andwotton  pr»ss  factories,    ' 
chiefly  railway  aervanta  settled  at  Bhua&rai. 


-,i?>-».in(— ar- 




CRRiBTiJtKS,  otlior  thftii  Etimprons,  nunilxtrod  80t  mnU  or  O-ffS 
p«r  cetiL  of  till)  whi>li>  |)(>jiulnltuH.  'il'kere  are  a  few  at.  Dliulin, 
a  few  at  Dliarangaon,  and  iho  rest  at  BbiisAval  and  Jal^^u. 
I'hc  few  ab  Dhnlin  aru  chicRy  Porttiguoye  aorvnntv  aa<I  converts 
r)f  n-linm  uot  moi'e  I  linn  four  nr  live  are  Protestsnta.  'ilirvc  i« 
a  small  RijmsQ  Catholic  chape)  at  Dholia  with  n  coa^c^atioc  of 
atjoiil  fifty.  At  niiii«ivnl,  where  thi^rc  is  n  congr<^atnm  «(  i^onio 
buudn!<Iii,  a  very  pretty  |ti)A»n  Oitholiccliafwl  has  lately  been  liiiilt. 
I*ortapne«e  workmen,  wrvant»,  and  Madriisis,  and  Pon^irtH  or 
(liwcu'wdant.?  of  converts  form  tho  bulk  of  the  oungrfigalion.  Tho 
DatiTO  ObriHtiaiiK  an-,  ua  a  rule,  poor  and  bardpi-e.^-icd  for 
aabsiatence,  and  are  not  among  the  beal^biAiaved  of  \ho  Shue&val 




lu  lhi»  district  thorc  is  one  ^Hllnge  or  town  t«  cibout  wvory  thrwi  VflUf** 

sqiiare  mileti  of  land,  ciwh  rilhig):)  (.-outitining  an  iLvi>rago  of  ii9'2 
iuhabttaata,  and  al>oat  eighty -eight  liousoa.  *Vilh  ihe  exception  of 
thcpv<jplu  of  twonty-two  towns,  nnmbtiriDg  174,908  aouU  or  I7'00 
per  cent  of  thv  vntiro  inhnbititnM,  the  population  of  Iho  Kluludcsh 
uifttnct,  according  to  tho  If*72  L-entnui  returns.  lived  in  2600  vilbgea, 
with  nu  avomgo  of  ^28  souls  per  villapo.  Of  tho  wholo  nnmbcr  of 
towns  and  vUli>gi»,  K103  had  lc«8  thiin  200  inhnbilniit!* ;  778  from  20U 
li>  5(10  !  3iJt>  Emm  500  to  lOiiO ;  117  from  lOliO  to  20(tO ;  22  from 
2001'  I..  :iOO^) ;  1.5  from  3000  to  MOO ;  17  Erom  5O0O  to  10,000  j  and 
5  more  than  10,(H)0. 

Nearly  all  Klutndtxh  villages  arc  wallfd,  HOmo  with  hrick-facocl 
mud,  (itliers^th  solid  stones  and  hrick  onuuniented  parapets.  Some 
old  vi91>ig<'.4  havV  »lAteIy  gates  and  remains  of  old  forto.     Though 

Crood  of  their  old  walh<  and  goteo,  tho  villagura  seldom  take  atep«  to 
eep  them  in  repair.  0 

Am  regards  th«  number  of  hoosee,  there  was  in  1872  a  total  of 
220,800  or  on  an  avprHge  2204  hotiHcis  to  the  nqniire  mile,  sihowiiig, 
compared  with  ITO.JtJi  in  ISUi,  an  incrwwo  of  3i7S  per  cent.  Of  * 
the  total  nmiilxTr  I2,0ts  housett  lodging  67,322  persona  or  6'54 
per  cent  of  the  entiro  p<)pnlatroii,  at  the  rato  of  6'5K  »onl»  to  each 
hou««,  wore  bnildlugs  with  wjdls  of  firo-bukod  liricks  and  iMufs  of 
til*.  Tho  romuimng  2I7,8ol  h<>usi-s  accommo&ting  9(>1,320 
ixtrsons  or  !)3-tO  per  cont,  with  a  population  per  hoiiso  of  4-H  soda, 
includ<-d  all  buildings  covorod  with  tbntch  or  leaves,  or  whoeo  outer 
walls  were  ol  mwd  or  snn-dned  brick. 

Tliere  arc  two  chief  styles  oi  honses  in  Kluindesh,  tJio  flat-* 
i-oaffwt  and  tbc  tJIwl.  Tiled  roofs,  forniwrly  confined  to  Tillages  north 
of  t^e  tfipii,  are  everyday  liecoming  more  popular.  In  somo  villngoa, 
an  in  Jalgaou,  there  was  til)  late)y  a  feeling  agatn^it  ti)ed  roofs,  on 
account,  apparently,  of  the  failure  of  two  or  tliree  wealthy  morchanta 
who  had  built  htrgo  tiled  hounoit.  The  houses  aro  for  tho  moot 
part  built  of  baked  or  nnbaked  brick,  cemented  with  mud,  mortar, 
or  moi-tar-iMiintuI  mud.  The  window  frames,  door  posts,  and 
rafters  am  generally  of  t«ak  or  «t»t  wood,  and  very  often  tho  door 
panels  and  window  shutters  are  of  mango  wood.  Stone  in  not  oftoa 
UMul  orcept  for  the  foundation  anf  the  Tcnuidah  tliat  runs  ronnd 

j   tho  groundfloor  of  the  building.     Uoasea  aro  usually  built  facing 

I        a  411-17 




north  or    jtoutli.  ftnd   in  Roino  Ti1li^;«i  there    is  n   stroD);   foelii 
Hy^nitj  jjiu'jrij^mr  a  house  fi-qntipg  east  or 'vest.      Khnndo^h 
are  commonlf  divided  into  fonr  cIomcs,  best,  middling,  ordinal 
nn<]  hnts.     In  Inrgo  townn  tfa«  )>eat  kind  of  houHe  cost«  to  ba 
upvrarda  of  £^00  (Ub.  &<HIO),    tho  tnidaiiajf   from  2100    to 
(Rs.  lOOO-ita.  4000),  and  the  common  from  £50  to  £100  (Ra. 
Rs.  luCH)'.     In   mnkll  Tillitg««   the  tiina   kinds  cost   respooth 
from  £50  to  £200  (Ks.  &0O.B«.2(J(K>),  from  120  to  £50  (Ra.2( 
R«.  MO),  aad  from  £5  to  £20  (Ks.  60- R«.  800). 

A  trador'a  houso  begins  wilU  a  veraudnh,  eta,  which,  if  he 
retnil-dealtir,  id  his  shop.     Inside  of  the  vomndah  is  the  sittiu^  rooi^ 
*  and  bejond  tho  sitting  room,  tbe  dinin^r  hull  in  (hi*  middle  noil  111, 
rooms  ou  «ach  siil».     jMoug  iho  Hido  rouni.-*  nre,  to  ihH   lefi 
the  dining  hall,  the  office  room,  tlie  shrine,  and  the  Ijing^in 
and  to  the  Hf^ht,   a  trcasare  room   and  two  Gton>-rooms.      BehS 
this  group  cniui-fl  thv  Imck  roranduh,  with  »  privy  in  one  coni 
There  usuallv  is  a  back  or  a  aide  door.     Another  common  form 
well-to-do  villaffD  p^til's  houiio  begine  vitb  a  large  tfate,  wit 
ward-room  on   either  side,  whoro  watchmen  s)oep  niul  kit  is 
or  wheru  ofili^o  work  iti  done.     Then  mmoH  a  yard  wilh  a  cont 
well,  and  cattle  »hedii  on  either  side  or  all  round.     I'hon  a  ftij 
of    steps  leads  to  the  first  door,  and    a  long  honse    with, 
a  sitting  room,  where  swinging    cols,  chopaj/ui,    are    kept,    i 
II  diiting  i-oom,  with   two  rooms  on  each  side.     la  sach  houses 
cattio  enter  by  tho  front  door,  « 

Tlie  bulk  of  the  husbandmen's  dwellings  are  oith<[%^e  snpc 
house  called  JhdJta,  generally  inhabited  by  Kunbin,  MnsAlmftiJ 
and  Pardeshis,  or  the  inferior  hut,  or  Miappar,  used  by  Ki 
Bhils,  Vanj^ris,^and  Mhfira.  Tho  dhaha  i»  u  wtlMtnntial  boon' 
which,  when  ki<pt  in  good  repair,  lasla  for  many  years.  The  wnlb, 
of  clay  and  chopped  grass  or  straw  thoroughly  kneaded  nndsr 
^  bnSaloes'  feet,  tnpor  slightly  and  uvcrugo  about  a  cubit  bl 
Ihickneiw.  They  arc  built  in  layers  about  a  cubit  deep,  each  layer 
bein;^  allowed  to  dry  thoroughly  before  tho  nort  layer  is  added. 
The  flat,  or  nearly  flat,  nx't  rwotH  on  strong  t«ikwix>d  buams 
which  run  irom  wall  to  wall.  Over  the  boaraa  ia  laid  a  layei*  of 
strong  branches  und  a  coating  of  dried  sugarcane  leaves,  the  whol 
covered  by  fonr  to  six  inches  of  ola;  or  salt  earth,  boiUen  si: 
with  a  gentle  slope  to  one  of  the  ooraers  wharii  a  wooden  sf 
'  throws  off  the  water  several  feet  from  the  foundation  of  the  wall. 
The  clay  wall  is  gcnorally  built  by  professional  bricklayers,  Hiildi 
and  ia  paid  forat  from  &r.  to  Sit.  (Kg.  3  ■  Rs.  4)  a  hundred  solid  cnbif 
Tfae  entint  boose  ooeta  from  £5  to  £10  (Ra.  50  ■  Its.  100).  Thu  hi 
or  chappar,  has  either  clay  walls  er  merely  a  thick  fence  of  cott 
stalks  or  other  wattled  boughs.  The  roof  is  made  of  long  gr 
tied  neatly  to  a  bamboo  framework,  with  an  inti-icato  layer 
Butea  frondosa,  pojtu',  loavos,  in  the  middle  of  the  grass  so  asl 
make  the  roof  thoroughly  waterproof.  Over  the  thatch,  to  make ! 
look  like  lilos,  split  millet  stums  are  someiimca  laid. 

The  furniture  of  an  ordinary  Knnbi's  bouse  is  worth  from  £2 
£3  (Ra.  20 -Be.  30).    The  astud  details  arc:  two  copper  vesset 

.j£ :;k- 

gHjid  and  ghada,  for  Btoriup  and  carryinj:»  drinking  water,  costing 
ttlwut  8*.  (Rs.  4)  Cftvh  i  six  or  vigtit  viirliiMi  couking  pots,  costing 
about  \».  3i2,  (10  anna*) ;  two  or  three  flat  utito  diitbci<  or  p1ut««, 
tkalis,  v^ued  at  As.  (Bn.  2)  «i«li ;  a  few  brass  drinking  cups, 
cAarri,  cosLing  a  sbilling  «acb  ;  k  )Kiir  of  vurr/  stoiius,  pnla  crania, 
coHting  itbiiut  &  ftbilliug;  a  hand  mill,  chaUd,  for  grinding  irrtun, 
worth  about  A».  (Rs,  IJ)  ;  two  bedHtoads,  tchtits,  wortli  two  ^illingti 
(Mu;)],  with  qiiilt«  or  blankoI«  ctwling  ubuut  1(^.  (Rs.  6}.* 

A  nian  building  a  honae  seldom  works  at  it  with  his  own  bauds. 
Be  supervisee  tb«  work  and  pays  tJio  tabonrcrs  weekly  or  on  market 
d»ys.  A*  a  rwlo  bicky  dnya  urv  chosen  for  laying  the  fuuDdjition, 
nli^illg  the  pifU,  fixing  (lie  iipnt;bt  and  crftaa  beamn,  placing  the* 
doorx,  and  digging  the  wel(.  6q  the  {soudation-laying  day,  the 
owner  worships  the  ground  whorw  the  whIIb  aro  to  bo  biiitl ,  digs  a  little 
hinm.'U,  uiid  tlifn  tho  work  l>L*gin!t.  Ou  tlu>  puMt-raiHiiig  day  the  ownor 
paUt  the  corner  stontt  of  the  plinth  in  its  place,  seta  the  post  on  it,  and 
woTslups  the  post,  ponring  clariGitd  bntt^jr  oror  >t«  top  till  it  trickles 
to  tho  ground,  tying  round  it  a  yellow  cloth  with  rice  and  Indian 
millet,  and  fi^tttninggruM  on  it^  top.  On  the  b^^am-fixiug  day  he 
ties  nmad  the  beani  a  raw  cotton  thread  and  nyeltow  cloth  with  lice 
and  Indian  millet,  and  then  worship*.     Whon  the  doore  aro  so)  up 

*,  the  snaii:  cercmoniw  are  repeated,  and  before  digging  tho  well,  the 
owner  agnin  woriihipa  the  ground.  At  all  these  ceremonies  a 
Br^mau  usually  attends,  and  cocoanut«  are  distributed.  When  a 
houHC  is  fiuislied,  Ihc  a-strolwger,  j'wAi,  fixoa  a  lucky  dayforvntry. 
lIouKOH  w-tMj:  fiiniK'rly  built  with  no  regard  to  vimtilation,  but  iho 
newer  buiWngi  are  ranch  opener  and  more  airy.  A  family  ill 
middiinf,;  ciiiiimstancct  is  Hsiuilly  obligtti  l*»  keep  a  wry  Ist^  slock 
of  ro'iking  pot-1  fur  (niiiily  giit,h<-riui,ii,  but  them  are  ciiui|iani lively 
few  familioa  well  enough  off  to  h a vt> cooking  pots  fftr  a  casle  dinner. 
On  such  occasions  a  supply  of  cooking  pot«  in  guncrnlty  colloctcil  by 


'Hh'  Tillnijo  wtablJHhment,  btinibfifutf,  of  KUltndeRh,  found  by 
Ciifitain  Cia^aHrTsTo^inoIudcd  the  hereditary  Uindn  priest,  ;;"r«  ; 
tlie  Mulianttnadao  priest,  miji/«;  the  astrologer,  jii#fti;  tlie  carpcuter, 
fHlitr;  the  biuckiiinilh,  fu'uir  ;  the<  potU-r,  kiiml-hir ;  ibi;  l^^l'lKmith, 
tunur;  the  l>arber,  T>A<ftM';  the  wasnernian,  iwri'f ;  the  Tillngu  bard, 
bhdt !  the  nllnge  watchman  and  giiide,  j'tQlia  ;  and  the  scavenger, 
1    ■  1  cfiira'iA'ir,     Of  these  tho  pru-st,  guru,  oSiciated  at  the 

I  .   fuiivnilii,  and   other  een^mrmie^    of   all    Hinduit   excc))}. 

^  i|  MAngH,  attended  to  tho  vilUge  idols,  cleaned  and  lighted 

t'  [■li',  and  took  to  himself  thinr  oiTcrinfpi.     In   lutdition,   ho 

iiKi.if  li'.-il'  |iii>t«»  fi-r  well-lo-d"  Iliiidufl.  'Vho  uiulln  otTn-inti'il  at  all 
Miiliniiimatliiu  ceriiiuouies,  gave  fiaths,  cootiecratcd  all  animals  to  be 
riiti  n,  snporintcnded  fairs  hnld  in  hr)no»r  of  itatnts,  and  repaired 
.Miiliantmndan  gmvcs  and  tomba.  ITifl  astrologer,  jorhi,  read  tho 
alnunao,  puinled  out  lucky  days  for  marriages.for  beginning  to  now, to 
plough,  and  to  renp,  calculated  ci;1i{>3e»  and  drew  up  haroBCopo8,and 
with  the  Quru,  uiriciatvd  at  tunrriiigvs  and  fununila.     The  carpwteri 

Chapter  XXC 



■  Fioai  ft  paper  by  Ur.  Stomiout,  SupnintMnUnt  Khtail«»li  Uvdvl  Futta. 



.pter  111. 


*■"/■''■,  tuuili'  awi  p^jMiin.'J  fii-iil  t noli- and  bicli  woodet  inBrri»CT  Eiooh, 
•:i,ii^iiiiiijfaw\  ><ii|i{iIk'iJ  tnivt^Ut^i-  villi  teni  and  c&rrif  pec^.  Tbe 
bluuKMjiilJi,  /■'/',(*,  riifnii-  iiud  n']juir(;il  the  iron  work  of  ploniia  txA 
wirij-.  Iji  fii'-iinT  tiiii'.'-  ui  hiiik-sw-iiicinff  fesrivak  n  -was  bis  doij 
lu  lorci  tlir  ii-'iii  lio'ik  iiii'i  tin*  niusclt:*-  of  iht  di-vMee"?  back.  The 
jwliwr,  li'imUf'ir,  )uriiiblji-d  viliuptTB  and  iraTelJers  -with  emnhn 
jMjir  and  |«irii-.  At  luurriupep  lit*  beat  tbe  dmni  sjid  c-xJced 
iiiiiiluL  Hti'"',  li'irhul,  fur  tiie  Kuiilns  of  tbe  villape.  Th?  ^>Idsiiutli, 
«ufi('r',  )iMiuyi-(i  <-'>ii]  jiEiid  l<i  GcTenimC'Ui  atid  made  CFm&oc-ntS.  ThB 
barbi.'!'.  iiiit'iil,  wii>  ill'.'  vilhii'f  Korcccin.  sbjiriiiff  the  riluicrtT?.  Trimtniiig 
buU'ji.ks'  tuilK,  uu'J  li'iriuL'  ihc  ImlVickV  ti.'-rf-  to  rective  the  noserinit. 
afjutiiL-  Uirliunr  Ifiint  tin  'Ir^rii.  l-inho.  iiiid  nthers  acted  as  lorc-h-ba»rera' 
At  iiitiiTiu;."'K  ilii'v  |i".i  tin-  liriiU-eiMomE  horse  and  esCi^rted  tlie 
)iati!V  diiii;.'lit(.'i  t'>  !i't  iiu-lmudV  hMu-^t.  Thf  wa^bennan.  i^jrit,  at 
liiarrmge.^  spn-iKl  wliit*  cl'iths  fnr  ihfc  bridcHT'ioiE's  ivlarioTis  t« 
walk  "II.  Thr  vilhcM-  Ininl,  Oh-U,  uTtt-ndcd  all  viilasre  ft«-tiTa]s  and 
(iertiuduio  iiiid  n'l-iicl  v^■l■•i^:^.  Tii{-  watchmen.  /'-ifffi-iK.  BhiiS,  Kolii^ 
and  ilhajv,  ^.-iiardi-d  the  Tilliiire  and  Liiided  traveUer?.  TEfiiFi-inj 
Ijt-at  the  titiiili'iuriue,  C'Hsrrutfd  tciuhit  cattle,  and  a  Mails'  Tconun 
aotud  as  mid»ifv  to  Kiiubis.  and,  when  ihcrt  was  no  one  else,  t* 
Bfuhmaiii^.  The  •Irimhli'ir  lunde  and  rejiiiircd  shoes,  leaiher  tliongs 
aud  water  Iwj.'ii,  (Liid  im  j'ltlu  i  Autrusi -Septfinliorl  and  other  day^, 
pitivided  the  t-liitf  villai.'  wiih  luaujrti  leaves  to  hang  orer  tbsir 

J>iuci'  Cnptain  Bi-ifrirs'  lime  (181?;,  the  Tillage  cmnmnniry  has 
hiMt  iiiufh  (if  its  hnpriil.auct'.  Nmw,  iij  an  ordinary  vi]^ee  the  staff 
of  wniiuts  i'-llie  hcHdiuaii,  ji<ilil ;^  hi^  asj-ist«nt,  chanJnri,  now  his 
wjiial  ill  aulluij-ity  ;  the  aivntnilant,  h'lll-urui ;  the  sweieper,  mlidr; 
till'  wati'Liiiati,  jiiiy/iri  ;  iitl-ihii'"^  and  iarulf,*  M^asalm^s  and  KoIU, 
wh'isf  duty  Li  is  ft  dean  the  villiigf  office,  rhcri,  to  light  the  lamp  in 
il,  til  cuny  the  titvoiiiitiiut's  books,  and  to  clean  pots  ;  and  in  villi^s 
whiiv  iheif  is  no  river,  the  water  drawer,  hath/iri,  who  fills  the  villajire 
i-«lt!i-'  Irinif-'h.  In  small  vilUtres,  the  p-itil,  knlhiriii,  mh'ir, 
Hiid  i-KjI'i  lire  ah.'ne  f.iuu'l.  Kseept  in  a  few  places  the  following 
KiTvimt  K  lire  w  lonift^r  reci 'gniscd.  The  villopc  priest,  gram  jo^h i  ;  the 
Mii.->uli]ian  reader,  khaiih  ;  the  Mnsalinan  judge,  kizi;  the  Mnsaliniii 

'  Si*  nl-pvf,  p.  77.  Ahir  IutImts  drum  hut  dn  not  carry  torcb«« ;  Tlysde  barliai 
■'*rry  t'iri-hii  Iiiit  do  nut  ilnun  ;  l>nkBhiu  anil  Gujamti  bkrtien  do  both.  Ur.  J. 
|k.ll.'(i,  C.W. 

-  'I'lif  cliii'f  li'inuu™  line  to  the  hpadmiui  at  public  religion!  ermnoiiieB  are  :  oa 
jwfc'  <liiy  111"  liiilliK'kn  hi-ad  the  pnHxtssiini  ;  on  dniriJ  day  he  leada  the  worship  of 
the  i-li-iiiii  trif  :  mi  the  hnii  day  he  wnrahips  tirei   anil  givei  the  order  to   light  the 

Siilu'  At  luan-tagoB  he  it  the  limt  to  get  the  l>ct«l  leaf  which  the  barber 
lixtriliiLtL-it  aniiiii^  the  other  village  officers  .'  and  it  i£  the  /xifif  vho  iliattihotaa  money 
aiiiniijc  tlie  iitlitr  villiige  iniMif  «rvant«,  htiruf-aliitf.  At  Tillage  feaata  thapiUil  and 
hia  wife  are  (■iveii  tlie  place  of  hononr.  Both  are  conitultod  in  matter*  of  diScalty, 
and  petty  Wjualjlile*  are  referred  to  their  arbitration.  The  jnUiTg  wife  taWl 
a  most  ac'tive  iul«rert  in  village  aSaiis,  and,  though  not  publicly  r«c<^niised,  hia 
a  very  cunaiderable  voice  in  the  settlcnieut  of  diaputea.  la  many  villacea  the 
headman  lenda  money  to  the  villager*  and  liaa  a  good  name  for  naiQ^  hi*  debtor* 
kindly,  hiany  are  known  to  have  for  year*  never  sought  the  aid  of  civil  coart*  ot 
prcKHed  their  debtor*  severely. 

>  Itetwccn  the  InhMln  and  the  taral  there  is  some  distinctioD  m  viUagq  Bervaub^ 
but  no  difTurcnuv  u{  caste. 


prioid,  mtiila ;  tho  citteror,  ftargai :  ihe  temple  Kerviuit,  gurap; 
the  bnikor.cAWya;  the  mcssi^ngt-r,  hqrildiir ;  and  tUit  litjfjr-kiijjpvr, 
darviijddr.  Hvon  the  5iuaUe<4t  viilajfw  luivo  two  or  three  otticialiug 
lieflulmen  aad  one  or  two  asHisiants.  Some  rillugv»  havo  ux  or 
ei^lit  ptUiJa  und  clMiull>n»,  and  Chopdn  claima  to  be  reproMCiitod 
by  fifty-two  sharcnt,  tak»hivuldra.  Tlw)  tr«igh  fillor,  hawari,  »  a 
very  Deoessaiy  and  imporHaQt  sorrant,  and  iu  thv  abtience  of  anjr 
ndetjiinto  proTij^ioD,  tbo  villn^orH  usually  §ab»icribti  to  pay  him  a 
fixed  aum  in  adililioD  (o  any  runt-froe  land  ho  may  bold  from 
tioverument.  Ho  ba-i  to  keep  two  biillockH  and  the  lonther  bs^, 
tnot,  for  drawinR  water.  The  tanner,  r.U'imhhar,  is  ex)>ootetl  lo  keftp 
in  repair,  and  m  somo  cases  to  make  tlte  village  water  bag-,  m^tf 
tho  Mhiir  giving  him  tho  ttkin.  The  catorcr,  }fur«ai,  ia  often  foand 
BDpplyiug  IntvclK-r^  nith  butter,  milk,  and  mJHCollaiieouA  articles. 
Tho  broker,  thvtyii,  who  used  to  arrange  between  sCnuigvr^  and 
iiliiipk<.-v]ATs  \i  seldom  found. 

In  the  west,  ''ll''g<'  hi.^iidnicn  aro  tisnally  Gnjar  Kunbig.  In  other 
parts  they  are  nf  tJiHerent  caalfa,  and  very  ofteu  in  ilie  same  rillago 
will  be  found  a  Hrdtnoan  headman  Berviug  with  n  Kiinbi,  a  Koli,  u 
TMiimj^r,  or  A  MuKnIman.  Here  and  thore  throughout  tho  district, 
bsptH^iaUy  in  the  Yavat,  Nooirabad,  and  Ohusival  Hub-diviHionH,  it  is 
common  to  find  the  same  family  of  p&tils  with  one  braoeh  Hindu 
find  another  Hiiisalman,  tho  latter  frixdy  admitting  that  they 
embnvcc<l  Islam  iu  order  to  secure  the  right  to  serve. 

The  people  of  n  inllti^  are  genotally  mixed.  It  is  oomnarutivoly 
rare  lo  6nd  a  whole  villa^  held  by  one  caste.  Especially  among 
high  caste  nindiis  caxtc  dinners  aro  much  less  common  than  iu 
Gujarat.  In  smnll  village*  on  Ruoh  IfAtliug  ffsiivnl.t  mm  UoU, 
dinners  are  sometimes  given  to  the  whole  commmiiiy  and  the  cosi 
met  from  money  sabscnbcd  by  thv  entire  Ixxly  oT  villagers.  1)  iii 
moat  unusual  for  ouo  man  lo  enterutia  the  whole  village  on  tnnrriagu 
or  other  feiwt  oecasious.  The  different  classes  entert«iu  tbeir  owi^ 
caste  tellowa.  At  village  dinners  given  by  pilils  gne«t«  of  various 
castes  aro  invited  and  sil  in  Mopnrutc  rows.  HhiU  and  MlutrM  are 
wjrvod  by  nii-mbors  of  their  uwu  ca^te  or  the  dinner  is  seni  to  iheui 
At4hetr  lioueea.  Special  dinners  are  sometimes  given  at  their  o»7i 
ooat  by  hends  of  trade  guilds  when  they  are  nppointH.  On  such 
oorasion»  except  among  HouArs,  women  dine  after  the  men  have 
done.  No  Mpedal  arrangements  are  made  for  the  exercise  of 
common  ripbta.  All  tho  cattle  drink  out  of  tho  rillago  trough  ^r  • 
fi-om  tbe  riTur,  and  im  »ooo  m  thu  eropn  are  off  the  ground,  gmu) 
all  over  tlio  villago  lauds.  Tbe  villagers  pay  the  herdsmen  so 
moch  a  head,  but  often  tbo  cattle  aro  Innicd  1'K>^<o  and  allowed 
lo  graze  and  go  anywhere  thi-y  like,  a  Uhil  boy  being  scut  to 
drive  Ihom  home  in  the  evening.  In  the  rains,  while  the  crope 
are  on  the  ^p-ouud,  greater  caro  is  taken,  and  cattle  not  wanted 
for  immediate  use  nro  sunt  to  graze  in  some  nei^hbooring 
npland.  Mhirs  and  otlier  low  castes  are  allowed  to  drmk  below 
the  village  only,  whoro  there  is  a  river,  or  whero  lliero  is  a  well, 
out  of  the  catt]c  trough  or  from  a  si-jiaruLe  ci.-tleni.  Iu  some 
places   the    rillugem  object  to   (ho  Mhiirs  drinking  out  of   tho 

Chapter  HI 


tBombay  Gatett 





cAtlltt  troaeli)  »°il  ui  "uch  i^asea  Uiey  haw  geaerall;  Ot  soparate 
Kic«pt  oU  ones,  uaed  solely  fpr  wasbitig  and  cstUo  ilrioking, 
are  no  nUogo  pomU  in  Kltiinclt.-!i]i.  Fur  dtg^nff  veils  or  do 
poodB  s  tubwiniittoii  Ufud  tn  Ik!  loYied  from  eacn  mao's  botdl 
ploagli.  Now  iJbe  rillagera  look  to  Govemmoni  and  the  local 
committee.  Foraierl;  ft  rilloffv  Wrrowod  money  to  repair  its  t«uii 
Bat  the  old  spirit  bus,  toa  great  exteut,  gone.  The  t«mple  oiaj 
to  rnio,  and  anlefm  aome  wealth;  p4til  or  cullivator  takvti  im  inter 
in  tbi!  ijiiitter,  no  one  cores.  Sticks  (or  fircw(>otl  im;  ^ratbt 
from  the  common  Inud^  round  thn  viUitgu,  or  fmm  tlie  liusli  land 
nenr  tbu  hille,.  or  from  the  buHbiunlmau's  ovra  land.  Among 
«'illiigi;r8  uo  diHlinction •-Beenis  to  bo  drawn  botvroen  aow-courn 
and  members  of  tho  original  oommnnity.  This  is  probably  d 
to  lliu  fnct  tbnt  during  tiio  tmublotl  lime  of  Mftrtitlia  rule  (I7fl 
1818),  aettfi^'  every  village  waa  more  or  lesa  deserted.  In  tbf  •■■■■ 
a  deserted  village  it  ia  very  oommon  for  the  poighbourin^ 
to  J^JILilflJgfid)!,  and  siooo  miuiy  villngtM  buve  oulr  lately  tiucn 
MOplod,  a  Toty  birge  aroa  U  tilled  by  thoiie  oatataers  who  are 
known  as  vaeanda  or  valand*. 

In  most  of  the  smaller  villages  the  grain-dralcr  or  n^ongY^pml..!- 
is  an  institatioa  ot  not  mora  than  ont-  gt-nL-mtJoo  old.  The 
aaciont  vitlngo  moneylendera  are  Mtid  to  luiTe  ttisapneareil  in  the 
eighti.i-iit)i  cuntury  troalilee.  Their  place  baa  been  ttucen  by  now- 
comera  from  Miiltva,  KfArvad,  QujarU,  and  Hindnstao.  Some  uF 
UioKu,  Mcttk-d  for  one  or  two  geuunition:<,  liavc  grown  kindly  and 
considerate.  But  the  bulk  are  very  late  arrirala,  settled  for  ii  fow 
yrars,  and  in  their  dtalings  very  bard  and  exacting.  The  breiUc-up 
of  so  many  village  coinmunitieai  at  the  bi^nning  of  the  present 
eentiiry  grf'atTT"^ft^e"e3  the  ties  which  bound  the  villager*  to  thr:  ir 
bcAidumu,  and  th^  influences  at  work  under  Hrili!<b  managenuii: 
have  done  litUe  to  stiengtben  or  reiM^'w  thom.  Tho  rilUge  couiii^il 
i»  now  little  more  tluin  n  tiction,  and  though  iho  villngcn  still  pay 
Bim  outward  respect,  the  intlnouce'  of  the  boiidmaa  is,  in  man]' 
villages,  almo.stai  an  end.  The  rdationsbetwcon  tho  craftsmen  an^ 
tlio  rettt  of  the  villagers  do  not  seem  to  hnvK  much  changed, 
specially  clever  worker  itomutinHM  leaves  hia  village  and  piijihos  liij 
fortnno  in  one  of  the  birgcr  towns.  But  this  ia  nnuaual,  and,  m  i 
rule,  the  old  practice  continues,  (hat  wbilo  tor  ordinary  aorvie 
villagers  pay  the  craftsmen  by  grain  doles,  for  largo  works,  iiufb  _ 
b  house  building,  payment  U  made  in  money  at  llie  ordinary  markd 

Very  few  of  the  people  leave,  or  oven  raovo  about,  the  district  i{ 
flearcb  of  work.  Living  ts  choap  and  the  dt-in»nd  for  labour  strot 
The  only  claM  willing  to  work,  even  on  the  railway,  ia  li. 
Mh&r.  During  the  last  famine  (187t>-77]  many  Kllnb}!^  came  Frot 
the  southvm  Dcci-an  districts  and  settled  in  Kh/indwh,  and  sine 
thoir  Bctllttmeut  they  have  been  joined  by  frienda  and  relationi 
Besides  these  there  como  yearly  by  mil  from  Ahmednagar,  Poon 
ShoUpnr,  and  SiitiUn,  a  ccrtnm  number  of  Marfilhia  who  settle 
hnts  onfcaidv  of  Jalgaon,  and  during  tbe  f»ir  8e»i*on  work  tta  etyrrit 
hamdit,  at  cotton  presucs  and  mUU.     Whvu  thu  cotton  season 




over  most  of  them  f^o  back  to  their  villages  and  some  statin  Jalgaon 
and  work  as  labourers.  From  Gujarttt  there  come  and  settle  in  ^all 
numbers  Vinis  and  Knnbis  and  Parsi  liquor- Hellers.  From  Bombay 
there  come  Bhtitia  and  other  Ciitch  merchants  and  varions  Bombay 
traders  who  have  settled  at  most  of  the  local  trading  centres.  Mdrrdd 
Vflnis  and  BMhmsns,  and  other  Pardeshis  come  from  the  north,  the 
Mdrvddig  serving  aa  clerks  to  Mdrvtld  traders  and  moneylenders, 
and  the  Pardeshis  finding  employment  as  railway  policemen, 
messengers,  and  priv&te  watchmen.  Some  Madrds  servants  also 
come  from  Anrangabad  and  Haidarabad  in  the  Nizam's  territories. 
Of  temporary  immigrants  there  are  Brdhman  priests  from  Surat  and 
-Ahmedabad  who  conduct  marriage  and  Seath  ceremonies  at  thS 
houses  of  their  Nandurb&r  Vfini  patrons,  and  Vani  aod  Kanbi  cloth- 
dealers,  who,  during  the  fair  season,  visit  their  shops  at  Piirola, 
Dhatia,  Jalgaon,  and  Dharangaon. 

Chapter  U 

(Bombfty  QuetlMr,^ 




AaRlCTLTDRS,  ttio  ino«it  important  indaxtry  6f  tlio  dietriotj 
&tO,mi1  persona  or  about  oiut-luUf  uf  tbi;  pupolaLion.* 

Khiiiiilfwh   ciillivniortt  aru  Ktmlnx,  MUiirs,  Dhaaffam,  Pkr^e 
HnjtiiitH,  KoliH,  Lodbis,  Vanjiiris,  lihilH,  aiitl  MiDuilm&iui.     Kuul; 
hnriiworkiQg     and    uost    skilful    luislKiiidtneii,  nro    n    quiet   b> 
abidiuK  |>vuLilu,  but  iiiost  oiiix-Ic-hh  in  motley  matters.      Komu  nf  It 
well-tn-du  but  most  are  poor.     Of  the  tlirti-  cliusfe   of    Kiiube^] 

a'nfa,  tiuiare,  and  Tilolas,  Pajnasnro  by  fiir  thv  most  nuiucroii 
as  a  rulu  tlm  bo»i  farnuT!*,  and  (Jiijars,  wealihier  (ban  vithvr  i 
10  otlKT  cin.'uiefl,  form  a  ^reat  portion  of  tlio  cultix'atora  in  m>tnd 
10  itortliem  sub'di visions.  Pardeaibitf,  RAJpiittt,  itud  &fu»alni/ii)ii : 
'id'ivc'idr  n-orlciT".  Koti.-«  and  Ijodhitt  are  iuduiUrionK  btit 
wimt  K'Vfn  t<)  drink.  Vaiij&riA  haw  taken  to  tillage  chiefly  niiir-e  enr 
and  rnilwnyahnvcpiit  a  stop  to  their  ciirrvin)^  trade.  Dhang^r  ' 
Btid  RlitU  am  found  htrre  and  there  tdlinj^  on  t.heJr  own  :i 
lEotno  of  the  younger  Bliib  tako  yeairty  aervice,  mild'iri, 
'unbis  and  other  cultivators,  but  most  of  th«m  are  small  laudholdor 
■  biro  fields  fftm  Guiar  and  other  CHpitaIii<1«  on  the  xl 
arviW,  pHnoiplo.  The  landowner  fpiinn  mnttt  by  the  barf^in. 
irovidoH  the  land  and  seed,  and  ibe  Bhil  the  labour,  cattle,  jiod  took.] 
iinbin  iind  MiwalinAna,  whi-n  field  work  in  not  pressinjr,  do  a  lit 
vt\\  cartinK;  Kolia  catch  fi^h  and  j^row  vegetables;  Ubaiigara 
irool  mid  woavi'  hlnnkel^ ;  and  VanjitrLS  deal  in  rattle  and  inaka 
large  ([uantilic'H  of  hum]Hiti  twine.  Kbitndo-:<b  eidlii-alors  aa  n  ptii 
are  poor.  Wiihout  forotbou^rbt  or  aelf- restraint  they  r(!ndi!y 
to  debt,  and  by  {^rasping  and  nnaerupuloaa  moaeyleudisra, 
'orcbd  to  pay  Iwick  very  largo  sums. 

,ludry-erop  land,  from  two  to  four  or  (ifo  himdrod  ncron  U  > 
large,  from  eerenty-live  to  one  hundred  and  tit'ly  a  middio  sized, 
and  from  ton  to  twenly-fiTO  a  small  holding.  In  gnrdcn  landx,  from 
twenty  to  forty  acres  \»  a  large,  from  Ion  to  twenty  a  middle  xizodi 
and  loss  than  ten  a  small  holding.  In  1878-79,  including  alienated 
lands,  Ihv  total  number  of  holdiDgs  was  142,03<i,  with  an  avets^ 


•  crMterp«rt  allbi*c)Minl«rU  coiitri1iut«db7llr.A.St4TmMil,  Stip«ritil«ml«nl 
iMh  €avamm«nl  Mcxkl Tkira. 
*lli«   lobtl  BIO.^Hl   iTii>)iut>«  biIqII  aialiw,  Yi'i.Vtf);  tli«ir  wiv«a  MNWrdiog  tn  tib* 
'orduiftl?  pivpoitludi  III  moil  ta  Wnnscn,  ll>4,l(M  ;  «ii<l  Ibuir  cliil4tTO,  171. 4B8.      Ju  Un 

Mfmi*t«tciDento«  Urge  uuinbcr  a(  tlis  weuu  Mid  cbUdnni  m  bffiMgbt  undcf 
■  Miwril—xm*'. 



of  nrPDtj>threo  ncTPs.  Of  iht>  wbolp  nambcr,  12,995  irere 
ing»  of  not  more  tJiiui  five  aer«»;  21,62-t  of  trom  five  to  too 

;  40^24  from  ten  to  twenty  j  a7j765  from  twenty  to  fifty ;  9602 

fifty  to  one  Imnclred ;  1  iSi  from  od«  hnndnxl  to  two  hniidrcd ; 
froaa  two  hundred  to  Bxo  hundred ;  twclvo  fmm  live  huudrttd  to 

ihoDsand ;  Sre  from  one  tboueand  to  two  thousand  ;  and  four 
e  two  thouEnnd.     Thp  largest  boldinj^  nrc  m  Vird«l. 

e  pair  of  oxen  can  till  about  twenty  acres  of  dry-wop  aiid  ten 

rdon  land.     Prom  twcnty-fiT*  to  fifty  acres  of  drj'-crop  land, 

from  ten  to  twenty  of  garden  land,  wnuld  onublo  a  cnllivator 

ire  like  an  ordinary  retail  dealer.     Fiftj  acres  of  dry-<;rop  bind 

aaleBS  iu  soasona  of  failure  of  nun,  )fiip{wn  ii  husbandman,  hia' 

two  children,   and  one   field   labourer,    i«iUhir,    comfortably 

ont  the  moneylender's  help. 

an  area  of  10,431  milca,  7402  havo  heon  snrveyed'   in 
il.     Of  xhvso  163  are  iho  lands  of  alienated  villagcK.     Tlio  rest 
tna,    according    to    the    revenue  finrvey,    3,iJ82,t!50    acres    or 
liperccnt  of  arable  land  ;  ■'•81', 7S1  or  12-73  pt-r  cent,  of  unarable; 
17  or  0'7o  per  cent  of  graas,  kuran  ;    13,203  or  0'2i>  jRir  cwnt, 
i«et  reaerveaj*  and  4!s,771   or  8-iil  per  cent,  of  village  aitea, 
rirer  beds,  and  hills.      tV^m  th«  3,.^82,g59  acrtts  of  arable 
,  222,014  or  6^  per  cent  havo  to  be  taken  on  account  of  nlienatod 
da  in  Government  vitlagee.      Of  the  balanra  of  3,360,645  acres, 
llip  actual  area  of  arable  Govemmfnt  laiwl,  2,603,073  or  77-45  [>cr 
Bent  wuro,  in  1878-73,  nndor  tillage.     Of   theae  2,571,551    acrcis 
etw  drr-rrf>ii,  and  3i,ri'Ji  irrigated  garden  land. 

According  to  the  cuIti\-ntioti,  jamihanAi,  report,  the  slock  in 
1670.80  amounted  to  9S.M7  [iloughs,  71,377  carta,  330,818 
mllocka,  218,012  cowa,  114,140  buffaloes,  15,357  harses,  73111  assea, 
ad  1115,143  sheep  and  geata.' 

In  1878-79,  of  2,00:1,073  aon-.*,  the  tolnl  lilh'd  arwi,  lfi2,.'.27  ai^rps 
or  7  per  cent  were  fallow  or  under  grass.  Of  the  rewaiuiug  2,440,540 
unrea,  2802  were  twice  cropped.  Of  the  2,443,448  acres  under 
kdnal  tilhtge,  grain  crops  wrciipied  1,51 7,884  or  02  jut  wnl,  700,635 
pf  ttit>jn  under  hii_;r»,  Peniciltaria  epicaia;  hS7,VJTt  under  ivdn, 
Sorghum  rul^fare  ;  155,083  under  wheat,  gahu,  Triticum  a^stivnm, 
l4,odd  under  rico,  hhdl,  Orj-iea  sativa ;  1 1 ,483  under  harik  or  koda, 
Paapalum  ncrDbiculalum;  5108  under  mva,  Panicuni  nuliaGenm; 
t05l  under  maize,  makka,  Zea  mnjTH  ;  ft768  under  rigi,  Eleuaine 
e(>T*cana ;  and  10,222  under  nii:><:cUaneou)t  cun-alit,  oompriiiin^ 
liarley,  jVii-,  Hordeom  liexaslichon,  rdltif  Paniciun  italicum,  and 
others.  Pulfios  occupied  121,568  acres  or  5  prr  cent,  45,5Q2  of  ihem 
under  kulith,  DoHchos  bifloniN ;  39,155  under  grain,  liarlihara,  Cicor 
anetinuni;  2y,027  under  lur,  Cajauus  indicus;  3805  under  udi'i, 
hill  mungo  :  2370  under  peas,  t-aiana,  I^iHum  sativutn  ;  206 
lentils,    uui«itr,  Enrum   loiut ;    370  under  mu^,    PhaMvnlua 





*  Dtlafls  id  tho  iiaiHfjml  Mtioa  iffll  la  tnmui  tii  lltn  luli-diTincAkl  mxouhIil 

*  thm  fcwst  kn*  ba*  htolj  b«c«i  mnr—inl  to  1 ,43a,$40  tent  of  2SM  »tiur«  mila. 
■  Ftam    lk«   Urgff    numW  of   *ilby   umlar    wtch    kocoaaUat,   JhiUiinii,  tb« 

Kfc*ndi»fc  ■took  rctiuiu  w*  litUt  mm  uui  miiiuw*. 


iBomlifty  Qftzett 



radiafns  :  aod  207  iintl(>r  olhrr  pulsi*)).  Oilisoedit  occupied  I68^fl 
■cfwtt  ur  Z  pvr  cviit,  1 18,728  of^hviii  umioreiQ^f^ll^  seed,  til,  Seatini^H 
indicam;  •tl/tr>7  utuJor  liosoed,  althi,  LiniiJi)  ii>iiliili>^Hiniiim:  a^| 
IS.'ibb  under  olher  oilseeds.  Fibro»  woujiind  .Vjl.'.tJS  ttcrcn  or  ^M 
pprcftiit.,  .'i'.IO,7l'3')f  lUciumidiTii'tlftu, /.:<i/'ii#,  (iossvpium  hcrl»ux>a^| 
iZ'Z'A  uiidor  t>niwu  biimp,  nmlnidi,  UibiMniH  csntinbiiiUK  ;  and  t^| 
onder  lk>mbay  hemp,  fiij;  or  mih,  Crutninri»  jimoi-u.  ^i iHi-ollRitc^H 
enpa  occupied  l-'},7'2^  mn^^^  <ir  2  per  cent,  I42U  of  thorn  uoder  Bit>g^| 
cano,  UM,  Soochftrain  oBiciDaniin ;  4!)3t>  iindur  indigo,  ^>i/i,  Indigfif^^ 
tinctoria;  5572  iindcr  tobucco,  (amWWw,  Nicotiaualabacum;  I2,S^| 
nndorvhillifis,  MiiTAc',(.'a]iiiii-iini  fniU-ac«!n8;aiid  thoromaiuing  lOr^^l 
•.under  rarioUB  oth«r  vcg^etabloii  and  (ruite.  H 

fChindo^h  conteins  soils  ui  nil  gntdos,  fniin  the  deep  ricli  black^| 
ifae  'I'lipit  valler,  to  the  poor  Htony  nd  and  white  of  the  low  tT^| 
rsngies.  The  character  of  the  soil  dcpeudit  ax  much  on  ita  coudttifl^ 
118  on  its  cxjmpiwition.  Tlii'  ndlcy  hind,  whirh  under  tin-  i-ffect*  of 
moisture  aud  lillagie  ^'ioldn  tbi)  ricbeal  cropa,  ah<f<Ta,  under  :trin)ysis, 
the  same  substiuicea  in  almost  the  same  propurtiotu,  aa  Uio  hiiL| 
Imum'  which  is  bnro  of  everything  bnl  thorn  bushex.  For  purpo^| 
of  pi'aetica)  lillagx.',  the  most  uxefu)  division  of  soils  ia  tbat  of  t^| 
oative  buabandmen  into  four  classes,  black  kali,  white  ptititlk^M 
Ball  khdran,  and  nliite  an Jsalt  burkj.  ^M 

Black,  kali,  or  collon  tan]  includes  two  Tariotiea,  a  betKr,  fc^| 
icili,  wicfa  a  moisturo-hoUlintf  snbiMJtl,  which,  in  seasons  of  ordiiu^| 
rainfall,  vieldH a  full  cmpof  wheat orgram,  ami  un  inf»n'-ir  ■  '   .9 

its  sticky  clayey  nature,  kuown  as  rn^chiini.    The  better  ■:  iU 

not  want  ploughing  for  tea  or  twelve,  and  somutimes  even  f'^r  Uiir^| 
years,  'i'liming  this  soil,  the  iinlivcn  ln-bevu,  lns-*«!ns  itn  i:!r<>]>-bearil^| 
powers  for  two  y^'sirit.     White,  yiimlhri,  tbouf^h  iiatiirally  p(H>r   a^M 
yielding  only  the  coarser  jtraina,  will,  with  abundance  of  mauure  n^M 
vrntvr,  boar  hcnvy   ve^eta^tle   and  sufrarcani;  eropc     Sitlt,  khdn^M 
*lau<!,  U  almost^  uaeh'wM  aw  a  plant -grow  iav  noil.    Impervioua  (<>  wat<^| 
it  is  inirticitlarly  sni table  for  iho  outw  layer  of  flat-roofed  houxj^B 
and  ba^ for  this  purixisv  it  uiiwkct.  viiliie  iTTW.Vi  ton  [I  anna  the  earlfl 
White  and  salt,  hurki,  land   iiaa  au  uppe^r  layer  of  while,  i'fia4JA^| 
and    a  »:dt,  ilfiran,  subsoil.       With  a  pleiitifid   rainfall,  it  yief^| 
good  cro]X4  of  cotton,  e(t{>eciully  of  t)tv  New  Ork-iinit  kind  whoAO  r(K^| 
keep  much  nearer  the  sm-face  ihitn  ibontt  of   the  local  variutt^| 
,    KacR  of  tltesc  main  c-lassos  has  many  Hub-divisiona  marked  by  su^fl 
bameii  as  light,  heavy,  or  sweet,  or  by  the  preseuDe  of  some  foreifjrn 
element  such  as  limestone,  kanktr.     Mucii  of  the  blat^k  I'lipti  am) 
Ginin  valley  soil,  with  a  deep  clay  subaoil,  is  very  fruitful,  beariiiff 
abundatii^e  of  healthy  w('ll-i»Town  mango  and  tanmriad  trees.     Th» 
table-laud  ou  the  top  of  the  southern  hiUa,  Chough  riuh,   has  so 
pproua  a    subsoil    that  much    losa  of   crops  follows  even  a  slight, 
failiin^  of  nun.     With  irrigation,  this  dniiiiugii  is  highly  favonrabla 
to   the   growth  of    fruit  tn^cs,   eap&cially   the   vino,  orange,   and 
other  sub-tropical  plants.     In  years  of  average  rainhll  Kn&ndesh 
yiftlda    a  good  cold  w<N»ther,  rahi,  harvest    e*ixKriiilly    of   oili-eed.". 
On  the  whole,  tlte   land  ia  more  fertile   and  yields  heavier  cro| 
than  othiT  Doceaa  or  Southern  Mar&tba  diatrict«. 



Khdndovb  irrigation  vorks  cnmo  under  two  hoada  :  works  of 
nntiro  cunRtriifltyii,  Am'iont,  and  as  ariiio  small  ;  ami  Inrgp  modern 
works  carried  out  by  tint  irrigation  briuicli  of  the  public  worics 
department.  Khiindc>Hli  rallevH  are  o|i«ii  ainl  level,  and  the 
Bmaller  rivtirn,  rining'  in  tho  Snhriidri  hills,  flow  in  kIiaUow  beds 
blocked  here  and  tht^rt*  by  rocky  Ifil^cM  of  much  service  in  maldnir 
maaonry  wwira,  bitmth'jrih,  while  from  thoir  llainctw  or  vory  gentio 
cross  §lopG  larffo  nrcai.t  of  land  nro  easily  commanded.  Tlitj*  irrigation 
from  weirs  is  chieHy  praciistnl  nwir  ihe  billa  ou  llio  upper  parta  of 
the  rivi.?r  cutinwts  in  tho  anb^iviBioDnt  of  Pimpiilnor,  l^bulia, 
Nondiirbdr,  ami  Amaluor.  Am  the  rirors  rtow  lar^fer  and  draw 
near  Ihc  Tapti,  their  beds  are  loo  d<'«p  sunk  to  bo  vastly  dammed. . 
And  thu  Tiipli  itawlf,  flowiuff  more  than  lOU  feet  below  jKo  level 
of  the  plain,  in,  except  near  Bhusilral,  not  suited  for  irrigaUon 


0    weirs 


b-yilfuiriu,   must,    lU    one    time,   have  been  very 

the  west    there   is  sewrcely   a  istrcsm  of  any  aisw 

Tradition   aUributet*  their  constniction 


without  traces  of  them. 
Ui  the  MnsalmAn  ralent,  and  it  in  probable  that  many  of  lliem  date 
from  the  lime  of  tho  later  F^mki  kmgs.  In  mniiy  plncos  fonndation 
liolea,  cnt  in  the  itiieet  rock,  arc  iImi  only  traceii  of  former  dams. 
Others  are  found  lu  every  ato^  of  min.  Many  aro  entire  and  a 
CTLTat  uiitiilmr  arc  still  in  hub,  while  others,  npiwiviitly  ax  perfect, 
navelieeaabiiiiiioni^d  from  Ki-arcity  of  water,  silliuijof  tbedistributinfj 
canaltj,  or  other  caotwa,  Uere  and  tUore  hngv  maivtoH  of  overturned 
miMoury,  lying  a  fowymslsdown  thostrK»mfnim  tbelineof  Ihoweira, 
Bhowtho  violeneo  of  occaxionnl  floods  and  the  excolleQce  of  the  old 
cement.  The  sites  of  these  dams  were,  an  a  rule,  well  chosen. 
Except  a  few  bnilt  i>traij;ht  acroiw  tho  stream,  the  dams  are  more  or 
lees  obljimo,  the  w.^len-oHrse  issuing  from  the  lower  end.  Where 
tho  rock  below  is  not  continnons,  tliT-ir  tor  ma  are  moat  irregular. 
In  Imildin;^  a  dnro,  hob-^  wrTc  cut  in  the  rock  in  the  proposed  line 
of  the  wall  from  six  to  thirteen  inches  wpiaro,  the  same  or  more ' 
in  depth,  and  from  three  to  »ix  feet  ajxirt.  In  the  holes,  stone 
nprigliL-i,  Kometime^  Mranl)  pillurx  taken  from  Hindn  temples,  wero 
set.  and  tho  dam  was  either  beilt  in  front  of  these,  or  the  stones 
were  built  into  the  dam,  leaving  only  the  backs  of  the  upright* 
risible.  Tliw  dams  arc  ytronjr  clumsy  walls  commonly  gloping  on 
both  Hides  to  a  Dam)w  top.  The  materinl"  are  common  black  biLwalt 
Stone,  coariso  coniivto  mixed  wilh  sinall  pieces*  of  brick,  and  ihe 
very  best  cemonL  Occasionally  largo  bloi-ks  an)  found  in  thu  £ac« 
of  the  wall,  but  the  inner  stones  are  all  small.  Dressed  stone  is 
seldom  used  for  cither  fneing,  ([uoins,  or  Doping.  Except  somo 
small  openings  at  the  middle  or  at  the  base,  no  provision  tfcems  to 
have  \)wa  inadu  for  removing  the  silt.  While  the  dams  were  built 
with  the  grrcaU'stcare.tho  watercourses  woro  laid  out  with  the  strictest 
economy,  following  the  lie  of  the  ground  and  uuddug  long  bends  to 
to  avoid  L-nttings  or  wjucfliictM.  By  some,  these  long  windings  are 
condemned  as  causing  waste  by  absorption  and  evuporution.     But  tho 

Chapter  IT. 



Bconliay  Qiunwiy  R««iaw,  T,  4S-QX 

(Bouha;  0«nUMr. 





prewnt  genenition  defend  tfa«ir  uioeatoni  on  ibe  ground  of  or< 
III  grigiu^]  outlay,  and  l>ecaus^a^entlfi  gradient. an<lthen!foi-i 
coune,  waa  rcqiiirod  to  nipilato  t>ko  How  und  prOTvnt  its 
woatofuUy  n^piJ.  To  l(H>k  afivr  lliu  djima  and  the  ^r»tl■mtD 
cbminpl  Ittfopcra  or  pdlkarit  were  appointed  and  onduw^Ml 
couHiderable  gmate  of  land.  But  (roin  cnreleexneHK  nnd  ignot 
those  irrigtttional  mirka  wvre  frequently  mianianaged.  In 
mitttcr  of  olei&riag  the  waterconreeB,  exoaratioo  by  the  fffllattem  i  . 
niuoh  harm.  It  mndv  the  rolativo  ievcUi  of  the  land  tuid  the  wat» 
coiirso  very  diffunfnt  fiijni  wiutt  they  were  when  the  v  ' 
OountruottKl ;  and  aa  the  watercotirees  wera  not  bridgod,  . 
aOtlieiwiflo  protoctod,  tVi  v{llii)fv  au-l-i  aud  rattle  oui^hI 
injury  and  waste.  In  1867  the  channel  keopera  woro  eaid  tu  nt>L 
Ihvir  work,  and  allow  siit  and  mad  to  settle  aa  high  ft-s  tho  top  of  Ai 
widl,  whilo  thu  wutiir(M)un<iivi,  chokt>d  with  reeda  and  mud,  lookoj 
like  st^nant  pools.  Now  the  worka  are  betCvr  toaoagdd,  b*lq 
undor  tho  Hupt.Tviition  of  thu  irrij^tion  dvpurtment. 

Of  works '  carried  out  hy  the  irrigation  denartment,  the  cLief  m: 
the  Ijowct  Piinjhrawator  works,  the  Ilartdla  Inki',  th^'JAmila  rAuab, 
and  the  Mhiuva  lake-  Tho  Ixiwit  PAnjhra  auil  Uart&la  achcmcs  an 
old  works  iin)>roved  and  extended ;  the  i>thers  are  new.  Drawing'  their 
supply  froai  rivera  that  rise  in  the  Sahyadri  hilU,  the  Piitij)u-a  uJ 
J^inda  cnnnlit  uro  tiovvr  known  lo  fail  during  the  rainy  ntid  ooU 
aeaaouH  (Juue-Kehrnary).  Even  in  1870-77, with  a  miufall  uf  anJf 
ihirli^t'ii  incht'^,  their  tiiipply  was  InviftOy  in  exOMM  of  tho  dematia.' 
The  sninllaesH  of  iho  irrif^ed  area  (1078  acrea)  is  dne  pariJy  tu  tbt 
miwiHinffni!»>  "f  ihe  |)Oiiplo  to  my  the  water  nit«,  wheUj^jf  ''* 
rainfall  is  good,  they  <:«u  grow  ilie  i^ropii  to  whiilj  they  ht*ve  lun 
tltHmstomea  wi t li i m i  anv  H>«-r\:i\  jiaym&Di ;  partly  also  to  the  fiu-i  that 
mowMiBpital  ;i  re  rcqiiircd  to  cnlllTate  a  frlTOU  amt 

with  imgai<!it  ■  !•.).;•  ii..ii.  nun  <-nj[M  dojiending  only  on  the  rnin^j 
and  partly  bocartae,  between  the  two  kinds  of  cnltiTntion,  t)iore  a 
■-■udch  iho  siatne  diBoBenee  bk  hotwoon  famiiwjj'  and  market  gardouiniT, 
unil  tho  hu^^bandnmn  in  loth  to  a^udon  the  ayatem  to  whidi 
be  ia  accuaiouipd.  Still  the  tiete  of  tho  water  la  at«adily  fpi-eadiuir, 
and  I'Vt-ry  neiumn  of  ithort  rainfall  greatly  encourages  irrignUr.n.  Iti 
many  plaoea  walfr  is  now  iiwd  for  tho  prowth  oven  of  the  inrertiir 
grains,  tlxcopt  in  landa  along  tho  Luwcr  Pdujhnt,  whore  the  wat«r 
untl  hinil  rat««  am  fvnsoli dated,  a  separate  wat«r  rat«  is  loried 
Tarying  from  2j..  to  Al  12*.  {Be,  1  .Bs,l6),* 

*  Tho  Lower  Pinjhra  works  coniiiiit  of  the  Unkti  rMtrvoir,  tn 
dams  acrom  tho  Piinjhra,  and  watercourses  from  tbeiie  dama.  Thi 
Mnkti  rvRcrvoir,  dt-»igm-d  to  Mupplumoot  tho  supply  to  tho  whole 
fli'riei*  <if  w^'int,  is  formed  by  two  earthen  darns,  in  nil  2770  feel  longi 
thrown  across  a  gi>rgo  in  tho  ralloy  of  the  Mukti  which  joiaa  lh~ 
Panjhru  2}  miles  above  Obulia.     llio  greatest  height  of  tho  mti^ 

*  Bambar  IrrigKtion  Bapwt^  tATA-TT. 

*  Bnddca  thia,  a  «e«  kaown  u  pMplalta,  at  the  nU  «I  BiH  f 4  irmuu)  «n  acr*  fa 
mijarcatw  am)  XdL  (f  amtas)  for  Mlirr  irrigUcal  <s«]a,   i«  tnvlM   to 
pUanuiue  «i<l  ])Otty  rtpotra  to  tlio  r.haniKl*. 

DWet  tiM)  «C«|  I 


dftm  i«  !(ixty>6Te  feet.,  luid  Ui«  flood  watore  eiicnpo  over  two  wnnte 
weir3  13(W  feet  U>ag.  Wben  full,  thf  lake  covers  6U2  aeresi.jiud 
ootilnius  36S  uiillions  of  cubic  irvl  uf  wi>t«r.  The  cat*.': h men t  basin 
hiui  an  area  uf  lUty  itquare  milea,  and  with  an  nvirru^)  ruiiifall 
{10  iocboa)  the  reaervoir  ia  calculated  to  fill  IJ  times  iritb  a  i-ua-oQ 
of  uno-fourtli.  Tbu  weira  are  »l  Dliulia,  Ninikhoda,  and  JApi  in  the 
I>hiilia  Ntil>-diviai<ia,  with  channeU  almoet  all  on  Che  left  tmuk  ;  nt 
Ikliidi  and  )Iaii<bd  in  lliv  Amalnrr  i<iib-<li virion,  with  channels  ua 
thv  right  liiiiik ;  and  nt  Valkbtni  and  Uet^vatl  in  tlto  VirtUd  snb- 
divieioD,  wiib  clumnels  on  the  left  bank.  Of  these  the  NnhAlod 
£a{>adus  chanric]  Icadinir  from  tlic  Niinkhod  woir  is  now.  ITio  rest 
fim  mUI  tvtirk.s  iin])n>ved  and  extended.  Tbe  outlav  on  thv  Ijuwuc 
Panjlira  works,  to  the  end  of  1879.80,  amousted  to  £4fi,653  8». 
(B».i,b$^i).  Inthal}-o»r,22fl4  acreg  were  watorad,  b«eidc«  1504 
ftcrea  on  which  fixed  conaolidated  rates  are  levied.  Tho  Mukti 
reservoir  enenroa  an  nnhiling  perfiiniid  Mipply  to  all  tJiQ  lands 
coiiinuindod  by  tltc  cluinncl--*,  and>atidiuuu  aro  «nablod  to  pal 
into  practice  a  )iroi>t>r  rotation  of  crops.  Xlie  achome  has  not  yet 
provod  financially  successful. 

Tliu  Jidnda  canalx  on  tha  Gtrna,  one  of  tlw  v«rlie«t  Governinflnt 
fttor  works,  havea  drainageareaof  2700aquare  uiileR.  Thn  work* 
Hist'  of  a  masonry  weir,  nrnir  Jiinida  across  tho  Gima,  lo40  feet 
>n^  niid  ciglilot-u  ftn-t  at  the  hii^best  point,  with  two  rnnslit,  ono 
OD  the  li'ft  bank  tvrenty-Keven  miles  long  and  commaudin^  87,122 
lu'rcs.thfot boron  tberi^htboDk  twelve  inil«>s  lonj^and  commaodinff 
6281  nrri'.-t.'  'llie  iitvaa  thus  coroinaiided  are  in  ChAlisgaon  and 
Pi4:hora.  Tho  left  bank  canal  has  a  dischai^ng  capacity  of  261, 
and  (bv  right  bank  cauulof  121  cubic  fi>etu  Kecoud.  Both  canals 
are  completely  bcid^d  and  regulated.  The  left  bank  canal  baa  been 
in  working  unlor  for  ihirtiH-u  yimvs.  Th«  right  lAnk  cunnl  was  not 
ojwuod  till  1878.  Up  to  the  end  of  18?J-1!0,  the  capita!  outlav  on 
both  canals  amounted  to  £9  t.S.'jn  1 2*.  (Rs.  9,45.506).  The  loft  bank 
ciinal  (-omiunntlit  ft  large  area  in  the  adjoinin)]^  valtoy  of  the  Hon  river' 
and  llie  aiiueducta  and  bridpes  hare  been  built  to  admit  of  an 
iucreiiHed  discharge.  Tlio  ovorbrtdgi-K  uru  high  utiongh  for  the 
pa»a|];i>  uf  boat*.  Along  these  canals  aboat  35,000  Idh^h  hare  bt^n 
pUati>d.  Id  I879'80,tho  area  waturod  by  tho  J^da  canals  amounted 
to  4925  tucren,  of  which  40  per  cent  wore  iluvotvd  to  oarlv,  kharif, 
crops.  Till!  whole  area  ia  watered  by  flow,  without  the  use  ot  any  litt. 
PurJOf;  the  tiret  six  ycnrx  irrigation  w»m  wriimisly  hampered,  fintt  ^ 
by  till,  toliil  failure  of  the  hot  wt-aibor  supply  in  1869,  1870,  187», 
and  1872,  and  in  8<^-ptcmbcr  1809  by  un  accident  to  an  important 
croMi  dminagtf  wnrk  Mvitr  thti  head  of  the  cano).  To  insuru  the 
ulliuiaLo  snoceas  of  the  Jfimda  canals  a  storaf^e  work  ia  wanted 
to  equalise  tbo  disohargv,  and  in  years  of  short  minfiUl,  to  furnish 
a  certain  siiippiy.  iDqairiea  have  been  going  on  regafdiug  the 
feoMibilily  of  such  a  otorago  vruHc. 

Chaptwr  JV. 
Wktor  WmIul 


■  TliH  *m  utiuUy  aiider conunAnd  d(  tho  left  iMak  ««aftl  ■■  3T,ISSacrM  bdongiag 
to  tliirij'  oiiu  viUi^c*.  Tlic  water  luia  not  yet  beon  brauglit  within  raMb  «f  lb* 

IBowba;  Oauttwr. 


AT  IT.  Tho  Hart^la  lake,  in  the  BhiufiTol  sub>c1imion,  lira  on  a  mmll 

trilwtarypf  rhu  Tipti.  ThHi>l<l  liike  wils  dosCri'ved  id  ]8J:2  liv  > 
fliiod  wilicU  overtopped  and  breached  the  dun.  Tbe  art's  dmiuiitf 
into  lh<-  lake  is  six  MUMru  milos.  Th«  dow  wurlc  cxjinpriKuN  Un 
ntpikir  of  ike  dam ;  tna  building  of  a  waste  weir  to  {irovide  iat 
tbe  escape  o£  flood  waters,  and  of  ckannelH  fur  irripkt,ii>n  ;  tin 
neconatnictiDn  of  Uie  oiitlulM ;  nnd  tlie  conatruution  of  a  cluuini;]  14 
uicn!  the  drainaofe  area  to  6*61  eqaare  miles.  The  lake  has« 
capacity  of  140  millions  of  ciibir  fout  and  coinitiaDds  an  area  of  351 
acres.  Us  rCMUirnlion  wiw  unilertakeu  on  the  |>eople 
rlaiiu  no  compeiiaatiou  for  tbe  area  uf  the   bed  of  llie  laKe, 

^y  an  aero  mtv  of  Mtr.  (R«.  6)  on  all  laudK  fur  vrbii.'li  vntir 
WM  avnilablo.  Ki![>atr.4  were  begun  iu  lti70  and  rinished  in  187t 
at  a  cost  of  je43«7  (its.  43,S"0).'  During  1873-74,  with  a  rain&ll 
of  34'3t>-incbus,  Um-o-ti^utlM  f>f  the  niinfiill  on  the  euttibiuun'  na 
into  the  lake  and  filled  it  to  a  depth  of  ton  feet.  Dunsg 
1874-75,  with  a  rninhll  of  lO'lS  inchvs,  wator  never  roso  more  thu 
five  feet,  and  at  the  end  of  October  it  was  oul^  2--H  feet  ikbovt?  tht 
level  of  the  irrigation  outlet.  In  1875-76,  with  a  rainbll  of  27']3 
inchi-«,  tho  water  in  SopU-mbi-r  wjis  6'34feet  alxivo  ihootiilut  Ikti-I. 
In  ia7*)-77,  thu  tintt  repleuLiUment  waa  in  June  when  the  wiler 
rv>64>2':J0  feet  on  the  (^ui^,  fulliuirgradnally  to  l'G8.  It  rose  again 
in  July  to  two  foot  and  a^iin  fell  to  !'80  fecE.  After  thii«  tho  lidct 
waa  not  again  filled  and  tho  supply  failed  in  Det^mbor.  Wiih  u 
limited  a  catchment  uroa  and  «o  uncertain  a  minfall,  this  work  li 
not  likvly  to  yield  any  large  revenue.  The  p&iiple  will  i^radoallj 
leam  to  tnm  the  supply  to  the  beat  advantage,  and  it  will  nlwiiyi 
l>0  a  gain  to  lht<  villagorM.  But  a»  in  u)l  wi>rkn  Ihut  dopond  oa 
local  rainfall,  in  a  dry  seaaon  the  supply  U  liable  to  fail.  Tito  want 
of  success  of  thv  scheme,  carried  out  under  unusually  favourabia 
ciri'uui stances,  )tlv:>ws  that  it  i^  not  alwayti  adviiiable  to  n.'^toni  old 
water  works.     In  very  uiay  caaes  old  works  hare  baon  allowed  lo 

Jail  into  disnso  b«»;au»P  thoy  did  not  answor. 

Tho  MliiiMvn  Ltko  in  the  petty  divtHion  uf  Parola  in  A.nuilRer  wai 
begun  in  March  187^^  Very  soon  iifci*i-,  the  work  waa  at'ippcd  for 
want  of  fundi*  It  wft  again  t«ikcu  iu  hand  in  February  167&, 
and  was  e«m]iteted  by  June  1877.  Th«  work  coni^istii  of  a  reservoir 
foar  miles  in  circumference,  with  a  dam  1494  feet  long  and  forty- 
fonr  feet  high,  and  two  (mnalH  ewdi  throo  miles  long.  The  area  of 
^  tlio  catehment  basin  is  fourteen  square  miles,  and  ilie  mnximiiin 
dfiptb  of  full  snpply  is  thirty-fuiir  toot.  Tbu  total  capacity  of  tba 
lake  V*  Itil  inillion.*  of  cubic  feet.  Ilie  work  wniiuiiniU  a  total 
arable  area  of  3912  acres  included  in  nine  villages,  sis  of  them  oa 
the  wo»t  chiinni't  and  thnreon  the  v-tist.  The  wiHrc  cupitii!  outlay 
to  tho  end  of  I}*7y.80  was  £11,201  14*.  (Rs.  1,12,317).  Watrr  wm 
given  free  of  chnrgo  fur  the  Rnt  ycnruud  the  ares  irrigated  waa  IGt 
acred,  chiefly  under  wheat  and  gram.  8inoo  then  water  ratoM  h&vs 
been  introduced.  They  are  tho  isameaa  those  on  the  Mnkti  reaerroir, 
£1    (Ra.  10)  the  acre  for  augarcane,  4».  (Rs.  2)  for  late  crops  aod 

>Tb«rcwMafl«rw>nUa[urther<HiU*yo(<l012i.  |Ra.  1911). 


rice.  Mid  2s.  (Re.  1)  for  early  dry  erop«.  The  Iivke  ia  2J  riiIc-h  from 
Itlie  town  of  P^rola,  and  at  nil  aclJirioiinl  com)  iif  nViUt  £l£riO 
]  (Bs.  1 2,S0O),  could  supply  thv  town  with  g<>'d  niid  whulcsome  water. 

Over  most  of  the  dintriot  wo^rjn  ^und  n<>iU'  UiB  .■turfitoe.  Bat 
near  tho  S&lpudiU,  and  on  account  of  the  draiua<;o  of  its  chanael, 
within  iMghl.  or  ti-n  mili-x  of  lliv  TA|>li,  wolN  huvo  Suitiutiinus  to  )» 
dug  ad  much  as  one  hundred  feet  deep.  The  (li>mh  of  ^  yyi^H  vnpi->4 
from  fortj-  to  ono_bundn:'d  fvH  in  !Jitv<la,  from  thirty  to  "'nen-  feet  in 
Cho|Klii  lind  Sliffpur,  ftMHi  t.wgiilv-five  to  -lixty  fMit  in  f^hfiluiiln,  and 
Lfroni  t'jght  to  forty. live  fe*>t  in  Taloda;  from  thirty  to  tli)rty<threa 
keet  in  KiindMrborTfrom  thirty  to  ninety  fwt  in  Virdel,  from  t<>n 
lo  ninety  feet  in  AtunlucT,  alxiut  thirty-fiv^  foot  in  Hnindol,  from* 
forty  to  eighty  feel  in  Nosirabad,  and  from  twenty-two  to  xb>ty 
fwt  in  Bhuwivnl ;  from  twenty-two  to  forty  feet  in  Pimpslncr, 
(rora  Iwenty-twii  to  fi-rty-eighi  fi«t  in  t)hulia,  from  cwmity  tn 
I  forty  feet  in  I**chora,  from  twenly-two  to  thirty-liTe  feel  in  Jdinner, 
and  from  cightDcn  to  twi'iily-w>ri;n  fot't  in  ChnliHgnou.  The  iy7y-W0 
returmi  give  28,137  wells,  029  of  them  with  and  -27,20!)  without 
BtepH.  For  drawing  water  tJiQ  leathvr  ba^,  mat,  is  in  almost 
nnivet%nliiw.  The  cowl  of  digging  n  well  rancwTnim  JilS  to  £2.i 
(Kf.  l.V).lis.!J50),  and  except  for  garden  crops,  it  does  not  pay  to 
work  a  well  more  than  twenly-five  feut  deep.  A  good  well  admits 
the  working  of  four  leiithiT  bitgM,  aio/n.  Thft  nma  watcre*!,  on  iin 
RVar.ige  alwut  live  acres,  de]>eml3  mainly  on  the  nature  of  the  crop 
and  the  character  of  t  he  Koil .  Each  bag  wster;«  m  qnarter  of  nn  aero 
daily.  Thu  otu-lhen  cliaunelx  are  most  tdcilfidly  loiule,  chnngiug 
tlwir  coOT-ie  at  every  two  or  three  yards,  so  as  to  offer  a  series  of 
checks  to  tho  flow  of  the  wntvr.  

Chapter  IV. 

— wai 

Tlu!  niudu  of  tillage  ia  miiolfthe  same  all  over  ^le  districts  The 
field  tools  are  the  plough,  niiiiyeir  or  n<i;7'ir  ;  thejicftvy  hoe,  r'lWmi* ; 
the  light  hoe.  Itotpti  :  the  ^eed  drill,  iKnnhlinr  or  piiaar  :  '.W  n-aping 
gicklfc,  lianilt  or  n7«  ;  the  weeding  sickle,  khurm  ;  the  i  fn  .-^ 

the  wimnowiug  atool.  fftn'Awr ;  the  fan,  gitp;  the  Iwiikel,  ■•/■■.,  nnd 
the  brxKtm,  h'^khri.  Aloul  of  tJione  looI»  last  for  thrt-ti  or  four  yenri*. 
Though  to  tht-  untrained  eve,  nide  and  waat^^I,  the  native  system  of 
husbandry,  when  well  nuderatood,  showfl  mffiy  simple  coutg-ivancea 
of  much  vkill  and  wii^doni. 

Indian  plouglw^  though  thev  differ  in  detail,  are  iirahably  all 
developed  fi-om  a  forked  branch.  One  fork,  cnt  short  and  pointed, 
bocnniu  the  sluin',  the  other  the  benm,  >ind  the  itlrnight  part  ibti 
liiiniUe.  The  KluindvHh  plough,  niiugar,  ia  a  tliick  bdl/kul  log,  the 
lower  en<l  sharp  nnd  curving  forward  as  nn  obtuse  angle  from  the 
main  hlork.  'I'lir-sjiarg,  u  ilaice'EEirtniH  bar  aI)out  thnx?  f«<?t  long, 
i»  let  into  a  Koeknt  ;t(iil  lised  by  a  movable  iron  ring  to  the  wooden 
point,  beyond  which  it  juia  about  teu  iiiche«.  Ita  weight  is  front 
twelve  to  foDrtvon  ponnd^,  half  of  which  ix  lost  uftor  two  years' 
work.  The  handle  is  fastened  to  the  block  by  a  thick  rope, 
aioii,  passed  along  the  beam  and  tiod  to  the  yoke,  bo  that  the 
strain  of  drdught  bnnx'ii  the  different  pidceH  of  iho  plough.  Kxcept 
by  Htandiiig  on  the  plough  or  loading  it  with  stonea,  the  husband ninn 
bas  no  means  of  incrvasing  the  depth  to  which  the  Hhare  enters 



[Bombny  Giuetlea. 

er  IV. 

I  Field  Took. 



'  Drill. 



the  »oil.  The  plough  U  drawn  bf  four  Inillocks,  nnd  to 
it  ikroperjy  two  "per^yns  aro  rcrjuircd,  one  u*  ilrive  iho 
bauocKB  HiiJ  ono  t^u  ku<^'':  '^'^  plouKli-  'TiiO  shan*  paaa 
S0\-eii  inchuB  umlur  the  Hurfaoc,  probablt  qniU;  deep  em 
all  luDcLi  of  crops  in  the  clJmiitv  uu<]  Hot)  uf  Khiiiidi^Nli.  ,  Iti;  ci 
dofi-ct  is  th«  wDiit  of  a  mould  board ;  the  boU  is  merely  rai&od  and 
slightly  shifted,  without  being  complete);  tarae4  ovar.  A  plou^ 
ooste  from  -**.  to  5*.  (R«.  2  -  R«.  21). 

Tbo  htavj  li»i>,  vakhar,  uaed  for  looBening  the  surfooe  of 
ffrouud  Ijefiira  sowinp,  for  covering  Uio  seed,  £«  breftking  eloda,  t 
for   uprooliiig   shrubs  uiid  wi-v<lj>,   is  a    Tcn^df  ^MBexc 
*in>pU>meiit,  consistiiig  of  a  two  to  four  feet  iCTg  beam  witb  a 
running  homontalljr   along  Hi"  entire  length,  »nd  supported 
distance  of  abotil  ton  inchca  by  two  wtwulf »  Hl^^^Vll■     It  ia  »o  i. 
thiit  by  ItfUiftheHing  or  abortening  the  rope,  aiuli,  the  blade  WiU  | 
several  incfae«  into  the  ground  or  merely  Bcrapo  the  aurfoce. 
Bmall  hi'u,  kolpa,  is  tbu  samu  in  Hh»|H!  ami  iiiako  a«  the   lar^fe 
only  much  smaller.     It  ia  used  for  cleariug  the  land  bcl.wucn  I 
rows  of  a  growing  MPpt  for  loo«wning  the  HTir&u-e,  and  for  kilf 
weeds.     Usually  one  pair  of  bulIoclcH  dmgs  two  »nu(ll  hoes, 
guided  by  o»o  man.     ft^  when  fKtIe  are  acarce,  a  leugtl 
yoke  ia  aometimes  need  an^Uvto  or  own  four  boos  aro  wor 
togotlii^r.  ^  r 

Tliosoed-drill, /nimt/Mir,  eimpie,  ingenious,  and  effective,  i»a  bk 
of  wood  with  throewpmre  prongs  let  into  it  at  right  anglea,  liit-oi 
prong  is  fixed  a  hnllow  biunboo,  Tliesc  mwrt  at  the  top  in  a 
cup.  Into  this  cup,  wit hhii*  loft  band,  the  driver  keepa  steadily  poi 
seed,  which,  ihrough  the  tubes,  passes  safely  into  a  neat  fumjw ' 
in  fn>iit  of  «Bch  tubo  by  the  Khnm-liW  iron  tip  of  the  proog.  ._ 
ibwiugcotWi  aud  whuat,  the  middle  prong  or  snare  iit  takvii  out  and 
the  tube^draggedMeveral  yards  bcliind,  each  guided  by  a  Mrpont* 
sowcr^  Cot^D  is  also  sown  with  the  help  <ii  llio  heavy  bo<;,  xiakhar, 
which   ia  driven  across  tho  field,  and  two  or  three  sowers  fuDow  it 

t>tl4*>rgobanibtKi  tiibos  ill  tht^ir  hands  through  which,  aa  lb«iy  gq, 
loy  droi)  the  seed.  Excepting  these  and  indigo,  which  is  eomeliuee 
ecatter^i  with  the  band,  all  grains  are  sown  witb^hia  drill, 
bundling  of  which  reipiires  a  littlw  {iractico. 

Besides  IA  field   tools,  the   husbandman's  chief  ajipUancoB 
(  tbo    isiigamtnu  mill,   tho   watcr^lift,  and    tho  cart.      The   vat 

cane   mil),   ghdni,   consists   of    two  solid  hahhul  cgrliitdora 

buebaud  and  wife,  nm-ra  nrtm,  about  nine  inches  in  diainott^r,  pis 
Tcrtti-jdly  and  set  vt^ry  close  tjigi.!thcr.  Tho  iipjM'r  pnrls  of  tho  rol 
are  formed  into  double  spiral  scn^ws  which  work  in  one  anut 
Thus,  when  tnotinin  is  given  to  ono  roller  by  the  lerer  at  it«  hi^iud  1 
polled  b?  bullocks  in  a  circular  coursi;,  its  Hcn^w  cnrrios  round  I 
other  roller  in  an  opposite  direction.  The  rolleroi  are  fed  with 
by  th«  hand,  and  Uio  juice,  passing  along  an  undergronud  pipe  tf, 
at  some  distance,  gathered  in  an  earthen  veiiflcl.  ndnd.  Froin  thi« 
Vessel  it  is  strained  into  a  largo  round  iron  kettle,  kudhat,  in  which 
\t  is  boiled  down  to  molaases,  gut,  or  hdkei,  ns  desired.  The  once- 
preased  stalks  an|%iven  to  potters,  kumbkdre,  who  by  waterim 


Dtr.     HP 



Yorioue  proce«»c«  maoa^  to  extract  «  »ecoad  ^ 

{ letter's  nKklassea.     ThiB  is  dark  and  sticlty,  ain 
owor  classes.  * 

of  gul,  called 
ased  by  .tip 

The  tratcr-lift,  mat.  !»  a  lar^  lontlior  hag  ablu  to  hold  about 
forty  galloQa.  TtSaTtwo  months,  the  upper  one  wide  and  laced  to 
an  iron  or  wooden  rin^,  thu  lower  ono  tnpering  into  a  pipo-  To  the 
riog,  »i  th<!  uppef  end,  a  strong  ropo  im  fa-itcned,  whicb,  pnstting 
over  a  palley  snont  aix  feet  above  the  well,  is  brought  forward  and 
tied  to  the  bollock  yoko.  A  small  line  in  tied  to  (he  lower  month, 
of  mob  B  length  thnt,  while  the  bag  ia  being  drawn  up,  the  two 
liaoatha  4Mmigt%iaa|iV  1'be  fiinall  une,  being  led  over  a  revolving 
wooden  cinder  on  ino  edge  of  the  well,  do*  sooner  is  the  woll-edgw* 
reaohed  tbun  the  lower  moutJi  opens  and  the  bag  empties  into  a 
cwteru  in  front  of  the  well. 

Carts  are  of  thrco  kintls,  the  dhainni,  fbe  lari  or  ahiri,  and  the 
vanki.  FoniH'rly  the  only  a^ricnltuml  cart  was  the  g^da,  a 
_  elumsy  vehicle  with  soiall  wheels  about  tliree  feet  bigb  or  even 
less.  The  axle  was  made  of  dhanum,  Grewia  dlimfolia,  a  tougb 
Btraiglit-grainutd  wood.  A  spare  axle  was  alkays  carried  in  case 
of  accident.  Since  good  roads  have  been  made  the  style  of  carl 
has  much  improvi^d.  The  dhittniii,  thynr*  now  in  ordinary  use, 
costing  from  £3  t^  £3  ft.  [It*.  itO-RfcS^  weighs  ul>out  four,  and 
nrries  from  twelve  to  fourietiu  lHiii|dredweightaj«Tbe  ti-amework  is 
nsnally  of  teak  or  Hv<is,  i>albergia  ujainensis,  with  a  neat  split- 
bamboo  bollom,  and  sides  of  roovablo  slripaftf  strong  bamboo 
malting.  1'be  axle  is  of  iron  and  tlio  wheels  are  four  feet  in 
diameter  with  a  snbittantial  tire.  It  is,  on  the  whole,  very 
Mrviounble  and  wvll  suited  to  its  work.  The  lari^  a  lowbodiod 
cart,  is  chiefly  used  by  metVlants  for  timber  and  bambooe,  and 
occasionally  by  cultivators  for  carrying  chaff.  *_  .  # 

As  in  other  jartw  of  tlie  Prosiilency,  tbero  are,%  the  en*  of  diy, 
jiriyat,  cropd  two  chief  field  seasons,  an  early  or  min  li4pvi>M,  than/,  _ 
and   a  lat«  or  cold   weather  harvest,  rab*.     The  time  of  HOwinff 
depi.-nds,  to  Komo  extent,  on  the  rainfall.     Bnt  generally  the^arqV 
erop  lost-1  frcim  (lie  Iwginuing  of  July  to  the  beginning  of  November, 
and  tJiB  lato  from  September  (o  February.     The  chief  eai^  crops 
are,  of  grain,  hijrl,  jviri,  ra-la,  bhAdU,  and  taea  ;  of  pulse,  lur,  mug, 
udid,  kulitk,  nuilk,  and  chavU ;  of  oilsiMH]«,  wbJto  seviUttvtn,  tU,  and 
the  castor  plant;  of  fibres,  cotton,  brown  hemp,  and  Bombay  hemp;   . 
d  dyes,  a/  and  indigo;  and  of  miscellaneous  crops,  tobacco.     Qf 
ibese,  tnijri,  mug,  udid,  and  chavli  ripon  by  the  end  of  Aogmft,  and 
the  rest  by  the  end  of  November.     The  chief  late  crops  are  wheat, 
gram,  pens,  ixiriaudvrseod,  J<:nriJaiof  both  kinds,  rajgira,  ajvanftatiae 
seed,  inuAtard  seed,  black  seMtDimn,  linsevd,  and  tobacco. 

At  present  the  early  harvest  is  much  the  more  important^  Kvon 
in  the  Tiiptivallcy,  where  cold  weather  crops  osed  to  be  much  grown, 
wheat  and  gram  hare,  since  the  American  war,  to  a  great  extent 
been  displaced  by  cotton. 

Land  i:<i  generally  ploughed  in  December,  soon  after  the  early, 
kKari/i  crops  are  harvesuid,  when  it  is  still  motet  uid  easily  worked. 
B  411-10  * 

Chapter  1J. 


Field  TooU. 



IBnnlMy  Binttw 










As  the»nil(lriw^thoc1od»b(*coiiii;vorjrhanl  snddiffioiilt' 
notiiing  turlhftrl^  <loii«,  till  iifter  netfirly  four  mouths'  exjiosurp  u 
Uie  weathtr,  Uie  lumps  nf  fmrih  Iwcxjuip  bnl|lr,  frial>l         ■    i  ■  ■ 
smootbod  by  the  lioo,  ttolTmr.   In  April  tlwwpl'!  U  w . 
mill  flwtrci!  'if  sliriilm  iwni  woeiJs.     The  field  ia  now    lit 
tUf  Hi'C'ij.     But  tli(-  lime  fur  ^owin^  doM  not.  coiiip  till  thi-  < 
of  July  in  the  case  of  the  ewrly,  hharif,  niw!  of  S?<»ii(Miili«r  iu  i . 
of  th(i  InUi,  rahi,  erupts.     Miwuwhili*,  tlie  huotiaiidniao  is  car 
lci'v{)th<>  llidd  clear  of  weeda,'  aild  looaen  the  earfac-e  bj  pRS»-i 
hoe,  rtfiAtir.  over  it  once  or  twice  n  inontli       '■''      "    '■'■  lut--"  '-w.- 
Bud  tlio  svi'd  iH  miwii,  tliv  citrly  crtipH  m^lduin  i:  vaUir  luo^ 

^tt^uMe.     TUe  lute  cnipn  are  far  less  certain,     tii  .Si  ['iuinb*r,  wlwt 
they  should  be  eowii,  uulesa  (hit  wnl    ia  so  WKiki-ii    thiit  it  rnu  ••■ 
wiirki-d  by  t\w  liiind  into  it  mud  liiill,  the  iteed  is  sown  at  fp\\ 
li  the  ground  is  too  drr  in  September,  aud  if  up  to  th«  liev ' 
of  NoTpmbttr  moro  rain  has  not  folleu,  sowing  Ia  geoentllv 
up.     To  wittuh  tbo  croiM  n  woutlcn  platEorni  is  raised  in  t)i< 
of  the  6eld  or  on  the  branches  of  some  suitable  tn-o.     Tlie  w 
gcnoralty  a  boy,  suuxis  the  birdii  by  itbontuig  and  Klingiug   ix-titUTi 
at  thoin. 

After  tho  crop  hikt  )>een  cut  luid  the  grain  dried,  it  is  car 
the  village  in  carts  and  laid  iu  the  village  rick-yard,  kalavtidi, .; ...,.., 
cloKC  outside  th«  village  wulls,  varii-:*  from  a  amall  eniTloRunt  tn  ■ 
smce  of  two  or  thr»e  acres.  Wlteu  tlie  cr'ipB  have  boon  brought  is, 
the  evoiiest  spot  iKthe  rick-ynrd  is  chosen  for  tho  thnisbiag  tl<n<r, 
kfi'ih.  It  in  spriukli-d  with  wnlitr,  hcalou  witli  wooden  oialliits  'T 
trodden  by  bultoekH'  feet  till  all  cracks  dtiiapixrar,  cowdiin(;(>d,  and 
luft  to  dry.  In  tho  niiddle  of  this  floor  a  strong  six  fivl  hiffh  pal 
in  u-t.  Thi"  floor  ia  thick  strewn  wiIJiKIh)  cnjp  to  be  thi-asbed,  and 
ftpairof  ftuzxlvitbullockit,  driven  round  the  post,  trt*ad  out  ihp 
grain.  Some  crops,  such  as  hemp,  castor  seed,  and  pulse,  parting 
fosily  with  their  seed,  are  ouly  beaten  with  »tii-k«,  aud  in  th«  COM 
*  of  HirHaTiiiiiu,  to  shake  the  dry  ptaut  with  the  band  is  enough  to  set 
^■c  the  m-od. 

To  winnow  the  grain  one  man  ket^ps  filling  Hhallow  ljasket«,  «nji, 
with  uil^unowed  grain,  and  pat^es  Lbeui  to  a  HTond^vho,  stauding 
on  a  high  xtool,  ehahur,  takes  the  foil  haNket  in  his  hand  and  gently 
taltiug  audjAokiug  il,  tho  grain  falls  and  the  husks  aro  blon-n  anaf 
by  tho  wind. 

a  The  p»>ple  understand  and  a])pr(tciatc  the  value  o£  manure.  Bak 
M  minpnU  and  other  imported  lerliliner^  are  too  dear  for  ordinate 
crops,  the  hnsbandumn's  ouly  resource  is  the  scanty  and  poor  prudnn 
of  nig  fanu-yard.  The  biL-iis  of  good  farm-jiirtl  itinnnre  is  stniw, 
onrii'tu^d  by  tho  droippings  and  urine  of  hornet)  cattle  aud  other  live 
stock.  In  India,  iih  xtniw  is  valuable  fodder,  and  as  OMtlle  do 
not  roiiuiru  bedding  for  warmth,  no  litter  iit  need  and  the  nriuo  w 

'  WoHt  of  vnriomi  kindi  giVD  th*  rnltivatov  niiii!h  traulite.  Bonilca  wrcnl  otfaw 
gniMce  maeh  am  llic  harti,  drnjii,  Ukitt-yr,  hatri,  »nd  fowbr,  tlMf  Jtvnrfu  dtmrva,  (fiwcU 
luMiM.  It*  loqg  to«u|li  rpota  •anii^Uiiiiw  IhiiiI  tb»  toU  •«  IliilUr  tluU  it  at«9«  tb 
pkmgti  M»d  hM  to  iM^oacnecl  witti  ik  iikknxc. 


IcMt.  Pun-;  i«  gntltvrud  for  manaro  only  duntiff  th*  seven  mnntlM 
belwcou  April  imrl  l>t!cci»i>or.  During  thv  roni  itf  the  yixirVt  is  otnde 
into  flat  cucea  about  a  jftpt  in  diaiuet«r,  dried,  utui  Miu'kod  fur  fn«l, 
Tli<>n};imMitishc)i  nrc  n«<^  iw  tnanurv,  much,  tmmt  as  fuel,  or  &u4>ar»d 
on  ho44l  Boon  and  waILt,  ih  IuhI  to  the.  j^)uqiI.  Ti  u  <-4tiii)iit«d  that 
kfter  Betting,'  aaido  what  is  wanted  forothor  purposeti,  an  oniiniiryivn 
Bcnt  holding,  wilh  u  piiir  of  {)t>>titrh  t>MllwKs,  a  niilch  buffalo,  and 
jper)ui{ig  a  siecr,  would  yearly  yield  miuiiirx!  <'iiiiii;^h  fur  h  ijuttrtcr  o£ 
ui  acre,  that  is  the  cultivator  would  be  able  to  manure  hU  land  only 
»nee  in  forty  yenrn.  In  Iiirgu  towns,  besides  his  hom«  supply,  tho 
taHbandaian  can  buy  from  Vanjiiris,  GavlU,  and  other  Mitl]o-k(vp«n9, 
or  21.  (Re.  I),  from  2  tons  8c«'t8,  to3  tons  f2  cwts.  of  the  letter,  unt^ 
jrwm  4i  to  7  tons  of  ths  pfXH^-r  manuiv.'  Fields  aro  also,  to  some 
JXtent,  euriehfd  by  huraiufr  weeds  and  stubble,  ntid  by  hiring 
ihcpherds  to  keep  their  flocks  in  them  for  a  certain  unmber  of  day*. 
So  longas  thw  coiitntcl  lasfs,  llm  ctittivntor  fwds  Ihc  nhvpfaerd  and 
niters  hts  flock,  Indiifo  refuse  and  guauo  are  uftod  an  fi-rtiltnem 
or  tobacco  and  ca«tor-Beod  rofime  for  plantain  trees.  Xight-soil  wa» 
OTRterly  nt^vor  UMtd,  iHitnuw,  well  niixtKl  with  rnbbish  nnd  other 
nanures,  it  is  freely  taken  in  aome  places,  and  is  so  highly  valued 
MiR-ciitlty  for  »uf/<ircane,  tobat'oo,  and  other  rich  crops,  as  to  be 
reueralty  known  n.i  toukhat,  thiit  in,  manure  worth  its  weight  in  jiTuId. 
tti  neu  entHiIs  much  waterinj^,  and  it  ia  nut  jGt  Bysteuatically 
>ri'pftred  iti  any  part  of  the  district. 

Dry-crop  land  should  be  manured  eveiT  third  year.  Alillt^  and 
lottoD  require  twenty,  and  wheat,  liusoed,  and  gram  twenty-foar 
rarl'loads  thu  aero.  In  gnnlon  laudn  Nutfun-ane  an<l  rico  yearly 
eijnire  from  125  to  WO,  and  tobttcco,  earlbnut,  and    i;hilUes  from 

0  to  100  cnrt-loailn  th^^  fw^m.  Wat^nnl  |/;trdi>u  laud  ttoon  bxtrai 
trenjrth  if  not  manured  every  second  yirar.  LSnd  thA  has  tonjf 
nui  fallow  is  said  not  to  waul  miinurt!  until  afu;r  four, years  iif 
roppiujg.  Thft  wealthier  classes  are  alone  able  to  manure  theii* 
olds  properly,  the  rest  use  only  as  much  aa  they  cuti  coUot't  from  ' 
hvir  own  cattto. 

The  *-aIur  of  ii  chaiip*  of  civipa  is  well  known.  But  the  order  of 
han^  df]>i^ud»  a^  much  on  the  market  as  on  any  rule  of  Mii^^ssion. 
'h(i  iisuul  pnw^lice  is  in  fresh  black  soil  lo  grow  Heititiuuui,  tU,  firnt, 
ind  then  Indian  mitlot,  and  in  fresh  lijfliht  tioil  to  KTOwHuiilet,  bajri, 
ind  then  cotton.  From  drv-crop  land  in  rvgtilar  work  oidy  oite 
rop  a  ynar  is  gonorally  taWn.  The  order  is,  Indian  uullot  thff  ' 
ret,  cotton  ihu  socond,  and  fur  or  some  cold  weather  crop  the 
hir«I  yr-ar.     In  t^rdon  land  ric«  conws  firnt,  then  Bugnrcanc,  and 

1  the  third  y«ir  two  cmps,  Ke*amiim  and  pram,  or  wheat  and  peas, 
'hf  order  of  cban^  in  the  chief  cold  went  her,  rnW,  cro])*  is  gram 
:>r  the  lirst  yvvx,  whimt  fur  the  second,  and  )in»oed  for  the  third. 

A  veiy  common  practice,  except  in  Niuidiirb&r,  is  to  now  a  mixture 
f  ae«()tt  at  the  ttamo  time  and  in  the  aamo  furrow.  The  following 
iblo  shows  the  favourito  mixture  per  acre  of  land; 

.*rl-kd^*<>f  alioii)  l^owt*.  omIi.     Tlie   priao 
M  in  1639,  when  tbo  noi^y  wa«  gevtra,  it 

onlil  BOem  of  Utc  fouv  ^   — '   .-n..!!. 
■a  oaly  £  swti.  (8  mmw)  (or  S*.  (ho.  IJ. 











[Boubar  0«i 


Mil  Ian. 

















n»  .. 








M*a  - 








n'heat  and  litiMHtd  wlut  tbe  belt  laad,  while  millet  ^iro^s  in 
poorer  HuiU.     Iti  dr3r,/tr<tyaf,  land  a  second  crop  can  be   liiul  oi 
aft«r  millet  and  seBamum,  when  ll>e  yield  is  little  leso  than  ti  i 
field  had  bc«D  fallow.     But  ihia  is  n  hoary  droin  on  Uic   soil 
oaaDot  aalely  be  often  repeated.     Id  the  nek  TApti   anil   Gil 
plains,  aa  it  leavea  the  land  idle  for  nparly  eli>voQ  monthv,  i 
practice  is  to  take  an  early  crop  one  year  and  a  Latn  cmp  the 
Id  garden,  ba^d^at,  land,  except  sugarcane,  plantain,  g^ugw, 
bet^  leaf  plantations  which  require  one  full  year  tu  grutv  and 
firmt,  a  sooond  crop  u  generally  grown  e«pecially  after  rice,  i 
pidse,  and  other  two  and  a  half  mooth  oops. 

Except  where  land  is  plentiful  and  the  oultirator  can   throw 
one  field  and  take  np  another,  fallows  are  little  known. 

The  following  is  an  estimate  of  a  iaix  outturn  of  the  staple 
from  two  acred  of  land,  one  paying  a  rent  of  3«.  (Re.  1  as.  8) 
the  other  of  6>.  (Ra.  3) : 

a«.                      1 








IndiKB  millM 









«  >.  A 

a  la  0 
»  1«  • 

0     •    0 

«   14  a 
a  u  0 
a   II   ■ 



»    t    d 

IIS   » 

1  a  * 

1  a  a 

a  M  a 
1   i  a 

A  rode  huobandry,  knownas^M'ior  ^mri,  was  formerly  practil 
on  a  large  scale  in  the  outlying  and  western  parts  of  tW  diatr 
A.  patch  of  bmshwood  was  cleared  by  burning,  and  jast  aft«r 
first  monsoon  ahowera,  rdg\  and  other  ooarse  grains,  and  sometii 
hdjri  were  sown  cither  in  regular  lines   op   broadcast.     The   sti, 
£orcst  rules  introduced  within  the  last  few  years  hare  greatly  redac 
tbe  area  under  this  style  of  tillage.     It  continues  to  some  oxtent] 
Pimpalncr  and  Taloda. 

The  following  list  shows  the  cereals  aad  other  cnltiTated 
in  <»^er  of  importance  : 







aeUud  lUIlM    ...        .    IWeOlitM  >i>iuu 
WliMl  ...        ~    TtUkm  niUruin 

Kl«         J  Orn>«llTB      ... 

Ibia  «  Xuau»  Cam  ~.'  &•  ruya  . 

hnUuiu  wlonua 
ttallu  HUM  "      ' 


PAA*o»ni  nilll4<«qin 


SU  or  lUt. 

,  rtri. 




.  Indinn  Millet,  jvdri.  Sorghum  vulgare,  with,  iti  1878-79, 
ilkge  area  of  587,995  uorps,  i«  nn  early,  Ickarif,  cmp  stown 
ffeentheolliotJuDe  {ntWjf  MdAvArtifrt)  amlthcoth  of  July  (lii^iru 
thaira).  Tli«re  are  three  varieties  of  ^'riii-t,  nilvt,  nirnwli,  and 
71".  The  ni/ea  is  a  superior  variety  thriving  only  in  rich  ilampAoilN. 
I  rrain  ia  largo  and  the  flnur  whili;  luid  swoot.  The  stalka,  kadln, 
mng  alwiU  twelve  feet  hijL^h,  are  soft  and  vanily  clitiwed  and 
a  iTiavourite  food  for  cattle.  Thu  Hirmali,  nKjuii-ing  hiil  liule 
I,  growB  oasily  iu  niont  »oi]»  and  u  f^uorully  cultivated.  The 
in  i«  Mmoller  than  the  titca,  and  though  of  a  very  good  eolonr, 
lot  BO  sweet.  The  kiuUn  tx  very  liara,  annonriahinj^,  and  not 
dily  ontvn  by  <'imle.  The  thiiil  variety  ffunti  is  much  iuforior. 
)  grain  in  venr  small  and  neither  ^o  palatable  nor  so  nourishing iM 

others.  It  is  gnL>wn  only  on  infonor  soils  together  with  tHijri. 
i  kadhi  is  liked  by  cattle,  an  the  ^talki*  an>  small  and  thin. 
H  in  the  Grat  crop  of  the  eeason,  mncb  rare  is  tak^n  to  ohootte  a 
Icy  time,  Muhtirt,  for  xowitig  Indian  millet.     This;  is  tised  from 

oimimtui,  panckiing,  by  the  village  JoBlii,  wko^iu  tvturn,  i»  at 
Teat  time  paid  a  few  hitiidfuls  of  grain  by  each  cultivator.     To 
Tent  it«  running  Ki  straw,  ^r^rt  muat  be   sown  nri  u  firm  bed. 
»  field  i.H  not  ploughed,  only  hoed  and  broken  a  fnw  incbot)  dcon.  > 
mediately  after    DivuU  (OctolKtr-N'uvomber)    the  crop  is  ready 

horvcirt.  \ahI  by  ihe  head  of  tho  vilhige,  the  men  cut  over  the 
oa  about  two  feet  from  the  ground,  letting  the  cut  vtalks  lio 
9ning  for  a  day  or  two.  Then  womon  come  and  cut  off  the  heads 
m  the  stalks,  and  after  the  women,  the  binders  Uv  the  stalks, 
|/i»,  into  nmall  abeavea,  pendis.  The  daily  rates  paiJ  to  harvest 
ourera  are,  for  tlte  reaix-rs,  two  liaHkelx,  nnvri,  of  ©are  and  five 
th«  largeift  oarii  they  can  choose,  hAth  hin*i ;  for  the  I)end-lop]>ciw  * 
!  basket  of  ears  ;  and  for  the  binders,  who  may  glean  what  they 
L  find,  fi^  (i  nnna)  for  a  hundred  sheavw.  Tlw  niwi  of  the  basket, 
jrt,  tjt  fixed  by  the  headman  and  varies  with  the  price  of  grain. 
B  average  acre  outturn  of  Indian  millet  is  about  500  pound*. 
lian  millet  is  thft  people's  staple  food,  not  ao  much  bocnuso  of  its 
tt{HKs>,  as  because  it  is  piilatable  without  the  butter  and  olhor 
tly  ingrodivntw  roriuiniil  by  millet  or  whi^at.  At  the  same  tima 
a  considered  very  cold,  ihand,  and  especially  during  the  nuuy 
iSOD,  is  believed  to  cauM)  bowel  complaints. 

i.     spiked  Millet,  hdjri,  PctiidlUria  sjpicata,  of  only  one  kind, 
h,  in  1878.79,  a  tiUagu  area  of  700,635  acres,  ia  a  iioer  gain 

Indian  MUkl. 

Spilmt  itUbt.] 



tBomlwr  > 



than  j'tiifi,  and  rMjiiiros  more  cantfnl  tillage.     At  iho  same  limo  H ! 
oom  suflicioiitly  Taluabtc  rro]!  In  ho  gron^ii  in  irrijinU'd  land.      It 
Kown  ftlxiut  tbi'  luttor  linlf  of  Aufj^UMl  Ipuiutn-atv  n'lhukalrn), 
reaped  ab««t  tlie  Ixtgiuuin^  ot  October  (Itatta  to  eliUru  naUnhalT 
Tbo  aversfre  acre  ootlum  is  from  3)>0  to  'lOO  poviiils.      Taken 
butter  and  other  condintcnta  it  forma  tlie   favoiirito  (wod  of 

3.  Wlieat,    gahu,  Trilinim  (c■i^ti^^lm,  of  many  kinds,   wHtli, 
1878-79,  a   tt]ltt|i^  area   uf   irj.>,08J(  acres,  is   (fixiwa  ail  ovw  t) 
district   as   a   cold   weather  cnip.      The  cliief  Tarieties  ane  jn 
hantl'i  or  fMluhi,  yellowish,  Iiu'kv,  full,  Hott,  nod  block    bear' 

■gmvTD  Duly  nu  tlic-  ^>K^t  irrigated  soil ;  vicla  potta  or  rotiiV,  ysDd 
short,  and  thick ;  idt  poUa  or  faife,  inferior,  red,  ban!,  ana  poii: ' 
htrad,    inferior,    redtUich,    and    ipouit^timuft    i:1iriiiikcn ;    tind  </a 
yvlliiwiab  and  ratlier  full.     These  vary  from  the  (lujiuiiti  vari<'(to»l 
name  and  apparently  aUo  in  quality.     BansAt,  requiring  tnucb 
uud  labour,  i.-'  not  n  fiivonrito  crop.     Pivln  pi-tM  <ir  viinjr-,  on  acccic 
of  its  inferiority,  and  l>ocanso  it  can  be  rsiwd  only  on  irrijfaKfl  lai; 
ia  very  little  grown.     At  tbe  same  time  it  has  the  valuable  pn'{>fi 
ol  taking  very  little  out  of  1h«  noil,  and  is  gonerwily  sown  n»  a  secoi 
dvtota,   crop  in  garden  land.     It  is  Bonietiniea  grown  on  s 
depoeitH  in  toe  beoa  of  running  Ktre-ams,  where,  to  entire  a  good  i 
mannre  i»  K-witvd.    Katu,  it  hardier  variety,  grown  iu  |>lHln^^  soil  an 
requiring  less  care  than  bauthi,  ia  more  fj^nerally  cnttirated.      Fi 
the    heat   tht-y    irivo  out,    whoat'    wbloni  gniws  within    two    niU 
of  trap  hilts.     What  suits  it  be§t  is  the  deep  blai-k  alluTiiU 
of  the  T^pti    valley,  with  a  snIiHoil  of  yellow  earth,  ntii»,    or 
(•ighty  or  ninely  feet  mithont  rock  or  grave!.     IVfon;  sowing  wil 
wlie<al,  the  gntund  is  never  ploughed,  only  three  or  four  timtut  In 
open  with  the  bAe  to  the  sun,  rain,  and  wind.     If  tho  ground  ia  : 
diunp  that   tlut  c^ny  nticks  in   trails.  Rowing  beffina  in  (Jctobor  i 
NoToinbor,    and  in  some   of  the   Tfipt.i    valley   districts  aa  early  i 
Septeinlwr.    Tho  allowance  of  sw<l  i»  from  fnrty-firo  to  seventy-fii 
pounds  iiu  acre.     A  shower  or  two  when  tho  cmp  if  shooting  is  usefd 
though  by  no  meaiw  noovswury.     With  cool  seasonable  weather  and 
lieavy  dew»,  wheal  flouriehea   witbont   min.     It  somtUitnus  sulfe 
from  frost  and  sonn-tiiDcs  from  a  blight  known  as  nuk  and 
The  crop  ripi^ns  in  fivo  months,  .tonie  time  luitweon  the  middle  < 
February  and  tbe  middle  of  Maivb.     The  acre  outturn  is  usi 
said  to  be  about  itUO  pounds.     But  fields   near  the  Oovertime 
farm  luivo  Ih'i-'U  found  to  yield  ov«r  900  pounds,  nad  in  wutensl 
well  inamired  land  the  harvest  is  still  greater.   Ksoept  on  feast  dayi 
cspcciidly  HoU  (February -March)  ana  Divalt  (October- No veml 
when  even  the  nuori'st   Hindus  eat  it,  wheat  is  not  largely  iik 
In   187lj  the  yearly  consumption  was  eBtimated  to  vary  from  ei| 
pounds  a  lii^ad  in  JAinnor  to  oighty-vight  pound:*  in  Dhnlio,  nnc 
amount  for  tbe  whole  dintrict  to  aboot  1 7,259  tons  (4{J3,2C2  tnar 
Mnoh  whilst  iti  sent  to  Bombay.     At  the  same  time   considerat 
qoantities  are  brought  from  the  Centra!  Proi-inocH,  and    Holb 
and  the  Kiz&n's  domintoaa. 

4.  Bice,   hhdt,  Orj-ni  sativa,  with,  in   1878.79,  a  lilluge  area  of 
34^39  acres,  is  grown  only   to  a  limited  extent  and  always  unde 


igation.     It  is   sown  io   Jane  aud   reaped   in   Septombor  nnd 
ttibor.     Tliu  sirivw  it)  uf  much  riilnii  as  n  fcxWor  fur  iin.kintl»of 

working  cattle.     The  acre  outturn  of  ^raiu  vurw^  fnmi  1000  to  1200 


f>.  Indinti  Corn,  mahkn,  Zc-n  mays,  sown  in  Juno  and  July  nad 
re<ap«d  iu  September  and  C^ctobor,  in  little  grrtvn  and  not  at  all  tor 
tbn  Hnkc  of  the  grain.  The  hcada,  but'i»,  are  cut  aa  hood  im  tlie 
gRiiuK  «re  fuJI^-  dcvolopod,  nnd  bcfort'  thoy  have  begun  to  harden. 
Iliey  may  be  eaten  raw,  biil  are  umiitlly  rmuited  iu  hot  wood-ai(h<!«. 

6,  7,  8,  9,  and  10.  These  graioa  are  io  all  cases  aown  sparingly, 
only  eiumgh  for  home  oonsnmption.  Sown,nb"iul  the  6lh  of  Juno, 
tliey  are  harventvd  nlfttut  the  cad  uf  July,  and  tire  prepared  for  omo 
in  much  the  same  way  as  rice. 

Cliaptw  W. 

loJioM  I 




TEaa  iim^t. 






('■.'koaa  InllaD.,. 




I'iflUm  VlliTIIB 




ibufofm  onfo 




I^«an>)in  raOUMi 



Bun«  Oiwo 

DalhtuH  kHoriu 


RMioy  Bas     ... 

riiUSDla*  KDUlUKdldi. 



taMniiali«dD»1tiii(H  . 

VlfDft  caCtsng 



t-tyUa     .. 

Nmin  )•*•        


11.  Gram,  harbhara,  Ciour  nrietinnm,  of  sereral  kinds  and 
colours,  with,  in  1878-79,  a  tillage  an^ii  of  39,155  acres,  is  much 
m^wn.  It.  lit  a  cold  wealhcr  crop,  freiieraily  aowu  iu  October  and 
Kovomber,  in  gronuil  on  wbiHi  milhtl  or  wmo  other  early  crop  htm 
been  raided,  and  reapiil  fivtui  ftibruary  to  ilarch.  aAa  it  takes  rery 
little  out  of  the  noil  aud  chei^ks  weeds,  gram  is  grown  more  to  clwir 
tite  grwiind  thau  for  nnifit,  the  return  Keldom  mom  than  covering 
the  o»stof  tillage.  W  hen  the  ground  is  properly  p«?|,  it  grows 
very  frwly,  with  an  average  acre  yield  of  abont  500  poundH.  Tho 
cru^KC  would  be  much  iniprnved  if,  us  in  other  parts  of  the  Deecaii, 
the  practice  of  flipping  Huperiluous  learoa  wasVlupk'd.  It  is  a 
rancn-Taltietl  food  for  horsea,  and  is  eaten  br  men  either  |nirch«d.  or 
aplit,  and  xoaked.  Undur  Uio  name  of  fi<irlkari  ddl  it  is  boiled  aud 
highly  seasoned. 

12.  Tifj-,  Cajnniia  iudicus,  with,  in  1 878- 79,8  tillage  area  of  29,fi27 
ncTci,  ix  f'>vvii  in  alternate  lines  with  (Mtlon  and  other  enrl/ 
criijiCT,  iindvitldg  a  pood  yollow '/a/,  only  a  little  inferior  tognunifd/. 
The  avei-nge  aero  onttuni  ia  about  340  pounds.  Prom  the  stem  a 
very  ttsefid  clutrcoal  is  made. 

13.  Peas,  vdtdna,  Pisum  eatirnm,  with,  in  1878-79,  a  tillage 
area  of  2^79  acres,  are  grown  Va  some  extent  m  •  lato  orop, 
chiefly  by  flock- breeders  for  their  valuable  straw,  haium.  They 
ant  Howu  iu  October  and  XoTomber,  and  reaped  in  February  and 

14.  U^id,  PbawioluB  mnngo,  with,  in  1878-70,  a  tillage  area  of 
2379  auruf,  a  losa  valuable  wplit  peu  tluin  fur  or  gnkm,  is  oonBidtfred 


«  Tvf 


-  -■ 

-'        '  I"  '  ■-■ 




tfioDib*y  Oi 

Chapter  IV. 







tlie  moat  btteoing  grain   for  bomod  cnttlc,  and  bears  a 
etmfi  iiiai:kt.'t  ralue  as  finim.     It  is  nevor  grovm  alone,  bnt   al 
nnder  Homo  toll  plant  sacb  as  fur  or  cotton.     It  is  also  mixed 
a  small  proportion  of  jMri  and  as  mocli  nmWtft  as  will  yis. 
cultivator  one  year's  supj)ly  of  ropes  and  strings. 

15.  Mug,  PhawoluB  radiatus,  U  aparinglj  grown. 

16,  17,  18,  and  19,  are  jfrowm  only  to  a  small  extent.     16,  &«. 
Dolichoa  l>i(lora»,  i»  hy  many  prvforrad  to  gram  for  feeding  ho: 







llM«nain  tadlemB 



L1llM«<1    ._> 

T.lniim  naltAtlfeatihiiffA 

4f>k  or  JiiHw. 



Ar«4ii>  lij-iuiE** 

iW  ><■■*. 


SKfflovnr. .         .„        ... 

C  iTilum  im  dnrborln* 



tmrvn  llfinp    ■.«        ... 

HIMvnt  nu>i»lilnu  .. 



OMiir  Flwit     

BJoUiBi  eoainaaia      ... 



HiiiUrI    .        



nt^ix  xut     I!!     !! 



so.  S««aTnuni,  It',  Spsamum  indicum,  whose  seeds 
gingelly  nil  of  commorcv,  hnil,  in  IB78-7fl,  a  tillagv  area  of 
tunva.  It  is  tfown  in  June  and  harreeted  in  SepC«m1>rT,  and  ) 
an  areragv  ncro  Ti«M  of  from  300  to  380  pounds.  It  hoH  ondl 
vnri'-tifslcnown  by  tlinir  folmir,  llio  Mliwloit  puling  ftom  dull  hlj 
Ihrouph  lirown  to  tbi'  puresi  wiiit«.  Iii  KMndesh  nil  rbo»<>  varie( 
Bomotimea  grow  togfthor  j-inldinp  seed  known  in  trade  as  niixod  j 
Wliite  1)7,  also  t;alli>d  tili  in  Khnmiosh,  commnud)-  tbe  hif;be8t  pi 
in  the  Bombay  nmrlcol.  it  is  mucb  used  ia  confections  and 
fiometiinos  eaten  raw.  Pressed  in  the  ordinary  woctden  millJ 
«eod  yields  al>oift  forty  per  cent  of  oil,  and  abont  ten  per  oentu 
nnder  hydraulic  prtwsuro.  Tit  oil  i«>  in  general  use  in  Kli&ndesbl 
oookiog  and  otV^r  house  purposes. 

21.  Linxoed,  a/sAi,  Liuum  usitatissimum,  a  widely  grown  cr 
with,  in  1878-79,  n  tillage  urea  of  31,357  acnn,  is  sown  in  OokJ 
and  ri]>ens  towards  the  end  of  January.  'ITio  avemgo  acre  jri 
is  from  SI60  to  280  pounds.  The  cultivation  is  steadily  spread] 
owing  to  the  Bombay  demiiii<l.  It  forinii  one  of  the  principal  4 
most  valuable  exports.  Deep  loamy  noil:*  seem  parlKulnrly  « 
fniited  to  the  growth  of  the  plant.  The  seed  is  bouglii  wboles 
Jjy  wealthy  merchants  from  the  cultivators.  Sometime*  j 
husbandman  receives  fn)m  the  merchant  advances  of  monev  for  aa 
on  condition  that  he  makes  over  to  liim  the  prddnce  of  his  Qel^ 
a  certain  rate.  The  plant  is  too  short  and  branchy  to  yield  fi' 
of  any  value.  It  is  never  prepared,  and  many  hnsbandmein 
ignorant  of  the  fact  that  the  plant  yields  fibre  Ah  nearly  Iho  wi 
of  the  seed  is  exported,  little  oil  is  pressed  in  the  district. 

22.  Earthnut,  hhuimiig,  Arachis   h^'poga^,   is  to   some  e: 
grown  a»  an  early  crop  in  lighl  Mtndy  soils.     As  a  rulu  the  roi 
seeds  are  eaten,  especially  on  fast,  days,  but  in  yean  of  plenty 
suiplus  is  sent  to  the  oil  pres^.   The  yield  of  oil  Ls  about  forty  per  c^ 
and  the  cake  ii»  valuable  as  cattle  food.     The  oil  is  used  for  cO' 



23.  Safflower,  kardai  or  ktummba,  Ciirtbamiu  tinclorias,  is  a  cold 
reatWr  crop  sown  in  Uctotieraiid  N'ovember.  The  pure  oil  is  seldom 
ffen'd  (or  shIw.     Though  i(  Iow^tn  llio  quulily  of  tho  oti,  tb«  outturn 

generally  iuci-eased  by  uiixiug  ita  aideiia  vriib  jpng^Ily  seed. 

24.  Brown  Uump,  amhadi,  Hibisctis  cannabiniw,  an  early  crop, 
sown  ia  J»n«  un<l   n^a(MHl  in  Octolfor.     The  oil  tliougli  voanw  is 

•ooA  for  burning  and  machinery.  But  the  yield  is  so  small,  fifteen 
I  tw(-»ry  pvr  UL-nt,  that  iu  spito  of  tlio  chuupRo«»  of  tli«  ttaed  ib  in 
eldom  crnalted. 

25.  Caator  Plants  eraHtii,  Ricinan  ■conirauDis,  an  early  crop  sown 
Juno  luid  rwtjMxi  botwcvn  thw  iniddlci  of  Soptembor  and  Octolwr, 

in  most  paHd  of  KhiiadoHh  two  viu-ii>ti4>/,  oiw  annual  lUid  amall 
vedcd,  tht'  other  poronnial  and  tree-like  with  largo  si>ods.  Of  the 
aator  trt^  thtrru  are  many  surli",  which,  wiiuling  niuob  walor,  lire 
ominouly  planted  ou  tbn  bounduriuH  uud  aloug  the  leading  water 
hauui'l-s  of  Mujmrcano  plantationa.  The  castor  plant  is  grown  as 
ordinary  cold  wcatktrr  tii.'lil  errfp.  To  rxlract  tliu  oil,  ibo  iieada 
'  roaatvil,  f^oand  in  a  handntill,  and  boiled  over  a  alow  fire,  the 
il  bein^  carefully  skimmixl  as  it  risea  to  tho  Burfavu.  The  rcfnao 
orma  an  excellent  manure  for  plautaiu  trees,  and  the  stems  are 
iteful  in  thiitchiug  roofs. 

26.  MuKlard.  ino^ri,  SinapisraceimoBs,  except  when  wanted  aa 
medicine,  ia  couinionly  grown  nuxod  with  liuseod  and  wheat. 

27.  Molia,  Baasia  latifoUa,  is  a  foreat  tree  whose  borrioH  yinld 
D  oil  used  for  bumin;^  by  Bhils  and  other  wild  tribes  es{XK;ialty 
long  the  Sjitpuda  Uillw.  It  >»  also  nwxl  in  making  countrr  aoap. 
>uriiig  till'   bo!  weather,  the  Bhila  gather  the  thick  Rciiby  flnwera, 

some  eitc-ni.  ntoring  iJiem  for  food,  bub  mainly  diatilbng  &om 
ihcu  u  coarse  alcohol.  * 

38-  Pbjritic  Nut,  chandrajol,  Jathropba  cnrcas,  ts  Connd  in  almost 
very  stream  bed  and  plot  of  waslit  ground.  As  mttings  readily 
aku  root,  the  plant  is  often  used  as  a  frame  work  for  feuces.  Thd 
lit  ts  Dseful  in  I'^im-n  of  rhectmatiam  and  bums  well : 

KMuda*  Itbrt  PianU. 








Siwira  Hasr    ■. 
taalt»f  Bttap  ~. 

On^fftm  bala«aiii.. 


Chapt«r  IV. 


29.     Cotton,'  kapm.  Gossypinm  berbacemn,  with,  in  1878-79,  a 

IlBgearoa  of  odO,70S  acres,  has  long  boon  one  of  the  chief  KlutDduitb 

Tops.     The  local  cotton,   known  as  Varh^i  or  Berar,  is  said  to 

.re  come  throogh  &[iUwa.     It  is  shori-stapled,  harsh  and  brittle, 

id  baa  lately  been  targely  snpplanted  by  two  foreign  varietaes, 

>  Cimtrilmt«l  1>y  Ur.  B.  U.  OfbK  CoUoe  [npKtot  EbtedMh. 
B  411-30 

/■Ays'c  .V«(. 


[Bombar  Chui 



Qupur  IT. 



Hinfranghili  of  two  kincU,  banni  and  j^,*  from  the  C 
ProTiDeea,  •nd  Dhinrvilr  (ir«ccliin»list-<i  New  OHiiuik  from  DU 
Thr  DluirwAr  foand  cbieflj  in  lUe  Jamoer,  I'At-hora,  ChdtH 
and  Amaln^r  Euh-divisiuni(,  is  Mlif^litly  lon^r  in  »Ui|>l(>  bm 
wtnkor  tliiin  tW  Hini^iiii^liAi,  wkicb,  if  wt:l)  nic^&d  nnd  ck 
Fotclies  a  higher  prii-w.  DhirwAr  cotton,  with  lar^^r  and 
pods,  is  the  moro  nwily  jiii-lci'd.  Ik-iiig  (^hnw-jxiddui]  it  can  ti 
picked  ck«ner  thaa  UiDgaBj^hfit,  but  from  its  lax^>r 
clingiog  aeeda,  it  is  moru  itpt  to  be  stained  in  ginning-. 

Cotton  gTOvm  both  in  lilack.  and  li^hl  miilit.  It  im  kcW 
in  tbe  same  tield  oftener  than  once  in  llu-oe  jrears,  ike  inti 
crops  Wing  wheat  aW  millot.  With  n  mudt^mto 
black  Koil  crop,  and  with  a  beayv  rainfall  tbe  li^lit 
is  tlie  better.  There  is  no  special  ploughing  of  tbe 
cotton.  After  ibv  tirMt  or  wrand  rainfall  the  heavj'  boo.  vaH 
pnsiwd  over  the  field  to  loosen  and  clean  it.  Manore  utm 
laid  down  imiiicdialvly  bvfore  sovring,  n»  the  ciilivos  bold  tl 
abdiild  be  in  the  gn>uiid  a  year  before  tbe  seed  in  s<)wn. 

The  Boeds  of  the  Dhilrwnr  find  ihc  two  kindit  of  Hingang-bat 
coosidembiy  front  eat-h  other.  Tbe  Uhilrw&r  is  larfj^i-,  ai)<^lai 
has  an  under-coating  of  down,  and  of  the  Hinf^angiutiH, 
both  are  small  and  round,  ibe  iiantii  in  Mnootb  and  thr Jeri  wbil 
downy.  Bffure  iiowiug,  to  separate  tbe  seeds  and  fret'  tbcm 
wool,  ihey  are  nibW-d  by  the  iiaad  or  on  a  fniuie  with  dfj 
earth  or  cowdung,  plungud  into  mtiddy  wilier,  and  n^fain  n 
with  wood  ashes.  Tbe  sowing  drill,  duan,  is  an  cight-cor 
wooden  i^ljndor  about  throe  wet  long.  To  it  arc  fixed  a  p 
which  the  bullocks  are  joked,  and  at  a  ocinvenienl  anglo  two  ooi 
about  six  inches  from  each  end  of  tbe  block,  the  Lallod 
driven  by  a  mab,  and  nbotit  1 }  jranU  behind  eaich  coulter  wa 
woman  pouring  tho  Mvdd  through  bamboo  tabes  fast en^-i]  with 
behind  tho  coulters.  The  depth  at  wbioh  the  need  in  xown  is  rrgi 
hy  n  mOTablo  uolcfaed  piece  of  wood  attached  to  the  loware 
the  tubes.  Fromtento  twelve  pounds  ('5-6 aAcn)  of  scodarH 
to  tbe  acre.  The  time  for  mowing  iit  according  to  tbv  raiufal 
end  of  June  or  the  beginning  of  JtJy.  When  tbe  plant  ia  fonrc 
inches  high  the  nnuill  hoe,  ituf/ici,  and  agiiinwheu  it  ta  ^Dot 
to  ten  inches  high  tbe  large  hoe,  eakkar,  is  passed  between  the 
The  narrow  stnp  of  ground  on  each  sido  of  the  pbmt  is  wend 

Cotton-picking  goes  on  from  tbe  middle  of  October  to  the  m 
of  January,  Iho  crop  ripening  noon  in  dry  and  late  in  wet  SM 
There  are  t  wo  or  three  pickings  before  all  tbe  cottoa  is  set 
Tbe  avcmgo  proportion  of  clean  to  seed  cotton  nt  as  one  to  I 
Seed  cotton,  fallen  on  the  ground,  coulaiua  a  certain  amount  ol 
which  ia  partially  removod  by  beating  it  on  tlie  jhnnji  or  Ihi 
bamboo  or  ootton-slulk  wicker-work  frame.  The  followin( 
Hr.  Stormont's  estimates  of  the  profit  of  cotton  cultivation  : 

'  BoMii  u  carliM'  vnriety  bu  good  >ta]it«,  bnt  u  vwy  U*Sy  :  yri,  uotniag  Ut  I 
alraut  ■  mootli  or  bU  wmu  U/Ua,  u  wliitcr  sad  Uoot  mat  leaf,  but  of  po^ncj 


■  tS(      »    »    4  \a      I 

r  0  «    »  V  *(I^) 
«u  s  •  e  f,\i't 

•  I 
"  7 

0    I 

t  1.4.  e  :  4.t 
«  tpnuill  «  T 
0  t  0,  0  14  i«ll  R 
B  »  n  0  II  I*  It  I 
t  1  «  •  U  !•  0  I 
"  ' 

Thu  cotton  crop  is  usually  morlgnLtHl  t(»tha  luonejlcudor  v.-ho 
receit'es  it  iu  tlio  mw  ur  tiugiminU  ntato,  and  ffivei  back  to  th» 
iDltirntor  sQcb  swd  aa  tic  rosy  want  for  Fuvdiiig  liis  cabUo  and  for 
iOwinif.  As  oiifh  p<illii  {'Zfii  pouiidti)  of  Mutd  amrtgngcif  u  vuta 
(80  pcuiids)  of  thii  UKXt  yt-ar'M  oitton,  Uie  cultivator  p»ya  &oin  two 
tu  tlireo  huudred  pc-r  cout  on  tlio  ralu(^  of  tl)0  iiOpd. 

Diiriai^  tUo  ln«t  HftT  yourx  Govcrnroeot  hare  attempted,  bjr 
rorinfT  the  staple  aad  by  stopping  adultcratiou,  to  enhance  the 
ue  of  tChandesli  I'otton. 

In  Ausrusi  1831,  Mr.  Boyd   the  Culloctor   bought  from  JtloOO  to 

E2000   worth  of  coit'On,  paving    something  over  the    market  rata 

for   midi  ui  1TIIS  ciircfiilly  picked.     Ttiv  Iwst   cotton  citmv  from  the 

tiorth-eaat  sub-di  via  ions.     Nest  year    (18112),  (Jovemment    ordvrod 

ifr.  Hoyd  to  ^ve  ercn*  attention  to  the  cnkiralion  and  cleaning  oE 

■cotton.     L80(f(R!t.  8)100)'  worth  of  cotton  wax  lH>ught  bo  4)o  sent  to 

fChina.     On  an-ival  at  i'anrel,  where  it  waa  taken  ou  prti'k  bullocks, 

II  nioHt  of  it  WHS  fonnd   iu  bad  ooudittoii.      A  little  was  cleaned  and 

Bent  to  China,  and  the  rest  was  sold  by  auction  itt  u  li>!iii  of  £62 

(  Hn.  020).     Iu  I  Sii'd,  a  iiuinll  qminlity,  thirty  tons  (8<>5  m-inn),  sent  to 

I  llonibay,  wa.<  by  a  iwntuiillee  uf  native  mi-n^hantM  di^-litroil  iufvrior 

to  Anklearar    and  other  varieties.     In  China  it  fetched  a  price 

equal   to   that   of  &)ir  Dbolera.     Id  thu  same  yimr  (April  1933), 

Mr.  Boyd  uhtainod  aquaulily  of  American,  Kgyplinit,  BourboD,  mad 

Pomamhuco  aeeds  from  the  esperimental  farm  at  Broach.     A.  sample 

of   thf  cotton   produced    from    thin  wwd  w»s,   in  Fobmary    1835, 

{)ron<:Htuc4-il  by  iicummiltee  of  native  iiien^haiitH  to  boidgoodouiility, 
)U|  old  andyell.>w.-ish.  In  November  IH-J^t.  Mr.  Taylor,  a  warfhonse- 
keeper,  forivitnlod  (wo  iKtriroln  ol  Perunmbuco  luiil  Bulnii  Hocd  to 
the  Collector  of  KJidudeHh  for  experiment,  atalinp;  that  the  tnios 
would  not'  boar  for  thriie  yoars,  iind  nliotild  Ix'  kwpt  trimmed  at  rf 
height  of  about  five  fin-t.  Iu  lS'd!>,  the  tin^ardt  citstnmti  collector 
reported  that  Kh&ndesh  cotton  was  being  itnportud  uilo  Surat  iu 
lurgu  (juiuiiit.i<'s,  and  that  it  wnn  much  UHod  foradulteratiugfJujurnt 
c»otton.  Ill  iM't'J,  fourteen  tons  f-KiO  man*)  of  the  host  Broach  ^lecd 
■wirro  sent  lo  Khiludcsh  for  trial.  The  proiluco  was,  according  to 
the  Buuilmy  ChamlKT  of  Comuiorce  (Itjth  April  18iI7),  better  than 


'  Hie  dMuls  w«  Rv  avj  <rorUi  from  Anaiver,  wd  B*.  3SO0  (torn  mwh  ot  Ui* 
towBi  nl  KtmmIoI,  Vkval,  uid  Huinlmd. 


Chapter  lY. 


1831 -UK. 




Blupter  IT. 
iLgri  culture. 



any  Broacli  rwcivod  in   Bombay,  and  realist  a  sJiVlTly  hifl'her  i 
Ii)'<18:}7  ^Uh  May),  Mr.  H<>yd  »-iit  n  iMm]>lr   »f  tht-  Uiiiilin-Bf>n 
cotton  U>  (he  Bombay  CIiaml)er  of  Ctimmf-rce,   who  prumiuuri'i 
T«ry  miporior,  and  ninch  bvllvr  Ihnu  any  uffvrod  fur  wuo  in  Boti 
during  tlw  ivo  ]in!vi<fit!i  suattoiis.     l*itu  colour  was   goixl  him] 
Btaple  atroQ^,  fine,  and  louff.     It  fetched  about  £4  4x.  (Re.  42)  a  i 
morv  than  tbo  bi'st  Brnach.     On  Miiy  22iiil,  i1h>  0«11<*(<h-  for 
lo  the  CbamlitT  uf  Oommerco  two  more  specimens  of  cotiou 
in  KU^dpah  from  thu  Broach  seed.     Both  ytvrv  rvportud  to  be 
equal  iv  niiy  BroiU'h  txitUm,  and    their    ralue    ealimati-it    nt  ae 
121    lfi«.    (its.    218)   A   tou.     Tbt!  area   tinder  cotton   culliv»lj 
•  amounlod  Ihts  year  to  9U,750  acrra.     In  1808  theru  wiui   a  dec 
of  2'A,7b7  ocrw  in  the.  area  undvr  (wtton.  Printed  copies  of  i 
{or  sowing  cotton  were  distributed  among  tiut  cultirutorB. 

In  May  1 840,  Oovenunent  namitionod  lUf  loan  to  Mr.  J.  O.  Gr 
of  JE6000  {Ra.fiO,000)'  without  interest,  to  get  jfinn  iin'l  acre«r8 
Bn^andforc1oaiiini7iind^K'lcingix>llun.  Mr. (■  rant  wiwalso  nllin 
to  ose  the   Look  UoflpitAl    and    Artillery  BaiTaclcs  at   M&h 
during  the  rainy  montlis.     This  season   Mr.  Grant  bought 
worth   £20,000   (lU.  2,00,000),  and  adi-anovd   £I200   (Uh.  12.0 
ior  the  next  year's  crop.     The  resnlt  of  Mr.  Grant's  experinie 
in  gins  and  licrvws  is  not   in«utioncd.     Tbo    1840  cotton   crop 
mtiuiatod  nt  1 785  lona  (&O,0OO  uions),  or  nearly  20  jmt  cent  ah 
tl>B  average  produce  of  tlio  previous  twelve  ycJiw.     In   ly43 
Beeves  lliio  Collector  advi-iL>il  the  abolition  of  the  tax  on  cotl^iu 
The  crop  was  nit Ikt  above  the  avorape,  although  it  yielded  Go* 
ment  about  £2000  (Its.  20,000)  k-ss  tlutn  in  the  pn^coding  year. 

In  1S44,'  two  American  plantent,  Mr.  Blonut  of  Gorakbpur 
Mr.  Simpson  of  Madr^,  wcro  iinvnnted  itnjHirinlf-ndent.t  wf  cot^ 
experinu^nltt  iu  Khi&ude.Hlt.  A.*  the  miwing  season  was  over, 
began  by  setting  up  saw  f^ns  at  Dburangaon  and  -lutgiton.  '11 
buiighl  i.')0,OOI)  piitiiidH  of  KtH-d  ciilton.  1V>  ahow  the  worlcingi 
tho  machines  they  sent  abottt  811(  pounds  of  ginned  cotton  totblT 
BombayChHmberofComuioroe,wbore{Kirt«d  favourably  >iuir.!(  quality. 
In  England  it  reidi:<ed  from  t^d.  to  b^it,  the  pound,  af^inttt  (3}d. 
the  prtoe  of  Uh^rwflr  cotton.  New  Orleans  seed  wivn  bronght 
from  DhSrwfir  and  Bonrbon  from  Madrit^,  and  in  the  next  RooMon 
37J  acres  wcro  sown  with  exotic  cotton  as  an  experimeut,  and 
lOOO  more  were  eulti\'»ted  by  natives  under  thi>  plantwi:ei'  dir<!etiot 
^  screw  presa  was  aUo  built.  This  pnatu  failed  from  the  cort 
Working  it.  But  the  saw  gjns  were  popular,  some  of  the 
mercbantfl  being  anxious  lo  bny  Ihein. 

In  ]8'M>,  on  the  resignation  of  the  Iwo  planters,  Mr.'Simpson 
again  appointed  suixtriotendeut  for   Gujarat  and   Khiindesb, 
Mr.  Price  as  his  Khnnde^h  usiufitaul.  Giving  up  the  idt-n  of  an  exi 
mental  &irui,  Mr.  !:>iui]>son  arranged  that  in  Ivrandol  and  Na»ir»l: 

'  la  ISM,  Mr.<lnu3t  miii>jriini<l,  Iiiil  lUdianl,  Ummoio  1i«non  tfaeMnwoonilit 
(or  axtMiding  ooUixi  i-iilUviOioa  iii  Nl«ih. 

*  Th«  lUUiIa  rrorn  1844  to  liil  wv  Ulitm  Irom  Umm1'«  Cottoti  in  the  Beni 
Ptwidcnqr,  80- IW. 



\va  condition  of  t)io  rcintKsion  of  tlio  laad  ixn*  ftat]  the  [nytnciiit  of 

13j«. -W.  iiu  acre ( Its.  5  iifii'i/'i(i),Neiv()fleaiuicutlou  hUhuIi]  IwgrovPn  in 

Dinety-uine  acres  (1i{:2f'(j;'ifl«).   Hoal»o  eowittl  somuNow  Orleans  eeed 

\ia  m  MiiuLiI  plut  of  land  tu  Utu  factory  gnrdeu.     Tlie  \^»nU   cnmo  np 

fwell,  and  by  tlie  befrinninj;  of  Au^sl,  raogiud  in  h«iplit  frum    four 

to  eight  >nch<]!t.     It  vni*  n  N(i»»i>ti  of  hwvy  ntiufull.     Kvur  the  TftptJ 

about  uine  aere-i  vrore  Hooded  and  the  crop  vras  lost,   and  in  other 

places,  thoiijjh  the  local  cotton  tloariithod,  Iho  New  Orleans  eti0ered, 

Thu  Dhiirnngnon  pUnlJi  liiHt  tlu^ir   podH  urn)   IiIofc^oiub,  and   yiddod 

only  a  scanty  second  i-rup.     The  rest  looked  well,  but  towards  ilie 

i  close  of  the  season  wora    attnckcd  by  blight-     Thu  total  pold    was 

[only   220  poun<l9  of  clean  cotton,  luid   tits  the  phiut««  rwjwrtoi 

^iferior  to  the  local  variety  both  in  looffth  atid  strength  of  itlaple, 

[r.  Simpson  thonf^ht  that  the  failtiru  was  duv  to  the  tiiihiToarablo 

llKUitoii.aiiil  il  did  not  prove  thai  New  Orleaux  wna  uuetuited  toKltuudoMb. 

■  But  the  encourApemont  was  so  small,  that  Government  oi-dered  tlint 

no  further   nUcuipts  should   he  tna<)u  to  introduce  Xcw  Orlrans. 

A  iiniikll  cxixiriuii-ut  )u  I  HIM  wits  a  liille  wore  snocessfiil,  It]   acres 

(o  tiigh>i»)  yielding  about  'JI9  pounds  of  clean  cotton. 

In  1848,  alujut  I'W)  tonit  (11)6  khaMiia)  of  local  cotton  woru  bought 
aad  ginned  by  Mr.  I'rice.  A  number  of  gins  niade  at  the  fa<'tory 
were  set  up  in  the  ^-illiiges  of  Yaval,  Adiivml,  Cbopda,  and  Easoda. 
Tlie  demitnd  wiw  more  than  thu  factory  i»uld  supply.  In  I8-18-'I!), 
ou  Mr.  Simpson's  reeummendatiou,  a  cait-load  of  New  Oi'Ieans  seed 
was  brought  from  Dliiirwnr  and  given  to  different  euIti\'ator8,  who 
Bowod  about  H6  ocreti  (221  bLiUa*).  By  iTuty  tht-  plniils  9vtv  looking 
well  and  were  two  or  three  inches  high.  For  some  time  the  prosjke>ctB 
wore  favoumhle,  but  Inter  ou  the  crop  wiw  partly  di.'strovi«l  by 
drought.  In  Yival  cho  acre  yield  varied  from  twelve  to  seventy-two 
pouuik.  In  the  Dhsiniiigiiou  fiiclory  g'^nlen,  iindi-r  the  careful 
BUiiervifiou  "f  Mr.  I'rice,  the  acre  jiold  was  VA'A^  pounds.  Tbo 
whole  New  Orleans  crop  amoanted  to  WtMi  pounds  of  setn]  cotton. 
or  29&G  poHudx  of  clean  cotton.  A  sample  wantieut  to  the  Chamber 
of  (Commerce,  but  they  did  not  report  favourably  on  it.  It  was  clean 
and  free  from  seed,  bnt  dull  in  vototir,  nnd  somewhat  weak  nnd 
im-gular  in  »t«ple.  Though  poor  for  New  Orleaiw  it  was  nincb  bolter 
than  the  local  variety,  and  se<;nred  n  re-ndy  sale  at  from  £1  Me.  to 
£1  I  ii*.  (B».  14  -  B».  1 7)  the  ti>»  nbove  the  ordiiiiiry  Kliiliubwh  oollon. 
In  1849-50,  the  cultivation  of  Dhdrw^r  acclimatii^d  New  Orleans 
increased  from  185  tu  li'2(>  acres.  Of  ibewe  almul  Olf  were  ear^y  • 
dmtroyud  by  too  much  rain,  and  the  land  was  re-ptonghed  aud 
aown  with  other  prodnee.  Tho  heavy  rains,  though  beneficial  to  the 
locnl  cotton,  ])rored  iujnnoua  to  the  exotic  plant.  The  Collector 
Ur.  KIphiunlon  reported  that  the  exotic  pinni  was  less  hardy  than 
the  local,  and  eHnore<i  more  tluiM  it  Ctuki  too  much  or  t^jo  lilllc 
wai(tr.  Tlic  total  yield  of  New  Orleans,  as  given  in  Sir.  Simpson's 
tabular  return,  was  171,169  puunds  or  88  pounds  the  aero, 
agninAit  2.*>8  |ki!iui1.-<  tbc  outturn  of  the  local  \-iu-iety.  In  ibo  yeut- 
18G0,  Mr.  Pnco  manured  about  IJ  acre  of  the  factorj- garden  at 
Dhamngnou  with  1 20  cnrt.lwuls  of  decayed  vegetation  and  cowdung, 
and  after  the  first  ^1  of  rain,  sowed  (lUth  June)  aboutan  acre  with 

Chapter  IV. 

Cottim       i 

IBombaj  Oautl 



Chapter  IT. 


•       Cotton 

New  Orleans  and  the  rest  with  Georgian  seed.  The  seed  Tegett 
in  f  Jut  days,  and  by  the  end  of  June  the  plants  were  foar  im 
high.  The  field  was  harrowed,  and  at  the  interval  of  three  d 
waa  thricG  woll  wended.  The  rows  were  thinned  ho  as  to  li 
eight  inches  botwi^eii  the  plants.  By  the  end  of  July  they  weri 
feet  high  and  had  formed  blossoms  and  pods.  The  first  crop  withi 
and  fell  off.  But  a  second  followed  with  an  acre  yield  of  240  poi 
of  clean  New  Orleans  and  21ti  of  Georgian. 

In  J  8oII,  Mussi's.  Kitchio  Stewart  and  Company  of  Bom 
pstablislK-d  an  a^'i'ucy '  for  luijn'ng  and  ginning  cotton  at  Dharuig 
To  help  this  agency  CSovemmont  allowed  the  Collector  to  encoai 
fcotton  culiivation  by  tifikking  advances  up  to  £1800  (Ks.  16,0 
The  lirm  hired  all  the  Oovei-ninent  gins,  nineteen  of  them  in  worl 
order  and  twciity-one  newly  made.  Under  this  new  arrangen 
both  the  ginning  and  buying  of  cotton  by  Government  almost  enti 
censed.  In  lS-!i(l,  h'h'l  acres  were  under  AiLencan  cotton,  3 
of  the  seed  was  sown  in  May  before  the  rains  began.  What 
watered  grew  most  freely,  and  even  the  unwatered  plants  did  ft 
well.  At  first  jirospects  sccnicd  oxcelleut.  In  June,  the  ph 
from  eighteen  inches  to  two  feet  and  some  of  them  three  feet  h 
wore  beginning  to  throw  out  flowers  and  jxtung  fruit.  Most  vigo 
and  healthy,  tliey  liud  splendid  leaves,  some  of  them  nearly  six  in 
across,  in  July,  llic  irrigated  plants  were  from  waist  to  breast  h 
well  tilled  with  bulls  and  blossoms.  Later  on  they  were  eqoi 
Louisiiuia  cotton,  aud  in  Cliopda  and  Tftval,  some  of  the  plants  ' 
superb.  I'ros'pei'ts  continued  good  till  the  plants  came  into  bios 
Then  they  auflered  from  two  causes  :  the  lirst-formed  pods  ro 
from  the  too  deep  shade,  and  the  later  flowers  wore  eaten  by  a 
pillars.  After  a  time  cauie  a  second  crop,  but  the  plants  i 
exhausted  and  th*r  outturn  waa  small.  For  local  crops  the  set 
was  very  favourable.-  The  total  produce  from  the  New  Orleans  CO 
waslilUl.y^^  pounds  of  seed  cotton,  or  an  average  acre  yield  of 

f"  ounds,  com]la^^d  with  lOt  ]»ounds,  the  yield  of  the  local  v»n 
n  spite  of  this  disappointment,  by  the  exertions  of  the  Collector 
superintendent,  and  by  di.stributing  prizes  among  the  cultivi 
who  had  helped  most  in  the  experiments,  in  the  next  year  (1851 
area  under  New  Orleans  cotton  rose 'to  10,214  acrea  (13,619  6ij/ 

'  The  comiictition  1>ctvceti  this  Hgcncy  and  tlic  local  dealers  created  a  lltrge  d« 
fiir  cotton,  mill  \ii'wv»  within  two  or  tlirte  yuurs  were  nearly  doubled.  C<iUeclor, 
May  IH^-*  :   B..1U.  Hev.  Kec.  XX.  <>f  1S.)7,  I'urt  II.  3:33-4. 

■  Of  tliese  exiH^riuicuts,  Mr.  Siiiip!»iti  ]ia«  left  the  following  iletoils  ;  Chopda,  9 
»ecd  sown  ;  cmji  grew  freely  ;  yitld  8S0  Ilis  of  scerl  cottiin.  Rrandol,  30  lb*. 
sown  in  tliive  pHroeTH  of  10  lbs.  each.  One  patch  came  up  and  two  were  apoi 
cioessive  rain  directly  after  Bowing  :  yield  3'J  Ibe.  seed  cotttin.  Yival,  60  Ibe. 
Bowii  !  enip  failed  ;  yield  .W  Ilia,  seed  oottou.  .Trttnner,  4U  Ilia,  seed  aown  ;  yield 
little.  Naairaliad,  .W  11>k,  Bced  Bonn  ;  yield  160  Um.  of  seed  cotton.  Tha  area  i 
cultivation  was  120  aerea  of  brown  and  red  soil.  The  crop  wa«  a  good  deal  in, 
by  insectB  The  yicl<l  wbb  3.S,3S5  liis,  of  need  cotton  or  almut  7785  lb*,  of  clean  eo 
being  at  the  rote  of  04  lbs.  per  acre.  Some  native  aecd  waa  mixed  with  the  ei 
which  being  picked  separately  amounted  to  4958  Ilia,  of  aecd  cotton.  The  TBBala  i 
coBt  of  cuWvatiou  Uu.  1380-11-8,  value  of  the  crop  Its.  8607-9,  Iobi  Ra.  Bil-*-: 
about  37  per  cent. 

*  According  to  the  Boperintendent's  report,  the  area  waa  0093  acrei  aod  the  prod 
probably  of  clean  cotton,  519,008  pounda  or  57  poumla  the  acre. 




Th«  raittB  were  Teiy  early  over,  and  tbour;h  tlio  Innil  crop  was  not 
mjiiniJ.lhrt  NewfWunnBKiilIorwi.iiHil  thpoiitturn  wjiaonl.v  i,tHJ*,940 
pounds  or  ulnnt  104  pounds  tliti  acre,  iu  Miircli  Mill  llir  C'uIWtur 
Mr.  KIphiuHton  vrrotc> :  '  Hitherto  the  New  Orleaua  crop  kaa  tieeu 
precariouK,  aud  even  if,  in  euxv  of  failure,  tiu\Trnmont  <!Xcum-«  thu 
renul,  the  cultivator  has  still  lost  liine,  labour,  aud  profit.'  Except 
in  Cbopdn  whcrt'  thi-  s.iil  n-a*  good  and  tb«  air  niuist^r  than  in  other 
parts,  the  m^mlaldHrx  all  ri'porUMl  wlrontr'v  ajpiiimt  fiirllier  iittviupts 
togrinvXcwt)rIoi*U9.  In  iionfie« nonce  of  liiis,  tlioupii  sued  was  given 
gr^iin.  the  rullivalion  of  Now  Urloana  fell  in  tho  next  year  {IS'tZ) 
to  4*} ii  &cves  {MtYA^  hi g/ui*).  'Tlie  [H'upio  are  convinced,*  wrote 
Sir.  MansSHd  tlio  Oolleclor,  'that  (he  soil  &ad  climate  are  not  niitod 
to  the  growth  uf  exotic  cotton.'  Tho  total  produce  wiw  346,735 
pounds  of  seed  cotton,  or  an  tu-w  yield  of  eighty-sij(|xiundsof  seedor 
tweDty.eightpoimda  of  clean  cetton.  In  the  same  year  llr,  Binniv, 
of  llessrs,  Uiichif  SU'wurl  and  Co.,  wrote  from  DhiiraRgitnii :  *  I'Vom 
what  [  have  teen  the  New  Orlr^anii  crop  U  very  nncertain  and 
deffeuerateN  lu  two  or  three  years.' 

In  ISjJi,  only  1272  acres  (Itiyfl  hlyhi")  were  under  New  Orleanii. 
The  Iwtter  rains  were  ftcanty,  and  the  erort  Buffered  from  drought.  The 
total  proditcw  itmounted  to  &i,b>i'-i  |K>iindB  of  seed  and  24,ft9&  pounds 
of  clean  ooUon  ornn  tKru  yield  of  twenty  ]K>und.t  i^f  clean  cfjiton.  In 
Scjttfimlier  1854,  the  office  of  the  Hiii>erint«ndent  of  e.TiX'rimcnt-8 
Wit*  tibolinWd,  and  only  a  small  essabliHhmenl  !te|it.  lo  look  after 
the  tiovernmeu)  giuii.  Of  the-»o,  niniit^en  had  Ix-en  sold,  a  few  hired 
out,  and  there  were  6ftT-nine  in  stock  i^itliout  any  demand.  In  the 
same  year,  (he  eultivaliun  of  Now  Orleans  dwindled  tn  twelve  acres 
yielding  iSQG  poundit  of  seed  or  41(!  poiinda  of  clean  cotton,  or 
rnthdrlcw)  than  thirty-four  pi)nndfi  the  acre.  Sine*  lSo.*i,  uotJoveni- 
ment  attempt  iuw  been  made  to  grow  New  Orleans  cotton  in 
Khandesh.'  The  Government,  machinery  reinaintil  uniMod,  till, 
in  l^!-'>7,  .Mef«rs.  RitcLiu  Stewart  and  Cu.  broke  up  their  agency  at 

From  1S60,  when  Mr.  AshburuDr  veius  App:>iRted  Collector,  dates 
the  rfinuwal  of  Government  elTorU  to  impmve  Kluindenh  ciXton.  The 
provisi'jnH  a^^ninst  cotton  adulteration  (Act  X.  of  1827),  which  for 
mnuy  years  hnil  been  little  more  than  a  dwwl  letter,  were  j»ui  in  force. 
Bui  tlio  great  dt-tuaud  for  eottongavemuchoppmiunity  for  fraud  by 
mixing  dirt  .'tnd  other  trash,  and  Khaudoiih  eotlon  continned  lo  feleli 
inuchle«^t  (hiin  it,*  proper  value.  In  lfl«i;l,aiiouuiJof  Pem\ian  seed  wja  • 
received  by  the  Collector.  I'art  planted  at  Idling  failed  entirely; 
the  rest,  nown  in  Dhulia  and  watwred,  yielded  8fii  |K>und!i  of  clean 
cotton.  In  18154,  under  the  new  Cotton  Frauda  Act  (IX.  of  1863), 
adnlteration  greatly  decreased,  and  Kliatiilesh  coHon  w»)«  «i  well 
cleaneil  Ihal  iln  pritx-  niiM-  to  within  thirteen  (wrcent  of  NowOrleana.* 
Preaaes  were  op«ued  at  .lalgAon  and  Bhus&val,  and  a  cotton  cleaning 





'  la  tSOd.  Ur.  Sblinntv  Itiawhuidni  pUnted  aatoe  Kew  OrlewiB  iMd  tout  bf  lb* 
Ctmnbiir  uCmnnicna.  tn  tvo  out  of  throe  6*kU  in  Chopda  imd  Kanrmtotl  tho  Mad 
dU  Ml  ouiic  up.     In  DbiiUa  >  field  o(  Utcea  mn*  fieUUiil  380  poamia  ot  r>»  coltoB. 

<  TIm  pnce  o)  Khlndcah  oottoo  «m  then  tU,  tb«  pound  ind  at  }l«w  Orlowu  SM 





.      OpOm 


rompnnr  «iu  visricd  ntid  luud  IwQjKVit  at  Jolfpioa. 
Wbia^iaid  to  tlie  iuti'Kluction  ot  now  Uin^ii^irlutt  uot'd  ft 
In  iHiJo,  cami?  ibo  fEtll  in  pric*;  iifu^r  llio  tlun*  of  ih 
ttnd  miK'kciittoiin-iimiuricruuiitildiu  the  coltirature'  _ 

efforTH  to  improve  iho  district  twtton  wcro  ocmtiuiivd.  1717 
aocid  were  brongUt  fmtn  Ilvriir  wuJ  lixik  tliK  place  of  miin-  ll 
per  wut  of  tlut  local  crop.  The  oiitturu  was  rery  ft<>od,  fiilcl 
nigh  pric«a  as  Umrivati.  Nojtt  yc^ir  ( 1 80ii),  by  ihu  still  f urtl 
in  pncu,lhDRn-n  uudt-r cotton  watt  reduced  from  4(30,^24  to2 
acre*.     Almost  the  whole  of  thin  was  nmgnngh&t. 

In  Man-li  1807,  fiSpOO  (B».  20,01)0),  and  in  April. 
TRk.  30,000)  were  »iuioti«ned  for  the  purchase  of  UiDgikti^'h£ 
The  oxccutire  committeo  of  the  Cotton  Supply  A«NooiHtiiiD  d»f 
the  new  cotton  as  worth  at  Iciwt  donblu  tJie  fonnwr  mixed 
Several  varieties  of  nu^rd*  were  sown  esperimentally,  ha 
Hingangh^  camo  np  w^ell  enonf^h  to  pay.  In  DhurnnKaon 
landnoldi^r  niiMHl,  with  two  n-iitcnngx,  a  cri^p  of  New  Ortoan 
jiolUed  an  acre  outturn  of  800  pounds  of  swd  (x>tton.  In 
some  Mew  Orleans  sood  yieldvdacnvpof  good  colour  and  ajme;^ 
bnt  90  WMtk  in  ftlnple  ns  to  be  (Uinjmratively  nselesa.  '  No« 
8a^  Mr.  Wilkinain  the  cotton  inspector,  '  have  I  soon  New  0 
fibre  at  all  equal  to  Dhdrwir,  or  cvva  ftuffideutly  good  lo  odc* 
it«  growtli.'  During  ItlCJ)  there  was  a  marked  increiMo 
number  of  half  presMod  bales,  as  many  as  10,169  beiu)^  desp4 
compared  willi  only  'IDO  in  18C8. 

In  18t>0-70,  the  crop  was  good,  and  getting  to  Bombay  clea 
nnmixed,  the  Fainpnr  Hinganghat  fetched  as  high  prices  ai 
Umravati.  In  some  porta  of  tho  dititrict  the  iild  local  i 
rn-apiHwrotl.  Bu*  by  distributing  now  Qingangh^  seed,  siepi 
taken  lo  prevent  its  spreading.  Mr.  CiutwII,  i1i«  aujK'rioteDd 
czporimonts,  grow  aoine  Uinganghitt  cotton,  wliicb,  from  tij 
*Kiveu  to  its  growth,  picking,  and  dcantng,  fctchud  very  lugh 
K  Bomo  nativ«it  made  very  snccontiful  experiments  with  New  Or 
One  field  of  a  single  acre  }'tctdud  as  ninch  as  250  pounds  of 
cotton,  and  anollier  uf  thirty  iicn:i<  yielded  an  acre  avenigu  of  i 
pound!*.  But  the  staple  was  brittle  and  tather  stoned  v 

In  1S70,  (rc«h  Ringnngh^t  Mwd  wn«  snpptioil  where  it  was  wi 
'apd  oxperinicuta  were  made,  but  from  an  ovei-fall  of  rain,  witll 
BUOCees,  In  1871,  tho  expenmcnC^  failed  from  want  of  rain. 
anni)>er  of  ttaw  gitiH  increased  in  Jalgaou  by  twenty  and  foil  > 
Yival  by  five.  The  1672  crop  was  good,  and  false  packin;?,  - 
bad  giwn  riae  to  much  complnint  in  Bomlm-,  was  traced  and 
atop  to.  lo  1873,  the  crop  was  again  fair.  Ijhirw&r  or  accUmi 
Now  Orlooos  waa  coining  into  favour  tm  it  wim  found  to  yi 
greater  percentage  of  fibre  than  Hinganghdl.  The  local  v« 
was  again  creeping  into  mm  and  inlmi  packing  was  coiunlatiia 
Exiwrimenla  at  the  Bhadgaon  Government  t  arm  showed  thaii 
unmanured  fieldfi  of  nbout  t>7i  acre"  yielded  a  net  pr  ' 
per  cent.     Hr.  Fretwell  the   euperiutendeut  prepared 



the  inner  fibrs  of  the  cotton  plant,  bopingf  thst  thny  might  provg  a 
leftil  snbatitote  for  jute.  In  1874,  tb^  area  under  uoftoo  «nw 
ntuood  by  30,8-1-1  a<;r««.  The  liiirvest  was  early  and  the  crop  very 
Muo  and  high  priced.  DhArwir(Xiatiiiu<xi  toriac  in  f»voHr,  tlioaph, 
Kiong  the  poorer  class  of  culiivaturs,  Lbe  want  of  good  itt-^d  was 
>nipuiin<xl  of-  The  pre^^^in^  Jirrangemcnta  continued  to  improve. 
be  nninber  of  aiipreȤed  bundlea,  dokdiir,  fell  to  770  and  half 
ressin^  gavo  pla«(  W  full  pressing.  Id  187f>  the  crop  was  fair, 
toogh  not  «o  good  A8  in  tbo  yuar  bufono.  The  area  onder  Dhirrr&r 
atly  increased.  Bnt  coinplainta  wore  inado  thiU,  when  opened 
I  Knglaod,  it  was  found  stained  by  oil  pressed  out  of  bits  of  aoed. 
I  1870,  tbu  ycttr  of  scarcity,  tho  ootloo  crop  suffered  sererely. 

Since   1876,   the   nsa   of    American-seed   Dh^wAr  haa  further 
.oreaaed,    and    the    area  under  pnro   Hiuf^nghat   been   further 
tdncod.     Coinplnintalinvft  also  been  madethat  uioroof  tho  Varfajidi, 
la  Kibort'Stapled  local  cotton,  comes  to  market  than  wan  the  case 
>ine  years  ago.     It  KeL-ms  doubtful    whether  this  complaint  is  well 
landed.     lu    the  outhniig  parts   the   growth   of   Vurli/idi,   whoso 
alture  calls  neither  for  care  nor  skill,  was  never  quite  oupjn-eiiHed ; 
[id  it  is  doubtful  how  fur  it  woidd  Ihi  advisable  entirely  to  put  a 
lOp  to  it«  growth.     A  oertaia  quantity  of  Varh^i  t8  nKfuinyl  for 
6  low  counts  oi  yarn  used  in  the  coarse  cloth  worn  hy  tho  local 
oar.     Odo  of  tbo  chief  difHcultivs  in  tho  working  of  Mr.  Vallabhdfe' 
ict«ry   at  Jalc'aon  iH  the  scarcity  of  this  sfaort-Ntiiplcd  local  cotton, 
nd  much  of  wliat  is  wanted  has  to  be  brought  from  iudor  and  other 
ative   states,     l^ough  »onio  of  the  Vurbidi,  grown  in  or  brought 
□to    Kh^ndeah,   serves  the   legitimate   uho  of  Ix-ing  wnrkeil   into 
iheap  yarn,  other  portions  of  the  crop  are  bought  with  the  hurtful 
ibjeci  of  mixing  with  Americon-Hced  Dh&rwltr.     Tbts  mixing  is  said 
o  guon  chielly  in  the  yards  oE  the  larger  dealers,  when  the  c»urso 
if  the  cotton  mark^  makes  it<  t,o   their  advantt^^   to  trj'  to  pass  off 
nferior  cotton  against  sales.     It  is  no  doubt  an  evil,  and  luui  uf  latu 
!ii>u!i(.-d  mtich  complaint.    At  the  same  time  the  practice  is  by  no  means 
euoi-aliand  would  ecoso  if  up-country  buyers  refused  to  take  cotton 
vith  any   mixture    ni  the  short  atapio  variety.      11ib   prt^fttreuuo 
ibown  by  the  Khiindesh  cnliivators  for  American-seed  Dhirwir  over 
Hiugangh&t,  seems  chiefly  due  to  the   fact  that  it  yields  a  larger 
outturn  and  i»  more  wutily  picked.     Tlio  want  of  field  lalxiur  in 
Khandosh  makes  tho  proper  picking  of  liingangh^t  very  diilicult,  in 
eonie  places  impossibto.    I'ho  cotton  sIjiym  or  the  tree  till  it  is  overripe 
Kod,  in  picking,   gets  mixed  with  its  ^viiliered  and   lirittlt!   Kmall 
clinging  IcHven.    On  the  other  hand,  the  large  leaves  of  the  American 
vnrivty,  nmiaiuiug  soft  and  pliable,  drop  from  tho  tree  and  make  it 
easy  to  pick  the  cotton  cli-an.     Itx  freedom  from  leaf  haH  of  Iittv  led 
(he  cnltivaiors  to  mix  American'secd  Dh&rwilr  with  Uiugangh&t,  so 
u  to  raise  ihv  valoe  of  the  Uingangh&t  by  making  it  seem  freer 
fmin  luaf.     With  two  varieties  of  cuttou  »o  nearly  emial  in  price, 
mixture   ta   mn<.-h>lei>»   hurtful  llian  the   mixture  of  Vnrhtidi  with 
Americnn  Herd.     At  the  same  lime,  in  the  opinion  of  the   Bombay 
Cotton   Trade   A<u)ociation,  the  mixture  is  injurious  and  lowers  the 
Tftlue  of  tho  tChtutdesb  cotton  crop.     The  two  vBriaties  an  lu  somo 

Chapt«T  l\ 





kptar  IT. 





n-<-Ti(icU  Tcr^'diKHiniiliir  nn<l  do  nut  mix  well.     UingaUf.''  ' 
il  Tuny  ffiiiii  iu  ))ri^')it[ii>A)(,  Itmes  in  tiiiencea  bv  mixture  v. 
HU<]    roitKli   AraericaD-secMl   Hh^'irwriir.       Anu    thooffb    thv 
may  lii*  Biiiluhlu  for  luuU  i>[iiiiniiiK,  itn  mint  of   drvnnt^i' 
fnr  export.     In    llw  opinion   of   the  Coltoa    Trade     / 
Minvanfrlidt  is  the  best  cotton  for  ICh&iKlfMb  to  grow.      lis  ©rea 
Htniile  inakpH  Jt  a  t!pL>c-iHl  fi>vourit«  witli  .ijiinaoni.     And  fmm 
llicf  bavp  H'cn  in  Itombay,  tlie  L-mnmitteo  tbialc  thnt  AtuM-ii 
Dh^nriLr  fvcthei  a  leas  price  than  cotton  grown  from  Uin 

A  now  [piklari!  in  th«  Khindoiili  cotton  trade  is  the  expurt,  paKh 
by  road  down  the  Tiipti  valley,  but  chit'fly  by  t»il,  of  uu^inM 
Hin^neh&t  toBroacbnudSion  inGiijar£t.  Tktx  export  in  tbr  pi 
«oa«tn  (li)79}  w»n  cuuu^h  to  iiinki-  al>out  IdOl)  Ititmliay  Wlca 
I'liian  comiD.  It  iiH)k  plate  early  in  tbe  yi-nr,  the  cotton  r*j 
UroHch  before  any  of  Ibo  new  local  cnip  was  iu  iho  market. 
C^tloD  VI9H  ffinni'd  in  thv  Itniucb  uiid  Kion  factorioK,  and  nl 
outturn  about  1200  balea  were  boHRlii  and  Mscd  by  the  Broack 
Snrat  spinning  mills,  and  thv  rc^Ht,  about  IJOO  bnlos,  was  aent )( 
liombay  uiul  Kold  im  gintted  KhAudbmh.  The  special  cirt-timf^naM 
timt  iDitko  it  )N»y  to  send  cotton  from  Khiindcsh  to  Ifujnril  fX 
tluit  a.t  Ilint^ngtiAt  is  trnrlior  thnn  Brotii^h,  ihu  cotl<^>n  reaches  dn 
(tiijnnit  intirkotM  wV-n  itiipjilicH  art!  Inw  ;  thnt  the  tonna^t  cbargt-f^j 
mhhI  cott'iu  i*  uuioh  lesa  than  for  ck-an  cotton  ;  that  ^nning  in  UA 
Huiier  and  cbvaper  iu  tiujar^t  Ihau  in  Kh&ndcf<h -,  that  iu  (iu 
Ibo  seed  fetchos  a  much  higher  pnco  than  in  Khdudeabi 
Rppwreutly  the  ho|H>  that  it  may  lie  paMed  oS  as  macbino-^ 
Uroaoh,  to  which  it  is  iuferior  by  aboot  eight  or  ten  nor  c 
Stoam  ffinning^ises  the  value  of  Hingnnghilt.  Bat  this  gain  il 
newly,  if  not  quit<«,  met  by  th«  greater  loss  in  weight. 

30.  Brown  Hemp,  amh\idi,  tlibiscuB  [-nnnabiuus,  ^jrown  ntwi 
or  less  on  every  holding.  i»  tlH>  ino«t  <.-uono(tii("tl  libre  for  gnwiM 
ngncultnral  uses.  It  is  xown  after  thelftftt  raio^aU  in  June  lOl 
is  cut  in  October.  To  develope  a  sufficiently  long  xtem,  b<<inp  ww* 
shade  and  is  tbcroforo  always  grown  niixiMl  with  other  cro)i»  i»iialhl 
with  millot,  Hesamum,  or  fur.  After  the  nurse  crop  ii;  rei'< 
hemp  is  allowed  to  remain  for  a  few  weeks  to  let  tho  moi 
thoroughly.  It  is  then  cut,  tiod  iu  i^mnll  bundles,  and  laid  in  ■ 
pool  to  '  rot.'  After  a  fow  days',  whi-n  tho  l;nrk  is  mjft«tucd,  taiH, 
"generally  of  the  lowe-it  caste,  Minjfs  and  Bhils,  standiug  iothe  wiW 

take  a  few  stems  in  their  left  hnndn,  and  with  thv  right  bj 

.    "" ip         "     . 

then  washed  and  laid  out  U>  dry.     Ine  smell  from  the  rotten  uwC^u 

pull  Blrip  the  biirlc  from  the  root  up  to  th«  points;   tho 


is  Tery  unpleasant.     An  expert  stripe  about  twelve  pttunda  offihH 
a  day,  and  is  paid   at  the  rate   of  2i.  (tie.  1)  for  sixty  pounds. 
stripjH'd  iiti'niK  are  inwd  in  tbntching,  the  («Mider  tojw  an  a  vogei 
and  the  seeds  yield  an   oil.     The  supply  of   tibre  is  barvly  et 
for  the  people's  wanta.     The  bark  of  the  anjan  ^fio  )a.much  used 

■  Tlie  Sttcntar;  Bombaj  CuttuD  Tnul«  AnucuiUwi  tw  Oovtnuncnl,  6th  Sept. 


.2)eccui. . 



cin^  ropos,  which  otQ  choaper,  moro  etmlf  got,  and  more  iMting 
lau  IiOin|)  rojn!«.     (5**  2-lj.  •  " 

ai.     Bombay   Uemp,  *nit,  Crotalaria  juncoa,  sown  in   June  ssd 

rewtMtd  in  Octobor,  is   less  widely   gniwn  Ihiui  lirown  hemp.     lis 

,  or<ltii»ry  kniUM  naaa  itro  making  woll  ropon  and  twine.     The  twine 

iii  naitally   epuo  by  VaDJ&ris  and  otker  rattle -koepors  who  spin  on 

.n  tli<tiifT  (M  thoy  grnw  ihoir  flocks   »n<!  honlit.     To  Uirco  it  to  grov 

euoiij^li,  xnn  liati  l<>  bi)  sown  very  thickly.     The  crop  ia  cm  aa 

atf  the  plaut  has  done  l^oworin^.     The  fibre  ie  (akvn  out  in 

rniuh  Ihn  same  wniy  ns  the  brown  ht'tup   fibro,  but  ihi-  alonis  being 

itni:iliar,  (hit  work  U  bunh'r,  un<l  thv  workman  earns  2«.  (Be.  IJ  for 

forty  insc^ad  of  for  sixty  pouuds.     When  akitfulty  prepared,  aan  la* 

little,  if  at  all,  inferior  to  Ilusaian  hemp. 

The  cliranto  and  aoil  of  KliflndoHh  aro  well  suited  to  the  growth  of 
fibre.yioldiiig  plants  of  the  Hihiacus  apeciea.  Any  (|aiuittty  ooald 
be  produced  if  the  dumand  was  urgent, 

XAdiulMi  I/fu  tnul  Pigmnttt. 








Indlu  iiaib«rt]r   .. 
tadltn         ...      _. 
aaAiniw       „,        ... 

Hertnd*  cTlriMia 
iBlikafmUaelnrU    _ 

Conuna  lonjti  . 


^82.     Indian   Mwlburry,  'U,  Morinda  citrifolia,  grf)vru    exclusively 

_by  the  I*odhii*  or  Alkaris  of  FaiMjur,  Yivnl,  Kauklo,  und  Ernndol, 

oiiltivaiAd  aolely  for  the  aafeo  of  its  roots  which  yield  a  bright, 

bough  not  a  very  la-ttiug  nnX  <tyit.  Khi'mdiinh  ill  hiv  for  long  had  a 
lligh    piinir,  the  result   probably  of  yeara  of  carefiil  tillagt).     nio 

sport  used  to  be  enornKius  t'^pi-cliiily  to  Gnjar^t.      But  of  late, 

boiigb  the  locnl  demand  remiunfl  unolmnged,  the  exU'rnni  demand 
bait,  from  thooompetiligiiof  aniline  dyes,  been  greatly  reduoxl.  Tho 
sowing  of  ciJ  wants  mMl  skill  and  cnro.  It  takes  pla<?e  in  July  or 
AngiiKt,  that  is  tfjward.t  llio  uiiddlo  of  tho  rains.  Tb<i  sood  is  sown 
very  thickly,  either  broadcast  or  cpoeawise  in  cloise  lines.  It  has  to 
be  eovored  about  an  ineli  deep  with  mould.  If  lower  down  or  nearer 
thc^  Kurfitco  the  wMrd  UNUally  fiuiK  to  sprout.  ACtor  this,  perioditral 
weediiifi^  is  all  it  wants  up  lo  ihe  end  of  the  third  year,  when  tlw  crop 
u  ready  for  digging.  Tnis  CM^ts  about  £.*>  (Rs.  60)  nn  acre,  sa  the 
whole  field  has  to  ln»  dujf  about  two  foet  d«-p.  The  doepor  tha 
roots  ^o,  the  more  \-aluabte  they  are,  as  the  fiupr  and  smaller  portion 
of  ibcm  nonlainit  moro  dyeing  ninttor  than  ihotw  on  the  surface.  If 
there  ta  no  demand,  the  roots  are  sometimea  left  as  long  ait  four 
y*rATi  in  tho  ground,  and  if  the  demand  is  great  the  cultivator 
occasionally  digt  the  roots  after  the  tteoond  ycur*!!  growth.  After 
the  fifth  year  the  roots  become  useless  aa  a  dye,  and  the  buHh,  if  not 
cot  down,  grows  into  a  trtw  n-ith  a  Ntem  sometimes  several  feet  in 
git-tb.  The  ronlfy  ebopped  into  half-inch  piecw,  are  worth  about 
1  \d.  a  pound  (Ba.  15  for  12tj  ti/ter^].  The  host  toots  are  chose  about 
HH  thick  M  n  ipiill,  the  laret'r  ones  being  wanting  in  colouring  matter 
which   is   mainly  biecreted  between  the  burk  and    the  wood.     An 


(Boater  OuMHl 





acni  of  •ifwltra  reAclvfornuu'kut  is  worth  stiout  £20  (IL 
(Ij'it  in  prtipAred  by  UaU)^riH  aod  awd  in   colouring   tarb»i»,  n>J 
aod   olotii.     Tho    LodbtM   hold   lands   in  tbcir  own  namr^  uui  *i«1 
«ah>roni  fleldx  uid  employ  htnMl  Ikbonr.     Tlw  deep   d^r)fui^  «l| 
OTen*inuiig thi)  soil  to  extract  th«  roots  doee  much  good  to  Uw  Iwil 

33.     Indipi,  yiiK,  IndigofnTU  linclorift,  liinl,  in  187^-7'' 
knw of  il^-lti  a<iv>t-     A  two-vear  and  soioetiun.'H   a  throe-, 
{Dd%0  iti  grown  to  a  vor>-  Dtanl)  oxt«nt,  owiof?  to  ihn  ^reat  exB 
preparing  it  for  market,     llio  wed  i«  i<owu    in  July  in 
tillod  ground.     It  can  be  thrice  cut  durint;  llie  raioa,  and  1 
and  flomelimes  throo  )KMu>oaa  gonL-ralljr  without  bein^  wat«r 
•aocoant  of  its  mixture  Vitfa   wood  afbtis,  Kh^deah   iiidign 
rnthvr  low.    The  first  cnttinff  takos  pla«>  wiu<n  the  plant  t.i  tiro  i 
three  months  old  ;  tho  wjroiid year  another  cropuf  Ii-nvL-a  ih  cat! 
the  shmb  which  i*  then  <ronNidopt>d  ustoUHuand^mei-anydeBt 
pluujfhiiift  up  the  land  and  pn-paring  it  for  suirai!  other  iTvp."  _ 
Dultivators  let  the  plant  remain  in  tho  ground  a  j-eur  longor  fn  m 
to  got  H  third  crop,  but  the  yield  u  too  poor  to  be   remunereUFi 
Id  thu  ueighbourhood  of  Faiispnr,  iodifro  ia  raim-d  in  con.iic 
qnantitiw   by  Gnjant,  and  thu  ntunbor  of  onnaed    piti    near 
Tillagflftnd  among  the  buried  cities  of  lh»  SAtpada  niugt;, 
that   the  plant  was  formttrly   more  widely   grown   than   it  » 
present,     In  spito  of   the  aian«e  and  wuttteftil    mode  of  pn'p 
It  aiMT  (ho  dirlineea  of  the  dye  producud,    Khiindc»h    iudt^i 
for  long  inaiutainiHl  its  gruond    ngitinst  Tlougal    indijro.      tV 
l«rg(^    <|ii»utities  were    imported    frvm    (iitjarat.      Bat  of 

mauufactuni   of  Giijnriit    indigo   has  almoat  enitndy  ceaa ,  _ 

Kbindenbiudigo  now  goes  to  Hurat  and  other  Gujnr&t  mnrketa. 

;jt.     Sattower,   kartUii,   Carthamnii  tincUinuM,  m  of  two  kta 
gddhi    and    kuJitmhydchi,     SatUii,    a    strong    plant   n^ith 
learofl,  ia  gntwn  chiefly  for  its  soetl  oil  (i«e  23).     Ktuumbi/atlii^ 
slenderer  plant,  isi  grown  for  ita  Howers,  from  wiieh,  when  dry,  i 
rod  kugumbtt  dye  ih  made.     Thu  market  price  of  husumba  is  ^loat 
\».  (8  anna")  the  poand. 

35.  'rahuuri*:,  hahid,  Curcuma  longa,  Ia  of  seTeTal  kinda,  U* 
tuber  in  all  cascii  Iwinp  the  uiiefulpart.  The  kind  used  in  dyemg 
is  thu  luHiiniti  fialii'J  with  veiy  hard  roots.  U  yields  a  yellow  dyd 
and  i»  usually  mixed  with  ^u«tMnf>a. 

About  the  three  colour  crops,  mulbrrry,  indigo,  and  tummrtf^ 
%be  common  beliof  is  that  if  luiy  but  a  Itangai-i  grows  them  in  a  nsv 
vdlage,  tlMi  grower's  family  is  duomiKl  to  [K-riwh.  So  when  ono  of 
tho  CHjps  has  to  be  grown  in  a  new  rillnge,  a  n«tdy  lillt-d  field  il 
handed  nviir  to  a  lljingari  family  who  sow  and  barreat  the  crop, 
thus  admitting  the  dyers'  rery  judt  claim  to  a  royalty  on  a  brandi 
of  hnabandry  that  owo»  it«  existence  to  tbeir  labour. 

•  SlutinMk  Jfarfotiti. 



M      PBPW 


I  Kinitlanii  UbM—     ..     ThaMHa. 


Sti.  Though  Tolmoco  vrwi-nry  c«rly  (16G0)  growuin  Kh^ndpsh' 
Dd  8prt^  from  Kh&uilesb  to  6uiarltt,  its  area  is  uow  Hiiiall,  uWiiiL 
600  ucrus,  iiiid  ils  uxport  insigniticant.  80'  iimi;]!  has  tlie  local 
abooco  bilea  oS  by  carolesH  tillage,  that  it  ia  now  iilinoHt  sut  aaide 
jr  tbe  exotic  VirginiaD  and  Shir&x  hybrid.  This  was  introdacod 
B  KD  t'siK'rimeiit  in  1869-70  by  Afr.  FrutwoU,  HupcrioWndeDt  of 
he  model  Carni.  The  two  soeds  were  accidi^ntally  mixed  toj^tliur 
nd  thu  prciMtiit  crop  is  a  cross  between  thi-m.  The  UaTanna  Heed 
rwi  also  tru^i,  but  «■»«  fonnd  too  dfliciito  for  thv  cliuiitto  und  wag 
■iven  np.  The  local  tobacco  U  conaidered  very  inferior  lo  tho 
ux«d  varU.'ty  both  in  etrooffth  and  flavour.  Next  to  the  alluvial 
dUhi  which  are  very  limited,  thu^rwy  t>oiWD  tho  xitoH  of  du§eriod« 
iUagro  ia  the  beat  for  tobacco.  FaiUBg  thia,  black  soil  i»  cho^un, 
bongfa  M-fl\t  n*d  is  in  some  roepects  more  tniitable.  In  the  grey 
oilKof  viilii^i  sitott  Vt^ry  littlu  inunuii!  in  waDtftd.  Afl«r  mora  than 
me  cTfjp  has  bet?ij  prowu,  an  occasional  dressing  of  old  binn-yard 
Bouiire  ieiised.  Indigo  rofuiw  is  u  fnvounlo  fertiliser,  but  seeraa 
O  hsTo  no  Kpoebd  mvrit.  Ouano  baa  Lately  boeu  found  greatly  to 
HoressB  the  yield. 

Irrigation,  though   ohject«>d  to  by  Aome,  in,  in  Mr.   E^twell'a 

r'  uou,  PKpocially  in  tlie  dry  eaat.,  aeoeaaary,  not  for  tWl^rowth 
the  plant,  but  to  bring  the  curinf;  setisoa  before  the  middlo 
rf  NovciiiIht  ivliitD  tho  air   i*  (ttill    moitt.      Tobacco    i»  generally 
rown  in  ftinall    plota  of  not    more  than  one-eighth    of    an  aero. 
lie  sowing  season  lasts  from  June  to  August,  but  is  sometimea 
lolayvd    tUI    Octobor.      The    at-vd   'm    lutwn  in  lwdj»  noarly  four 
eet  Hqiiare,  well   manured   with   cattle   dimg  and  haud*watert.>d ; 
tnd  from  tbrco  weeks  to  two  months  aftvr  sowing,  yifuii  they  are 
tetweeu  fire  and  seven  inches  high,  the  seedlings  are  plaututl  in 
ipecially  prepared  plots,  at  u  foot  di>itanix>  fr<ini  oiAh  other,  in  rows 
lalf  a  yard  apart.     During  the  whole  time  of  growili,  the  plaulu  are 
urefnlly  weeded,  and  as  soon  as  they  are  well  itvt,  a  small  bullock 
100,  kiHpti,  is  pamx]  biitwecn  tho  rows.     Twice  during  (jrowth,  the  ' 
inckem  are  removed,  but  this  ia  naoally  very  carelessly  done.     lu  a 
native  field,  nearly  all  fnl]  grown  plautit  have  itnckerH  rindling  the 
nrent  Hlem  in  luxuriance,  and  flowers  on  both  sterna  and  suckent. 
rbey  seldom  show  any  signs  of  an  attempt  to  limit  the  number  of 
mvos.     For  Ihis  rwMOti  the  Iwito*  are  not  properly   deveKipe<I  and 
their  strength  and  flavour  never  come  to  perfection.     The  cutting 
time  lasts  h\>m  November  to  February,  or  atM>ut  five  and  a  half  , 
Riiiulh!!  from  lim  time  of  sowing.     At  the  time  of  cntting,  the  low«h 
leaves  are  nsuatly  faded  and  yellow,  tho  ctmtral  oiiw  in  prime 
Bonditton,  and  the  upper  onoti  anripe.     Generally,  the  vhole  pwnt  i» 

■  At  tb«  Ij^taaiag  «f  tbe  Mvoatccfitb  OMitiuy  MliaoM  wm  •  novel^.  AMd 
B<c  (died  Ittmi.  00  •  miMWD  Inm  Akbar  «o  Bljftfw  Uamt  1603,  anw  tobKoo  ler  tb« 
Int  tiiofc  Be  brondrt  mne  haok  aa  a  runty  lo  \gr^  Tli*  Siiipofw  tool  a  few 
mifi.  Imt  VM  'limtadid  hy  hit  pliT«icnna  fmeti  mMluiix  mora.  Thi^  not>lH«  tonk  t»  it 
wl  tfao  pnicti«>^  apnmd  lawdtjr  lEHkit'i  UMotf.Vl.  lU,  ilH).  Ia  lOIT,  utltubla 
very  Vmd  vBcvt  <ui  tb«  health  ol  nmiy  Mopiiv  tko  EmMm  JahUtipT  lorbad  it*  lua 
IBIjo*.  VI.  Sfil).  Ill  l«aO,  Tavwalar  up-iu  oi  Ua  B^Mag  i«  anili  ^MntMm 
BartiAnimr  Uiat  tlia  pwpU  luvhig  ao  vant  lot  it  left  it  to  rot  on  tlw  gnoad. 

•  Catl«tur'*  Z-£i:i,  Z2»a  Jnly  1873. 

Chapter  TV. 







I  ex} 


nit^d  the  Sowrr  ImuIa  iiippod,  \i»<- 

mombs;  Ga 

"-  iurlifH  'if  *U'iii 

th»oira  out    fn^nh   leavos.       H  on?   mvorih    vi-rj 

onil  arv  ecldura    pitht-itMl.      Tlie   Kuiiiiiit,    tri>in    a    feetiuff 
dust n.iyi (111  Togt'i»1>lt!  lifet  do  uot  cut  the  plautN  theinB^lnM, 
employ   liluls  and  others  to  do  it  for  thom.     A  few  at  thu  I 
hiLfll»Qdinc<n,  ospcciuUy  iimonff  t)ie  Mnwilmins   imd   those  De»l 
Guvi'niitK-nt  fitnn,  pluck  the  leaves  sioglj. 

Ac'Oi'nimu  bo  the  common  way  of  curiiip  thom,  tho  [iliuit«  M ' 
are  cut,  aru  Uid  in  rows  on  tlie  eronnd   iinril   tUo   leaveM   iowil 
brittK-nciM  and  Uvume  limp  aud  flacdd.   They  ar«  iiiimIi!  intu  liaail 
mXvU,  of  f(Mir  or  five  pl^Ls  each,  and   bronght  to  aoino  t'onre 
^>laco  for  drj-inff,  rery  oftcu  Iw  tho  roof  of  tho  owTier's  huuM,  i 
laid  in  cloNf  ovorliippiug  ripwa.     When  thu  colour  of  tho  leavra 
be^n  to  change,  the  rowa  arc  tumod  over,  and  tliia  is  dime  se 
times  with  many  eprinliliugit  of  wnt«r  till  all  are  of  nearly   th<> 
pbado.     At   thi^  aingv,  about  twenty-five  anudl   bundles  arei 
into  lari^  bnndle§,  jWi*,  tied  together  with  a  few  Bbrvm  of  tbei 
of  tho  palas,  Bnt<ra  frondosa,  tro<v  Mpnnkloil  with  water,  »l«icktKl  i 
oorered  with  ^(iny  cloth  or  roaha,  Andnijk>gon  achiRnanthuii,  grw*  i 
and  loadad  with  heavy  stones.     To  equalise  the  fermentation,  eVMj 
third  diq^the  bundles  are  lornod,  watered,  and  rebtiitt.      This  tnitf 

Srinkling,  mwdi'  ncccjinary  by  thu  dryims.*  tif  the  climate,  di^^-iMj' 
u  &ut>i  (jualilies  of  the  tol>ac«).  The  process  of  curing  ie  cr.Mr-  ;. 
performed  in  th(i  open  air  and  takes  from  fire  wtx-kn  to  thn^o  nuiiili'- 
The  paK  near  the  slem  in  alwiiyit  mouldy  aud  the  rott  varies  tr^:^ 
the  proper  fawn  ooloor  to  deep  bbck.     Much  is  afasolutoiy-  rotten. 

Itliick<.-n«<I  lobnvco,  thoui^h  UHeless  for  any  other  piir|xi»>,  i) 
gciientlly  prttft'rrod  by  the  nalivcM.  The  prt-sent  uidbod  of  curing 
lauxt  cuntinue,  i;idi.-»it,  by  (he  help  of  imgation,  lobacco  is  sown  ia 
June  and  cut  iu  November,  and  a  drying  hous*'  is  made  iiudcrffroand 
and  ooven-d  with  thick  thatch.  Kwn  witli  Hil*  cmro,  tho  wind  will 
.pn)bal>Iy  be  too  strong  tu  allow  leaves  to  grow  perfect  enntieh  In  lit 
miide  into  cigam.  The  only  improvement  in  coring,  intro(luc(>d  M 
the  model  farm,  is  the  cutting  out  of  thi>  stew.  Cultirat^tra  di.ipoM 
of  tbcir  tobacco  to  doalent  ni  from  £4t  to  £4  (Its.  ;IiJ .  lEx.  -U))  th« 
hundred  bundles,  JiuftV.  'The  price  of  the  local  ".iirirly  variuK  Fmni 
16«.  to  £1  6«.  {Re.  8'Ka.  \S)  the  man  of  eighty-two  puunds.  *l*he 
now  tobacco,  when  grown  by  natives,  realises  from  £1  to  CI  UU. 
(itti.  IO-Hm.  15),  and  oil  the  model  farm  from  £1  1^.  to  £ii  Itk. 
*  (3a.  16  -  Its.  2S)  the  man  of  eighty-twd  pouuda.  The  sverAgo  acre 
cost  of  tillage  varies  from  £3  to  £3  ]0«.  (Ua.  30- Ra.  35),  and  tha 
onttumfrumabont£M8«.to£25(Rs.  14i-IU.250).'  Considoring the 
climate,  Mr.  Fretwell  is  of  opinion  that  tobtu't^^  should  be  grown  only 
for  local  UM.  lie  suggests,  for  tlie  inijimvement  of  the  crop,  that 
the  local  varioly  idi'iulirbv  given  np;  that  the  Boud  idiould  be  clioseo 
only  from  the  cro^vn  tiowern  in  the  boat  planta;  that  manure  ohunld 
be  more  frvi^ly  u«ed  and  the  se<^  ttown  early  in  June ;  that  topti  and 
snckorB  abonlu  be  coutiaually  remorod,  nilowiug  only  soveu  or  eighi 




fcT«<*  ou  «ao1t  plant-  an<I  iu  (iMlRAttAr  of  curing, ilinl  aiuglo  toftved 
Id  hv  pliickod  aD(l  cunxl  wit^iniit  tho  steiua.  *  * 

S7.  Hump,  ijanja,  Cuntiabis  satira,  is  npurinply  RTown  in 
'S**''^^'^''  to  make  bhdtuf.  Most  of  tliu  hhSnif  ua4id  tu  Uio  dUtricc  ii 

88.     Pfippy.tArtctAuji.PapavorsoinnifprniDidfiipitciallGorommeaS 

elTorta  abort  nf  actual  pivliiliitiou,  whm  formerly  widrly  ffruwn.     In 

_  1S;J1',  its  ciiltif-attou  was  mQ§i  nrofitablo.     Knough  of  tbt-  Klu'iiidoab 

dmg  wiks  in  Htorv  ut  Ahmcdabad  to  meet  the  Gnjarat  demand  for 

two  yijars.     Although  both  tho  soil  <ind  clitnatv  wi>ro  tiiuiiited  to  it« 

growth,  its  ciiItivatinD  biid   be<?ii  carried  owfor  generatioDS  and  the, 

pcoplu  wpru  particularly  partial  to  it.     The  cidtirator  had  n  ccrtaiQ 

'I't    for  liii<    pnitbicw    ut  h    tixud  though  nrndcnilo   prioc.     The 

Ltor  was  allowt^  to  buy  all  tho  opiuui  in  its  raw  atalo  at  about 

tie.  (He.  4)  tht-  poHud,  and  prepare  if  in  the  Dhutia  factory  for  sale. 

In  l85(i,  by  order  <if  the  (iovernnieut  of    Indiu,  the  DhiiUii  factory 

wa«  closed  and  poppy  cultivariou  Rtopjied.     During  the  tw«nfy  yeata 

ending  1 856,  tho  greatest  area  cultiTatod  in  any  one  year  wns  2380 

fccres,  which  yielded  28,208  pounds  or  llM  poundit  tiic  twre.' 

XhdiulaK  OarAn  Crop:  * 








aMehirnm  oOHiHiuin  .. 
I|i4iii*it  bmtafht 




39.  Sngarcane,  m»,  had,  in  1878-79,  a  tillage  acta  of  1420  acres. 
_  liougb  called  Swcchanim  oRIcinnmni,  it  lias  no  iKilnnical  existcncw, 
~aa  it  has  drifted  ho  far  from  its  natural  condition  that  it  cannot  be 
rpprk'ibiied  by  seed.  Siigiircwnt'  Iiiut,  ftx'm  very  early  limes,  been 
grown  in  ladin,  iind  it  i«  belit^veti  that  from  India  the  wlmlo  cnnv- 
prowing  diatricut  of  America  and  the  "West  ludtcs  were  wipplicd 
with  Liittingtt.  In  1750  cunes  wpro  introduced  into  the  Mauritius 
Bill!  there  brought  to  very  liigb  ix-rfection,  and  from  fttauritiuD  many 
Bujwrior  kiniU  huvft  l>eeu  bntugnt  back  to  India  and  grown  for  yearti 
without  liuy  marked  filing  off. 

Th*  five  chief  kinds  of  Kh^nde^h  cnuoure:  a  sntall  cane,  khadffa; 
a  bhick  cane,  luHn  ;  a  white  cauo,  pundtja  Qvvt'nulhra  ;  a  striped  can^, 
hangiiya;  and  MuuHtius,  a  yellow  cane.  The  small  khatlyt  vane  is 
l.h«  most  widely  grown,  as  though  it  yields  inferior  uiohisMin,  ita 
banluohis  makes  it  stand  Mtoring  ouJ  carrying  from  one  market 
to  auolhcr.  Tim  bhwk,  Avi/<i,  eaiie,  the  bent  (or  eating,  is  usually 
grown  for  tlu»l  purpo^w  only.  The  whito,  pvitilt/n  or  fMindhra,  and 
(■trijK-d,  Mttgili/ti,  canes  are  both  ginjd  croppers,  but  require  to  be  W(41 
watered  and  freely  luanurod.  They  are  twunlly  cut  tor  the  market, 
but  also  yivid  vety  fair  molasses.     One  rariety  of  ihu  whit«  cone,  a 


'  Cotlcolor'B  BTO,  10th  M»f  183C. 




Chipter  tT. 


little  atoat«r  than  theSnvPr,  bard  otuiwixidy,  contains  omwrmi 
titth*  jnicfl.    Wliat  there  » inuNi  be  rei^  BWcet  ut  tbpyicid  nf  mi 
u  TerjT  great.     The  MBoritiiui  canu,  introdaced  oa   tbo  Uorei 
[arm  at  Bbsdgaon,  is  uon  ntbvr  widoly  grown.     As  Ui  bniig 
porfcotion  it  iriuitA  rich  maunring  and  frai«rinfr>  it  ia  asoaU;  ' 
onJj'  in  the  fields  of  (be  Wfll-to-do,     The  moIaAMM    ia  eaawj 
fine,  bat  w  it  carrioK  badly,  il«  ptiot  rules  little  above  Ih 
khadi/a  cano  molassea. 

Rich   black   loom  ib  the  host  Boil  ftr   angaroatie ;    bnt 
manured  light  aoils  are  kIhu  vrry productiTC.     Is  ^ro-r-'. 
cano,  care  is  taken  not  (o  plant  it  oo  the  same  grtmnd   ' 
^nce  in  throe  years,  and  that  the  iDt«rveniug  son-it  r 

dry  crops,  tir-iurti.     The  pnjund  U  first  plf>ugb«l  lti-  ..iii 

to  break  the  i-lodfl  ;  mamire,  from  thirty  to  J(M)  cart-luode  the 
ia  spread,  and  the  field  pUwij^hed  odco  or  twice  «j  as  thoroa 
to  work  in  tbe  manure.  The  nurbioo  ia  ihflu  titnaoihed,  m 
large  clods  are  powder«d  with  a  wooden  mallet.  Then,  after 
plou|^hing  into  panUltO  ridguR  ouu  and  half  fuvt  apart,  and 
water  into  the  channela  between  the  ridges,  the  Held  in  niad 
planting.  The  seed  cnni'sarv  cut  into  short  leni^thii,  kiiruttji, 
planter,  filling  u  itiniill  biuikct  and  placing  it  under  his  left  nmi, 
end  to  imd  and  alH>ut  six  inches  apart,  ilie  pieces  of  caue  ali> 
chanueU,  treading  on  i>ach  to  settle  it  well  into  the  mud.  fi 
three  or  four  plniiter«  havi)  nu  itltvndaut  who  keepa  filling 
liuMkiatH  with  cuttings.  On  the  third  day  after  nlaniin^,  oomoa 
first  watering,  ambuni,  and  on  the  seventh  day  the  second,  him 
After  theao  follow  regular  eiglit-day  wittrriugx.  A  forttiij.'ht  iJUr 
planting,  young  shoots  bepn  to  sprout,  and  at  the  end  of  the  fiol 
mouth,  they  aro  fnr  i>iioiigb  un  to  allow  the  hoe,  ktiij>a,  bo 
between  the  Undt.  1'hin  in  done  three  time»  at  iut«rvnb  of  a 
After  this  it  iH  weeded  by  band. 

Daring  the  sixth  month,  or  jiutt  boforo  the  vtlara  nali*. 
the  latter  half  of  September,  the  ground  ia,  to  h«lp  tlie  aftor-^ 
hiilJidkn'r,  that  comcif  ihlckty  during  the  early  rains,  carefiiUy  Joi 
to  a  cousidurable  depth  by  a  tnnull  raattodc,  kudAl.  While 
falling  water  ia  withhold.  But  oa  soon  ns  rain  ooaaes,  u 
watermp,  wrarn»,  is  givi'n  merely  to  wash  in  the  rain  wat«r 
is  doemod  cold  and  hurtful  to  aiirfaco  roote. 

The  cane  suffers  from  several  enemios.     Tho  wbit«  ant,  udhdi, 
Ve  kept'  in  chock  by  placing  bags  of  pouuded  cowdung  mixed 
salt  and  bine  vitriol,  morcAitf,  iu  the  main  water  cliannels.     Flo 
over  these  bags,  the  water  becomes  aalt  enough  lokill  the  ants  wi 
hurting  the  cauo.     Atu,  a  small  gmb  which  d<.-sln>yH  th<^ 
boring  numcrouH  hnlus  iu  it,  is  the  larva  of  a  large  fiy  which 
its  eggs  in  the  axils  of  (he   leaves.     No  remedy  for  tfaia 
known.     Bamni,  a  grub  about   fotir  inches  long,  cau  the 
roota,  and  if  not  chocked,  works  great  havoc.     It  is  got  rid 
soaking    dried    til    {So.  20)    st4-m»   in  thu  well    until  the   wat«r 
becomfie  light  bn>wn.     Two  or  three  doaes  of  thia  water  are  naually 
eoongh.     Nothing  but  fencing  and  watching  can  cl>eck  the  robbe 
of  pigs  and  jackals. 



"» — =■ 



T1h>  cane  is  readj  for  cuttinir  about  tbe  end  of  the  flJerenth 
I  :  li,  if  noL  it  iit  Ivft  iiutil  (bo  tWu-viitU  munlh,  as  tlie  i-n]tivat«r« 
ve  that  if  cut  in  tbu  twelflb  tooutb,  the  juice  id  uiucb    loeft 
\N1iL'n  tho  canvt)  befipn  to  thixitv  up  flowering  spikos,  they 
!t>tiHti1(!nM)  nudy  fur  cruiibitig.     A.-i  tUo  nM)l  purl  ■<•  i^hiirgtfd  with 
rliciiliii'ly   rich  jiii«),   the  canes  are  cut  over  aever&l  iiichea  below 
grDunil.     'i'licy  iir<i  then  strip(ioi]  of  lUI  dry  and  looso  Iohtos  aud 
ed  Xo  the  mill.     Uero  the  tupa,  btindyds,  ar&  cut  off,  and  oaed 
feud  Ifau  mill  nUtlo.     T^  crop  Ja  not  at  preaeiit  ho  prxititable  aa 
mtglit  he  made  by  improvfld  niitchinery.     A   ^^'itl  dcJil  of  tho 
■  sweet  matter  is  wasted  by  the  rude  mode  of  extractiag;  the  juice. 
"     ili.Ts,  not  aotjuitinted  vrith  any  method*of  rofiniii)?  bu^tu*,  tho, 

!iU)r'a  only  produce  ih  raw  iiiolaasea,  ^nl.     A  Inr^  iiuaulity 
-Bl  caoes  are  also  eaten  by  the  peojJe  la  their  natural  stale. 

Tho  crop  is  disposed  of  in  throe  ways,  by  sale  in  the  village  markets 
be  eaten  raw;  by  mHking  oattingA,  fnrne,  for  ptaiiiiu^;  and  by 
m  milk  for  molasses,  When  sold  to  be  eaten  raw  a  good, 
■^  u]>r<>Eil  of  from£IOto£I2  tO«.  (Rn.  10(1  ■  lt.-t.l2.'>)  anitcro; 
3U  Bold  Bs  cuttings  for  planting,  it  fetebea  from  £20  to  EHO 
Cb.  200  -  Rjs.  300)  nn  aero ;  and  when  made  into  molajwM,  the  imtpo 
'yiifld  ia  £/>  (Ita.  50).  Only  the  beat  and  the  largecit  caneo  are  fit 
fur  cuttings.  Smaller  canes,  if  jaicy  and  sweet,  are  set  aside  to  he 
«)kl<'!i  raw;  and  lliose  attJU-ked  fey  jackulx, Jiifp*,  and  while  anl«  are 
teken  to  tlie  mill.  The  mill,  ghiini,  made  of  InihKul,  Aeacia  arabic% 
aiid  kept  under  wafer  in  some  well  or  rosoTToir,  is  goncmlly  tho 

{Property  of  the  culiicator.  It  oo«ik  aUmt  £2  10«.  [Hx.  26)  and 
adts  for  two  or  three  seasons.  The  boiling  pan,  kadhat,  is  hirod 
from  a  (rujar  or  a  MArviidi  for  2ii.  (o  in.  (Htv  1  •  tt.t.  2]  a  day. 
The  mill-workers  are  about  twelve  in  nnm)>er,  seren  of  tht'lff 
gha-llfg,  imixtly  of  the  .Mhitr  isnU;,  for  n^moviu^  th^  caue«i  from  the 
lit-M  and  Btripoiug  them  of  their  leaves-,  one  tm-ttW^d  to  cut  tJio 
cane-s  into  small  Iwo-foet  pieccJi ;  two  millvr*,  ghindars,  one  to  feed 
the  mUl  and  one  to  take  the  canes  from  the  other  side;  one 
lireiiian,  ifaffkuli ;  and  one  boiler,  tjaha.  The  boiler  gets  from  3a.  to 
4s.  (IIh.  1  i  -  li-'i.  2)  a  day,  In-^idi-s  an  (•ighly-two  pound  lump,  Mi,  of 
molasses  when  the  work  is  finished.  1'he  others  got  fr\>m  2^11.  to 
^•1.  (1^-2  nnntif')  a  day,  and  .-iimdl  (pi  ant  it  ion  of  iiiolaxHeM,  uaue,  and 
juice.  Besides  iLetie,  the  village  rarpeuler,  potter,  leather  worker, 
mutlicniiiin,  and  MhAr  havo  their  rrsiK-ctivo  ullowances.  When 
cane  in  being  croalied  beggars  inlent  the  pla<;e  night  and  day,  and 
the  Ktinbi  tries  to  please  them  expectinff  in  thiK  way  to  reap  El 
good  harvest.  In  the  i-vening  tlte  mill  i.t  the  resort  of  all  the  p<Uih 
and  elders,  and  the  owner  distiibutes  juice,  i»ne,  and  bits  of  tho 
new  niola«(MuH,  iful. 

'to.  Chillies,  mircJit,  Capsicum  frntwscons,  with  a  tillage  Area,  m 
1878-70,  of  13,5ti9  acres,  tone  jiurt  of  the  people's  daily  toiKl.  lb 
is  tho  chief  I'leim'nt  in  their  curries  and  enters  nM>n>  or  Ie)*a 
larjjely  into  all  thuir  other  dishes.  Honi;o  every  caltivator 
trioii  to  kwp  a  suitAble  corner  uear  a  well,  or  other  watep- 
vnpply,  iu  which  to  gn)W  st  least  enough  for  his  household  wants, 
ttown  tn  the  third  week  of  May,  the  aooda  ani  eyculy  scattered 
■.      a  4ll~--i3 


Chapter  17. 





Cki>pt«t  nr. 





Abm(  AfiriOM. 


orrr  n    riclily  nuinurMl  "hed.     Water  i»     ffirtm 
divtDg  .the    (!m    wix'k,  aud  ii(t«>riwsrd«  onoo    a    wectk. 
June,  after  the  first  sliuwor,  wlion  about  nix    incbcM   hiph,  tlw^ 
plnnLi  lint  r«i><i?  for  ninvitig.     Tlii'v  nre  jiut    out    iti  fxttrs.  " 
feeit  amrt.      l)iiriu«;  ibe  early  sta-  -r  f^rowt)!  ibi-y  " 

often  hoed  wilb   tho  h.iSpa,  and  "L-.l    .  iv  fTiiit   in   at-tfi: 
lUtrtpjlhpr  writbhold.     Aftflr  tbi-  Hiiivprx  am  ahnd  u  small  t 
of  manure  Uapplied^and  thonHual  wat«rm)iresuniiMl.      iVi 
two  crops  >  ywir,     Th«  fin<t  or  grevn,  crop  in  ;^cbE>rt>ij 
middk'of  Aiiguat  andeoldst  tbcmt^^ofnboiil  thrui> 
(SO  or  40  lbs.  tho  mpe«).     The   late  or  dry  crop  c<imc« 
^l»ter.     Wlifn  fully  ci)lfMrcd,  tlm  jwds  are  ptckiil  iiud  s 
ann  nntil  tborxMiRhij-  dry,  wbeu  thoy  are  ixtllnl  red, 
mro  worih  »bout  i<t,  u  pound  (12  ponnda  the  mpco). 

41.  Brinjal,  i«inoi,  Solannm  uolongcna,  is  gmwh  .^  „., 
w»r  M  obiTlivfl.  Bnt  ok  it  it  subject  to  the  attaclcin  of  M 
aader-groatid  eutMniet,  it  U  u^mi!,  iit  tbo  time  of  traiupkq 
to  smear  the  roots  with  a  mixture  of  a  Imsket  nf  bufTnlo  dmiJ 
«  tola  of  KHMtfu-tiilu  in  two  \niU  of  water.  If  grabs  niipmr 
tbe  plant  ia  (frowinjr,  they  are  UHiuilly  ifot  rid  of  by  placiae 
maiD  vrater  chaaDol  II  1ai-gvba({withas3'afa>tida,  gnrlio,  ciuup&a 
nulpbur.  Sundwjr  in  tbouglit  thu  Im-liiost  day  for  transpL 
btinjals,  and  alao  for aprinklinff  the  pituiiii  with  cow's  nrine  to 
•gainst  l«if  inwola.  When  the  fmit  is  email  and  pour,  the 
onre  in  to  lay  a  dead  dog  ia  tbc  waIit  chiinnvl.  1'he  ordiuarj 
is  less  than  a  liitir-[K.-nny  •  pound  (i  lbs.  for  oao  iinna). 

42.  Sweet  PoIaloeB,  rat^lu,  Ipomu.'n  batntas,  evid<mtlj'  a  t 
of  thd  ooiniuoD  potato,  are  planted  in  Jiiuu  and  B<tioi'tini 
Warch.  The  ground  wintis  mncb  manure,  cowdnng  aahcai 
thought  the  brat.  As  in  the  case  of  tho  bclvl  iToepor,  the  cliij 
Ktems  are  nit  into  leii^lha  of  about  fifteen  iuchen  sind  planted) 
soon  a^  the  cuitiutjs  have  utriu-k  miit,  they  are  hoed  witb  th<;  J 
The  cropwiinta  freipnmt  but  not  over-heavy  waierin^.  Thegrl 
regularity  and  cw-u  are  n-<(iiired  to  save  it  from  the  nttan* ' 
minute  grnb,  Wbeu  the  tubern  aro  full  ^>wn,  to  help 
ripen,  tbo  watering  i*  stopped.  It  is  a  splendid  vegetable, 
eat«o  v«pecially  on  hat  day». 

Field  and  garden  tillage  are  not  dearly  separated. 
and  methods   are  the   same,   and  gardening  i«  tittle 
Ipecial  branch  of  the  tillage  of  watered  land. 






astannm  whiwaa 

BMta.                        1 


V»n.     ...       _ 


Otrtt^                       1 


(inMn   ^.       .m 

tMiumm*  ... 

f«>Ab                        1 





Ctrrct  ... 

DmiMi  cvbU 




Rapluiiui  lallviii 




CaKuih«  lf«M 



Giufvr  .» 


43.  PotatooH,  batdia,  Bolanom  tuborotttim,  kto  tittle  grows. 
'tbe  soil  is  too  i^icky,  anil  (iv«n  whan  the  difficulty  of  soil  }ib£  heoD 
»»orw>mo,  (Ito  ditiuitd  doea  uot  adinil  oi  wt.V  gn^Jit  Niii;<r^-NK. 

-44.  YatnE,  goradu,  Vn)»ci)tt!n  alaia,  are  iuBiiage<l  in  much  the  name 
ray  k^*  nim^t  jxitatOL-s.  Inhere  are  tvro  or  thri<u  tniltivatvd  kinds,  and 
evei-iil  wholesomo  wild  y»m»  an-  {{ftUiorvd  both  for  food  and  tncdicioe. 

4''i.     Oiiiun.'',    hdn^'i,  Allium  ocpa,  arv  a   most  important   crop. 

reat  caro  ia  bostowed  on  thorn,  tHu  leyHhtiu  differing  Uttle  from  tbo 
WBt  praciico  of  Kui-ojiuaii  gitnluuti.  Ke&red  Ui  aced-beds,  tito  young 
JiknU  are  put  out  in  lines  on  pn>parcd  j^und.     I'lto  ouion  crop 

kes  three  months  to  ripoo  and  should  be  watered  once  a  Eortuight. 

40-  Onrlfc,  tagun,  Alliam  nativwrn,  is  treated  in  much  th« 
e  way  aa  ouiou.  A  poivnnia)  plant,  it  Ik  propagated  by  diriding 
he  ro«)ts  which  imv  inadu  up  of  a  number  of  small  bulbs.  The  crop 
«ota  couataut  and  i;aref  ul  watering,  and  is  ready  tit  nbout  4(  montha. 

47.  Carrots,  yiijar,  Daticus  carot*,  are  widely  grown  and  witJi 
rt<at  Mucu;itit.     Tiin  ohiiif  KhAndealr  carrot  is   long  and  reddinh,  in 

kvour  not  much  inferior  to  tho  boat  Etiro)H.<9m  kinde.     The  &e«d  is 
klways  f^>wn  on  iht-  third  or  fourth  day  befor*-  tho  nni.Jr<(,*yo,  tlir  hist 
■^  of  iba  Hindu  munih,  as  it  is  boltcvgd  that  the  woody  heart  ol 
he  carrot  will  thus  bv  rodnccd  to  the  sntallosl  posMible  stiio. 

48.  Radiabes,  mufa,  Kapbanun  HalivuK,  are  of  two  Iciuda  or 
olonrs,  wbit«  and  red.     They  are  much  grown,  and  are  eaien  boib 

>w  and  b'lilud.     The  loart's  are  osod  as  grwns. 

49.  l\imifnc,  Imlad,  Curcuma  longa,  ia  of  two  kind:).  Onv, 
Lighlv  aromatiCf   is  nsed  aa  a  medicine  AaA  a  seasoaiog  for  curries 

d  ddK     'lie  other  is  n  dye  stuff.     (Sm  3fi).  ^ 

60.  Ginger,  <ile,  Ziugiber  ofDoinale,  wants  free,  manuring  with 
qaBl  p«rlsofhon*e,  cow,  and  i*heop  dung,  The  wed  in  sowu  any  lirae 
rora  April  to  Kiiptoinbi^r,  and  tIll^  r(M>t«  are  lit  for  digging  afl«r about 
lightoen  montha.  The  aft«r-manaf;ementof  thcrools  dcfwudson their 
uality  and  tho  claw*  of  artielw  for  which  they  aro  host  suitud.     In 

raring  ordinary  ginger,  the  roots,  on  being  dug  up,  are  partly  boilvd 

a  widd.mniitbud  vussel.     Then,  after  dryinp  for  a  fow  days  in  the 

ihade,  they  are  ^l■:-e^»d  in  wi-ak  liuie.watur,  Huu-diii^d,  nt<»>pod  in 

Btrongor  limc-wntiT,  and  buried  for  fernieutation.  When  tho 
^ro)6ul<iii£LSovi;r,lheging^-r,nowcalk-d8HNf/i,isrL'4idy(orthu  mnrkot'. 

Chapter  <  7. 



iHUd  or  Tfg  film. 
X*au«a  at  i/m  mnM 

CnosK-n  lUloa 
Wawr  Utlon  , 
Whit*  Ooutd  _ 

aMte     _      „. 

SIST;:  ::: 


Cummaii  OlBDnbiT 

Ob*imk4       _ 





Oucunto  oit*! 
Oarsrlau  tltnUlM ... 

LacfOArU  mliatlt .. 
ConnbiU  tndoptppi 
Do.  Um»  ... 
frtclKMallna  •■ttnliu 
Utoml*  iiUvD  I 
IM,     uitllHlmui    I 

Muinanllm  otUfwIU; 



JiiUa.     M«lZ    at 

r,t^  " 

rant.  J 





1  Agricnltnre. 


V^tr  Mtlmt. 



172      '  D1SXBICT8. 

51.    S«e4\. 

62.    Tonatoes,  mI  tinv^  Ljcoperaicnm  oecnientam,  aro  foandi 
almost  ererf  aatire  gmnlcs.  ~ 

59.    Comifion    or   UsbIc  Melons,  tAarbuj,   Cacnmis   melo, 
gnnni  id  nutinil*,  in  ti»o  bwlw  of  streainK;  nnil  half  dry  Htits. 
Dsbermeu  and  Bhoia  ahow  wooderful  itkilliu  tlie  growth  of  tbbipl 
UafortnnateljrnDt'Oonnony  <)iiiiutit}' (if  mnnaro  u  nscil,  and  sa 
muuad*  uv  wa«lied  away  ereiy  raioa,  ibe  aniided  miuinre  ia 

M.     Water    Melons,    tarbuj    or  kaiin-jad,  Cncurbita   citt 
Boaipttmc*  gmwD  during   the  raintt,  eitWr  m  gnnlva   frround  | 
millet  fields,  are  ^therftd  green,  and  cooked  as  a  vegetable.      It)  I 
'hot  montiu,  tho  witrir  nn-tun  t»  much  morp  widdy  growm   than  i 
common  melon,  and  forma  a  delicious  cooling  food  for  h)1  rls 
They   aru    sold  vvrir  chvup,   thrvo  funhtnes  (J  nnuMi)    buiug 
orduiary  price  for  a  fruit  of  four  to  aix  ponnaa  weight. 

5d  to  &8.     Qoords,  of  which  besides  thoce  named  there  are  sere 
ancertuiu  itpeciei^  are  inustly  grnwu  in  gardeu.i   in   the   rains 
eaten  cooked.     An  uneataole  wild   botlle  gourd   (No.  5G),  cnlla 
iadva  hhoj'la,   is   umcih  sunglit  uftiT   fur  miiliiitg  flouts.     'IVo 
them,  Grmly  netted  together  with  string,  make  a  very  Hobs 
buoy  for  a  single  swinuner,  and  a  raft  wull  provided  with  them  i 
carry  a  heavy  load  across  the  roughest  river. 

69.     The  Snake  Goord,  padcat,  Trieosnnthes  angnina,  i»  nii 
planted  by  the  Hide  of  a  cottage  or  foooc  over  wbi^  it  is  allowu 
cliiub.     It  is  inncb  esteemed  as  a  vegetable. 

UO.     The  Common  Liu-ge  Cucumber,  kaU^i,  Cuounua  salitiM 
trouled  in  the  wame  way  aa  the  molon,  and  like  the  melon 
Ae  hot  weather. 

61.  Tho    Sniitll   Field    Cucumber,   kdkili,  Cncamis  ntiiisaii 
perhap«  tbo  mosE  valuable  of  t}w  gmird  Irihc,  ik  alike  eaay  of  cnl^ 
in  the  field  or  garden  duriug  ibe  raiue,  aiid  under  irrigation  i' 
tlie  dry  season.     It  is  vatun  both  nt.w  and  cooked,  and  is  ouns 
partictilarly  wholcttome. 

62.  Tho  Comerod  Cacnmber,  fitni*,  Loffia  acutanguln,  is  of  S 
kindi?,  kiHiwuaji  dodkeand  i/ilke.  Th&'ihdkiiit'  loiigdefp-tlut^-dnnj 
eliLV-d  off  and  cooked,  aro  an  excellent  subfetilutw  for  Fnjtich  be 

63.  Tho  Hairy  Cuirumlter,  kdrl«,  Iklomordicn  chiimntia,  is  si^Idum 
grown.     It  is  a  hard-skinned  fruit,  and  baa  to  be  thoroughly  at 
•in  salt  water  befuru  tt  i»  iinud. 


M      tailna* 



s  -■  - 






Ouatall*  Ktullii)!  ...    Sanir  c«  >*«il 

Po>       Tliwa  ...  JtatUon^. 

IMItfiM  ttUiU  ._.  niS^ 

nuaxtaa  fatnrU 







W4  to  66,  All  UiMO  twftns  are  need  green,  sliced  into  eCHpa,  and 
ted.  60  i»  probably  the  wild  uriguial  of  65  wliioh  luut  byvii 
pirated  to  ^rcat  [tvrfix'tion. 

69.  FroHch  Ueaita  are  pretty  geoemlly  grown  near  toinu,  bub 
'^elclom  in  ordinary  coiuitrj-  gardeua. 

70.  Tho  Dhufnii,  (Iibittcu»  ceculoiitiu,  is  grown  cvcrywbcpo, 
9otb  in  fields  and  ^rdL>us.  Fall  of  (ilinij  juioo  wbiclicanbe  got 
rid  of  by  boiling  with  litnc  jtiioc,  it  is  highly  jiriisod  by  all  cliwaus  for 
it»  niioliiig  Htid  rttivugtIiiJtiiug  prupertMs. 

Aluny  wild  planU,  eencciully  mtimbers  of  the  pea  tribe,  are  catcu 
\y  Ihtt  poor  ill  ycfirit    of  swircity.      Scvonil  olbcnt  an)    tuore  or  leas 
duly  grown,  but  ibey  are  mere  ranetiea  ot  tJiose  already  described.* 

71.  S«22. 

£U«HlMlt  Onoa. 













Unm  Hamp 

Onni  . 



Anvulh      ... 


rablanuaDmMnui  A-tMt. 

lUfJhVkOM  HllTIrt     -.  1  tt^ht. 

OutaiaiuUiKlMlcw.   ITar^l 
Tr%M<ll»      faeaam-:  JVrfAJ. 

l-oriindriim  wUtmo.!  XitlUtMr, 
CtHiHituluim  HiUa.-.l  ClUlMt 
•ImUHDlllua  piJjg*'  UnWi, 

IIHFllB  lite,  ko.      -     ira»4L 

AbtljAID  «r«*         S^*im. 

TYibuba  •iinaiFii  -     »c^n>. 

72  to  76  havo  IxKsii  already  described  as  ordiunry  (nv>p8.  (See 
85,  30.  17,  II, -18,  and  'M].  'fhcf  an;  aUo  (jrown  in  garden*  for  thi 
Mkeof  ibeir  young  tviidnrtopi^  which  are  used  aa  grAsuK.  Cultivators 
ostuilly  allow  gnua  tops  to  b<!  gallmred  in  their  fii'ldSj  aa  careful 
uiucUing  brings  a  gn>wth  of  itide  ahoota  and  an  iiicrtiMMcd  yitrld, 

77,  Biltiir    gn-eiis,    methi,    Trigonclla     ftrniimgravuni,    in    tho 
■  •luottt  couiUKjnly   growu   of  all  luitire  ve^tabli^H.      ft  is  c^own  in  the 

QB  and  in  thw  imM  season  under  irrigation.     In  rich  M>i]  it  is   fit 
cutting  abtiiit  tho  third  wi.'>,'W  afier  wtwing,  and  sells  for  a  little 
idor  a  hslf-pi-nny  a  pound  (I    <iiiria  for  four  oue-]M>uud  iMtndk-n). 
liv  ripu  Muda  are  largely  uHod  in  couipouuding  native  medicines, 
ftud  sparingly  aa  an  articlu  of  food. 

78.  (iretiu  ci>riandcr,  knOiirnlnr,  Conandram  Bativum,  is  an 
(izccllt-nt  vcKetnblo  and  ia  g<>uerally  used  for  snwoning  currica  auci 
chntnoyM.  The  ripened  aecds,  dhanc,  pouiidt-d  fine,  are  used  in  moat 
kinda  of  native  diet, 

70,  80,  and  81,  are  all  commoD  Tegulabloa,  the  green  leaf  in  each 
Ctwo  being  llie  edible  part*. 

82.  Bill,  gh'jtu,  Anethum  aowa,  is  grown  all  the  ywir  round 
except  in  tho  three  hot  rai.inth".  As  the  whole  plant  when  young  is 
fit  for  use,  the  t|Qatitity  of  food  obtained,  from  even  a  ttiiinll  plot,  is 
very  great.  The  ripe  seed,  $hop,  is  a  popular  remedy  for  flatulence, 
and  ia  uacd  ua  a  condiincut. 

Chapter  (V. 




[BcmlMj'  CuokI 



'IV.  83,     Ookhm,  TribuluH  terrmtm,  dhuug-b  wild,  in  mi  umrr 

ittiir«.       gn^vrod  ns  u  food  utaS  u  to  dwerve  a  ptuco  amnog  lucal  wu 
nili^.  XUWmI  Spirit  tmd  CWttiMM*. 






OIWW-.         .-. 




OtpilBan  iMUavB*   .. 




ItaoAuB*  oOtoiBumL 




Slnt«M  ttatuu** 




t^it^mtnm  ibUiiuu  _. 




VBfnUH  l-U«l 



Mil  ^rt 

ipcUa*  wn 



Irnmria  wtJiMrom. 


—                                    *>                        -1-                          ..T 


'■-.  — trl. 


CinyLMt    -•      . 

fcfVKB  bmlcll 



ItaMl  -         ~        ... 

fUwI—t^    1  IlllMI 



Ciiliili«B  <]*iliHia 


AbIw  BMd     .- 




ripa  tout     ... 


grom  ii'j 

84  to  90.     5«  50,  ■«*,  30,  26,  78,  49.  luid  82. 
01.     CitrdaiooiiiB,   dchi,  Eluttaria  cardsnuimnra,   are 
BuRicient  qouttitiea  for  locul  wiuiw.     There  is  no  export, 

92.  Om,  Oanim  ptycbotiA.ablind  ncuK'  with  d<>«lif  odorons ImC^ 
is  prelt;  geapraliy  grown  iu  gurdooa,  but  Qovrlioru  very  ext0i»rn^' 
TbV  Btiedii  sro  n»L'<I  im  u  tuediviiiu. 

93.  Cnrry  Loaf,  kadi  nimb,  Borgcni  kunigii,  is  usod  by  Hiate 
to  aetuou  citrrioe. 

94.  65,  and  9lJ.     Fennel,  fraJi  «A(»p,   Fccnicnlnm  vnlgarr, 

jire,  Cuminuin  c^niinnm,  iind  anJEe,  shoi>,  Pftuwdunuiii  fj-raveolei-. 
are  seldom  iwed  as  pot-l»orb«,  and  oven  their  aeetjs  cooH^ 
as  condinmnta,  compete  with  the  much  more  piinfj^mi  nad  ammatit 
Cttraway  bo  cbeajfty  imported  from  Kurope  and  the  Poniisa  p6L 
Among  native  dnitrst  they  keep  a  pniiTiittcnt  place  as  tttomadnt 
medicinoti,  specially  in  the  ailments  of  woiuen  and  t;bitdruiL 

97.  Black  Poi)per,  kdU  tniri.  Piper  nigrum,  is  grown  in  most 
gardenii  but  nowUoro  exttmsiroly, 

95.  Bi^cil  Nuts,  aHp\iri,  Areai  «i(«chu,  are  not  a  product  of  ikl 
diittrict,  althougb  n  few  tre««  are  grown  in  mo»t.  lar^je  gardea«. 

99.  Betiil  lyMif,  ^><!b.  Piper  betel,  ia  ia  gencrnl  uw,  \>emg 
cliewe<]  with  a  little  lime  and  a  slice  of  the  bot«l  nut.  It  is  nmii  Iji 
.atimulate  the  digestion.  But  rf  swallowed  iu  lai^  <iunntiuratl 
c%usos  giddinoSM  and  »>l.her  Hyuiplomtt  of  Jntoxicatiua.  The  cultt- 
vatiou  of  tUi^  betel  vine,  a  common  Khiudtath  industry,  is  curried  ini 
with  astonishing  oocnratry  and  Buce>e«ft. 

The  hotel  garden,  pdtt  mala,  ia  a  work  of  art.  The  bu»t  site  la 
the  well-drainvd  allnviul  bank  of  a  river  or  stream.  The  vine  ia 
rather  fond  of  an  iron  soil,  but  lime,  Nalt,  or  soda  are  fatal  to 
it.  The  well  niiiKi  biat  lliroughout  tlio  year,  be  perfwctly  i-went,  aoil 
not  miir«  than  forty  feet  deep,  otherwise  Uio  cost  of  rai.tin^  rha 
water  eat«  away  th«  gTX'iitci-  iwrt  of  the  pri>fit«.  The  U'lcl  leaf,  it  is 
said,  cannot  be  grown  from  ciianntil  waior,  which  ts  very  cold.  Af  t«r 
the  Bit«  baa  been  chotten,  the  next  point  ia  to  fence  it  from  cattle, 



ioTCS,   aoJ  HtronfT  vriiuU.      First,  is   an  oat«r  Une,  himpan,  of 

tial    wicker  work,  npltt  bKnilKtov,  ztzvplins   tn-i^  jtr  oiker 

■ie  material.     Id §i do  of  ilua  ience  is  a  tludi  milk-buitlt  bvdf^.' 

I'oiiii-M  A  Mi  vt  thv  iargv  viMtur  pUnl,  und  Inst  of  all,  a  row 

plantain  trees.     Tbe  garden  in  laid  out  iu  an  unv^Tying  nattcm. 

wliiilu,  croiwcd  by  vntcT  chanticU  ami   roads,  forms  beds  of 

differeui  nhapea  and  stees.     Kacb  bed,  iciton-u  by  a  piirticubtr  nams 

«it(;b   as  till)  cherittintf,  the   hertang,  and  tho  foj'a,  is  stocked  witb  a 

erlaiu  iiumbtir  nf  vim^,  mi  tlutt  tbr  (mt^1lrn  nnd  otbor  |MrticuIara 

if  a  garden  tan  be  calculated  with  great  nicely. 

AAor  the  gronad  has  boea  laid  out  and  properly  lerelled,  tre« 
dft  are  si:iwti  for  tbo  vitiiui  to  tmin  on.  Utiund  thv  edgv  of  each* 
is  a  line  oFo/«ft'r/,  ^^esbaniaiBt^yptiaca,  and  in  tbe  centre,  £rom  two 
t  bn-i?  (vft  aiuirr,  tin;  wt^M  of  hadya,  Agoti  gisntbllora,  ondpnnyara, 
rythrinn  indica,  and  from  four  to  six  feet  n]>cu-t,  lung^le  <cv<l»  of 
fchci  tiimh,  A/.adiraobia  indies,  an?  planted.  Tn  addition  to  these,  the 
^upai,  C'arica  piipaya,  singly,  and  pbiiitiun  tri'iM  iu  pittm  arc  dotted 
^bont  accordinff  to  tlie  amount  of  shade  required.  These  seed-t  are 
BDWn  in  rho  first  wv«\t  tn  June,  fnri'/ nr)jt.«hafm,nnd  afu<r  thnt,  band- 
^weeding  and  watering  every  eight  days  ia  all  that  is  vrtuiled  up  to 
thf  cad  of  Oeoombcr,  puthyn  nal:t!uilTa,  when  tlm  mirs«  trees  are 
eighteen  inekeci  to  two  fe«t  hif^h  or  large  eiit'Ugh  for  planting  ths 

From  thv  (op«  of  tho  bi'ait  ripened  shoots,  in  tbo  old  plantation, 
inch    oitlingH  turo  takflu.     Tbey   are  first  made   into  Kmall 

ndles,  wrapped  in  plantain  leaves,  soaked  in  the  water  tbey 
have  bcon  )u:(^U!i(oniisI  tu,  i-arrifd  lo  tlii;  nvw  [ilnntaliun,  Koaked  hi 
t1'  'i'^w  watf  r,  and  all  but  twoiips  bnried  in  tbeground.  For  soma 
iiFi..  -.vater  tM  ffiviin  diiily  ;  lati^r  on  nnct!  iu  two  dayif  ;iuid  nfu-rwarda, 
except  during  tbe  bot  months  when  it  is  given  erei:^ other  day,once 
in  six  days. 

From  i-ncfa  nnburied  tip  a  shoot  springs.  When  they  are  n  few 
incbes  long  the  sbool«  an*  Kid  tip  tho  F^lcms  of  tho  nnrse 
treo-->,  nnd  lightly  liinl  with  ^tv\[»  of  a  dried  Kcdge,  path,  so  ela^tje 
that,  witliout  untying  it,  the  pressure  of  the  growing  vine  keeps 
it  looMV  Whi-n  ibc  rinc  hiw  grnwn  to  ihe  jtropitr  hirigUt,  it  is  turned 
back  and  trained  down  until  it  reache.i  the  groimd,  where  it  ia 
layered  in  the  earth  and  again  turned  up.  This  is  r^peatod  natil  the 
trt^c  al«m  in  fult^v  eli>thi.-d  with  vine.^,  when  tho  wbolo  ht  firmly  tied 
with  the  dried  reeds  of  the  tamli  grass.  After  this  the  management 
of  tin?  plantation  cloaoly  resembk-n  the  cullivatJun  of  the  gi»iw  vino 
in  Southern  Kun>pe. 

Leaf  picking  may  bo  begun  oight«on  months  after  planting,  but 
in  the  best  gardent  it  ii«  put  oR  till  the  end  of  the  second  year.  The 
liwresi  may  l>e  gathered  green  and  ripened  artiJicially,  or  they  may 
be  left  to  ripen  on  the  vino,  though  this  redtic««  thoir  viUuu.  Tbe 
Ivaf  picker  ufCn  both  Iiands,  the  thumbs  sheathed  iu  sharp-edged 
till  mil  Ie- like  plates  which  nip  the  leaves  clean  oS  without  wrenching 



Jtor,  Eopliorbla  ncnr*]!*. 






tha  plant.  Tfao  vine-grower  is  either  faimftolf  a  1«Af-<1pal4>r  nr  lur  m'H* 
hi*  crop  in  bulk  to  a  lf)af-daul«r.  Tbi-lr  inble  u(  nioiiMurL-it  u  :  -MM 
lt^Mve!l  Illlike  M  jE:a4^/i  ;  forty-fuur  kaflte  s  itirjiin ,-  an<l  four  '  ' 

7U,4UO  leavea  an  oj/u.    Id  rrUtil  tJiu  luiivt-tt  aro  milil  from  I     •  ■. 

(1  -2  antuM)  the  faaDdnid. 









FlMAA            _          ... 


MucttaslBilM     ... 


Anw  iMUiaa      ... 
D>i.    prtiniua 


hud   ^ 

VHk  tlDlhtn 


PnrnSi*  nr  MiaiMrak. 

UirwavaBUiiB     — 





Una     _ 

Do.    Ilavtu 



MallKTiT       _       _ 





nniAai  JBlnte 



d.-        ^^        .. 




TwimmwHi*  iMt^  ,, 

>t'ial>,at  OUHi. 


VioA  AMAt   ...        .. 
ltMU>«  Kflt 



Dnnaupw    iBMW- 

BuriB  iMlMia 






1  ,s„|a  BuKvts 


100.  The  Plikntain,  Icet,  Mnsa  paradtsiaca,  is  n'idcly  ftmwt 
whenfvcr  wuter  ia  plentiful  and  VHsilr  rnijwd.  ThprvHro  two  tolurahl; 
dintinot  ItindB,  the  nijr  IkI  nnd  the  onminon  kri.  'Vb^.  tAi 
lul  ia  like  tW  Cliioew  banana,  lliefmit,  though  thiuncr  ek' 
and  ^nmcwliat  better  flavoured  than  the  oomtnou  plaDlain,  i 
snitable  for  cooking,  niid  boiu^  a  bgltt  cropper  and  wiintiD^  ini 
wat^r,  i»  but  siaringly  cultivated.  The  common  tbi-&UMV)m«: 
plailtaiD,  iJie  tofsri  of  Giijanit,  the  mondr  of  Mii(lni.-<,  and  the  j/i 
bale  of  Mysor,  is  eaitily  growa  and  yields  freely.  A*  the  £niit  mati 
itii  vpry  thick  rind  become*  ao  toiigb  luid  Iwthcry,  that  the  ripe; 
has  (o  be  finixhi^l  by  artiHdal  lueana.  Newly  cut  hunches,  pi 
into  a  eonical  heap,  are  ooTorcd  with  a  thick  laver  of  clay.  At 
bottom  a  snuill  iipt-ning  ix  li^ft,  tlimujfh  which,  liy  mt>anH  of  a  tul 
th«  jciiioke  ui  buming  cowdung  is  blown  until  the  iuaide  i.t  full 
Binoke,  whvn  thd  ojn'iiing  in  cTowed,  This  i»  repcnl^d  for  oeven) 
days  until  the  plantaina  become y el lowiah  whit«.  Tbey  aw*  then  fulij 
ripened,  and  when  waahed  uro  fit  for  sale.  Good  plantains  mtunil/ 
sell  ata  little  less  than  a  farthing  apiece  (ei^ht  for  1  (irim),  Tb* 
«iiinll  KwnoC  banana,  or  golden  plantain,  is  now  grown  Vt  wue 
ext«nt  in  KMudesh,  especially  near  the  Governinaut  form  where  it 
wiw  introdurwd. 

101.  The  Mango  tree,  amha,  Uangifera  indica,  is  common  ia 

fardi-ns  and  in  Belds  where  it  is  iionally  planted  in  ciimip«  or  gmvi!&  j 
lieTe  are  many  Taiieties,  depending  mainly  on  the  condil.ii.m  of  iIm 
noil  in  which  the  ireo  is  grown.     Though  wholesome  when  ripe  aad 
taken  in  moderation,  the  mango  i»,  in  the  hoi  neaaon,  the  tauiae  of 
much  sickness,  the  poorer  classes  ufbon  eating  it  onripe  and  to  CXCOM 

102.  10.3,  lOl,  and  Hl.j  are  all  common  fruits  and  are  fouud  s"iai- 
times  iu  separate  plantations  and  someUmca  mixed. 



[106.  Tho  r»j»i,  popai,  CaricH  pHpftj*,  w  Bometimes  «ton  raw 
t(l  rip«',  bui  iiioK-  oft.>n  half  ripe  ami  rooked,  ll  grows  raf^dly 
am  seed,  and  as  a  rule  beure  in  fourteeo  months. 

107.    Tho  Grape  Vine,  dralah,  Vitui  vinifpm,  in  not  much  grown, 

only  in  thv  giirdi'us  of  the  rich.    Thu  white  8weotw»tor  i»  the 

^vourite  kind.     U  suffers  a  (tuml  deal  frum  mildew,  CApeciallj'  on 

>ur  land,  but  where  the  subsoil  and  other  conditions  are  suitable, 

bi!  fruit  is  sonii-timcB  excellent. 

llOS.    The  ()T«nK«,  iiart'n^,  Citnui  aurantium,  is  Tery  suooeitafnlly 
9wn  in  some  jyrardeDs.     There  are  sereral  kinds,  oacb  with  ita  local 
IB.     The  Sne«t  flavoured  is  the  »intra.    •  , 

109  und  110.  Tho  Pomelo,  papna*.  Citnut  decnmans,  is  not  much 
own,  being  too  unwrtain  in  iU  bwiriiig.  This  is  also  tho  case  with 
tha  sweet  lime,  atikhar  Ujnbtt,  a  varietT  of  Citms  liinetta.  The  soar 
liiuK  a  in  t^vury  garden,  and  heri>  and  thuro  in  large  orchards. 

Ill,    11^,    and    11-%  oflon   gn.>wn    iu    gardens,    aru    alM    fonnd 

_'rown  round  field.*  aud  in  waste  land.     The  silk  factory  at  the 

ii^.^rnmvnt  farm  hae  given  an  impetos  to  thv  growth  of  tlie  mulberry. 

114  and  ILtiaro  both  forost  tritKt.  Tlie  pod  of  the  Tamarind, 
i-hU-.rh,  Tamarindus  indica,  and  ihc-  frait  (if  tl»e  wood-i^plo,  kavath, 
l'~.  .-MuU  fN-nbantum,  are  much  esteemed  by  nutivv  cooks  for  Uieir 
rich  sharp  navonr. 

1 16  and  117.  llto  Murkiii^  Nut,  hihva,  8on>ecarpas  ana«ardiam, 
and  noha,  Basaia  hitifoiiii,  lliough  imrdiy  gai^an  plants,  are 
geuerally  fotmd  near  villagee  where  the  bifwa  uuta  are  eagerly 
ffatliereu  aud  i;at«n  by  children.  "Pfae  moha  suoceeds  boHt  on  «tii»y 
f[r<fiind.  It  is  asuiilly  owned  by  BbiU  aud  othur  wild  tribes,  who 
t»U  aud  distill  the  tloirera  aud  boil  oil  Eroin  the  rip«  seeds. 

11^  Thf  Bfl,  /Egle  mamictos,  commonly  found  near  Hindu 
'^  )il»nfvd  by  tho  pooplf,  not  so  much  for  its  fruit,  for  only 

'  -  : ,  aa  fyr  tts  leaves  which  aro  a  favourite  ufferiug  to  Shir.  * 

KiAadrsk  FUmtn, 


SMUH.                1 



a-    „               ' 





Niilflm  otana     ... 






IIiII1>Tm    . 

'.^rUn  Uwrftli      ... 



Con)  PUul     .. 





Jk^Klttfim  ^iiitiaii 



mCblmCnrsrr   .. 

Qiitmitllt  TdlArti.. 
QulHianKi  InOkK     ,. 
Arayi*lih  ipwlviA   ... 
nAuttiu  HUina ., 


BufMsOopv    ... 


MaSmm                 , 
PMidiHwnoU    -1 



•■"     r    "..(Bm 



lljxtiilh  jUtn 


rWOm    , 



I  .  u  1  u^iB  niiMMiiii 


119.     Damask  and  China  are   the   muHl   oommoa. 
_    psr|ictaa]  rtme,  ahrvU,  i«  alwi  grwwu  in  goud  gurdi-nn, 
120  to  123  air  flowering  sbruba,  all  commonly  caltivated. 

a  «ii-n 


tbftjr  OHtttt 

Espter  IT. 






124  snd  125.     Be^ideti  the  counnon  ehambfH,  Jfisinit)' 
ftoilini,  nnd  moyra,  Jasaunum   Rambac,   eereral   other  jii 
^metimax  foimti.     TbcHc  two  are  the  fjanicncr's  stock  plnuiK,  uij ' 
the  most  profiiabte  of  nil  iiui^,  [nu<;)i  ndUj^hi  after  to  snpul^ 
jcsamin  flowers  woin  at  festivals,  iiiarmge«,  and  other  rejoicm^ 

126,  127,  and   128  are  beautiful   climbers,  nsually    ptnntodl 
plcaanre    gardens.     Thpy  are  little    culliratod    by    mere    iiuu 

129,  The  Sunflower,  turya  phnl,  IleHanthns  anninia,  i«  i 
ttmps  pTown  for  its  seed  oil,  Imt  tli<>  quautiiy  of  oil  is  too  faat 
jnnke  it  n  piiyiiig  crop  Dliougli  of  excellent  qnality. 

130,  131,  132,  and  133  are  common  in  erery  garden,     Tho  I 
are  sold  for  the  ordinary  pnrposim  of  docomtion,  tho  leaves 
Zinnia  being  preferred  in   the  ghrAddha  ceremony  fur 
oSeringa  to  the  spirits  of  deceased  ancestors. 

134.  The   Red  and  the  White  Lotas,  hamai,   Nyinph<»«, 
abundant  in  every  pond. 

135.  l^e    Amaranth,  jiijirigundi,   Uomphrena    globoKR,  i 
commonest  cottage  garden   aunnsl,   il«  plobniar  Howor  heads 
in  great  demand  as  omameDt)>  (or  women':*  hnir. 

Tho  KMndcsh  OoTemment  Farm  waa started  early  in  1861>  l^ 
Collector  Mr.   L.  K.  Asbburner,  CS.I.,  who  obtained  a  Oovcmi 
grant  of  £2000  (Rs.  20,000).     Mr.  Ashbumer  meant  to  have  cl 
a  sito  somewhere  near  DhiiHa  tho  bead-qiiurter  statioti, 
Dhulia  loud  was  dear  and  difficult  to  buy,  and  the  farm  w 
fixed  about  two  miles  north  of  BhadguoD  where  was  a   consit 
area  of  waste   land.     The  s^ii^i^itiiMt  colU-clor  in  charge  of  III 
began  bv  buying  a  few   fields  brin^ring  up  the  whole  nrca  to" 
acrett     Some  of  the  fields  were  sown  with  cotton  and  other  orttii 
crops,  and  in  April  1869,  the  farm  waa  handed  overto  Mr,  Krvtwefl 
who  had  been  appointed   siiperiutendeiit.     For  the  iirMt  few  yc 
the  continuance  of  the  farm  was  very  doubtful,  and  twice,  for  w^ 
of  funds,  it  wan  all  but  giveu  wpi 

Thu  6»t  impnriant  experiment  wan  tlin  introduction  of 
tobacco.  Seed  was  brought  from  Cuba,  Uavannah,  and  Vii 
and  Shiraz  seed  wiiic  supplied  by  Dr.  Bnlfour  of  Haidnrabud. 
8hiniE  seed.  Brat  sown  iu  I86S  by  Mr.  ANlibnmer  in  his  ^^u^en  \ 
Dhulia,  was  afterwards  sent  to  the  farm,  where  aeeidentidly  mi 
with  the  Virginian  seed,  it  was  in  1869-70  introduced  as  an 
experiment.  The  hybrid  variety  hart  sioee  spread  over  a  vorv  larg* 
area,  proving,  if  not  the  finest  of  the  foreign  kinds,  at  leaat  the  bo* 
soited  to  the  climate  and  soil  of  Kh^ndesh. 

Amateur  experimenlji  have  alao  been  made  in  curing  the  leaf  for 
the  Tarioos  forms  of  prepared  tobacco.  So  far  as  thoy  have  goat, 
tbeee  experiment*!  seem  to  ehow  that  cheroot -making  in  not  likelyla 
succeed,  but  that  the  manufacture  of  cake  tobacco,  such  as  bladi 
cavendish,  or  even  golden  leaf,  is  fairly  practicable.  Thongh  it 
might  not  for  a  lime  make  much  way  in  European  mnrket-s, 
tobacco  would  readily  take  the  place  of  tho  lower  anrt.'*  of  Amerii 
tobacco  ao  largely  used  in  India  especially  by  the  European 




Tboagb  rnrioufl  minor  pxperimcnu  were  trit-d,  for  the  first  twO'  or       ChapttK* 
lyeam  llio  farm  wanii  coUou  fnrm,  olborcropit  being  denltifith      A^riciUCs 
necessary  iloma  iu  a  roi&tton,  Uie  object  of  wUicli  was  die  growth        tiovotniM 
coltoD.     Hin^aiiglt&t  cotton  was  introduced  into  KbandcHb  in  fun. 

P864,  HD<]  cliiefly  l>v  ibc  free  dtstrihulion  of  sot-d,  BOon  dispUasI  the 
rae  BhorUsiapl&d  IochI  Vitrhiidi.     Hingangb£t  lina  iu  turn  been 
L'ljr  iHipvrMKlod  by  American  Gcclimatified  in   Dtwrw^.     Tbiii  la 
3W,  as  a  rule,  nown  on  at!  lighl  lands  ne  n'oH   »«  ou  th«  i«*s  wtieky 
ada  of  black.     The  choice   from  yeitr  to  y<»ar  of  ihe  tiwfst  of  the 
lace  for  seed   has,  since    1808,  been   carefully  c&ri'ied   on.     Tliti 
I  thiw  oblainod  in  every  year  sold  to  tho  neighbotiring  eultivniorH 
I  sow  in  their  fields.     Latterly  the  denutnt?  has  much  exceeded  the* 

Thi*  «c«nnty  itf  field  InWnr  has  tbronghitut  boon  u  >;Uudin){ 
kindrauce  to  the  farm.  Kuiibi^t  have  seldom  to  leave  their  family 
siding*  in  search  of  work,  and  UhiU,  &Ihdrs,  and  other  day 
H>urt»  urv  uiiually  so  irregnlar  in  tbcir  hsbils  as  U>  be  unlit  for 
irk  involving  care  or  skill.  Iu  1869  arnuigemenls  were  made 
itb  the  Bombay  Commissioner  of  Police  to  supply  a  number  of  freed 
tTtM.  Hevenil  batches  ciiinu  from  time  to  litne  and  were  gradually 
trainel.  A  few  ran  away  aud  otberwi^o  misbehaved,  but  moat 
tnnii'd  ont  well,  becoming  tho  most  useful  and  trusted  work?ncn  on 
|be  f&rm.  In  1875,  the  whole  of  them,  aWul  sixty  in  nil,  accepted. 
le  offer  of  the  Chtireh  MiaHionary  Society  aud  went  to  South  Arrtca 
fonn  an  agricultural  colony,'  The  sudden  %^-ithdrawal  of  such  » 
number  of  workers  was  a  groat  toss  to  the  farm. 

In  1874,  the  farm  whs  placed  u&der  the  management  of  Mr.  ^H^** 
ii  and  on  the  new  footing  of  self-support.  A  farm  that 
i>u,y  was,  it  wn»  argned,  no  fil  lutidel  for  native  buabandmeu. 
Under  ihia  system  all  experiments  were  given  up,  and  only  crops 
rtain  tti  my  were  grown.  The  rosnlts  were  not  sali.ifactury,  and 
1S76  the  iiutitution  wn.i  restored  to  its  former  position  as  an 
bxperimental  farm.  The  farm's  chief  siiccessos  have  been  tb*- 
itmducti'in  of  Mnurilius  augarcnnc  from  Ilailal;  tlie  spread  o£ 
SbirAs  tobaceii  over  the  district ;  the  regular  use  of  machinerj*  and  the 
pmody  of  mauy  defects;  the  successful  n^iiring  uf  silkworms  and 
cling  of  silk  ;  the  growth  of  mulberry,  lUvidivi,  logwood,  bamboos, 
larinns,  aud  other  useful  trees;  the  diadbvery  of  several  new 
Ibros;  and  the  introduction  of  w)  improved  breed  of  cattJo  from 
'Ijraor,  Guntnr,  and  Qujai^t.  ■ 

The  erOM  betwova  tlw  foreign  and  tfav  nativo  broods  of  cattle  has 

luced  a  race  oi  excellent  milkerii.     Cbeaie. making  i.t  ut  ijritNitnt  & 

jlfjrct  of  cxpt-riineot  on  the  farm.     A  stnd  of  Arab  pony  stallions  baa 

aen  ailded  lo  ihe  farm  »i<>ck.     Two  Arab  iloiikeys  have  also  boon 

ited  for  mule-breeding,  and  an  improTement  is  being  attempted 

the  br^ed  of  sheep  by  crvssing  tho  couot<y  sbeop  with  the  heavy 

tt<tailwl  Airiooo  aoitnu. 

•  nnwalhwMtiacnMiCMiwtotliAbrvility  llr«4  (d  tli«  0«U«  MthwtliaB  lafcsU. 
i«]i  kM  no  oooksd  (ooit,  snil  vbc  iipiorut  fl  aay  lOTt  at  iIIUm.     Wbcii  tlwy  Mt, 
kfj  hmX  l«uaad  hmas  haUU  imi  ec^kf^.  uiil  hkit  uminwl  a   uir  kiiowlodc*  ><(  tlw 
'  Miiit  ti  lh«  ooKinaiia*  eivp*. 




C3t«pt«r  IV. 




Ip   I87i,  B  clasA  VTM  opened  for  stipendiary  apprvntiora. 
appreuticin  ttre  lada  botwoou  firto-n  anil  - 

Cii(tiTBti)r«  paying  a  yearljr  GoTeruineur  - 
wtu  have  paued  the   fourth  vomatiilar  i^uuxlrard  v\hiji 
who  promiM)   to  •«*it#  for  thrv*-  yi-urs  noil  li-aru    all    '. 
Earm  work.     They  have  free   quartern  aud  n  monthly   nlli 
£1  {Vm.  10)  th«  first  Totu-.  <I  4«.  (Its.  12)  the   ■•(.•ooud,  lud 
(IU.I5)  tho  thinl.     Bvvoml  yuatlt*  \mvv  fiaialicK]  their  ttTniit.j 
Btartod  foroiiu^  aad  stock- hreodiuK-     Sn  for    tlie^ 
cn>dil   to  their   tmininff,     An  erening  class  tor    tl . 
reading  uid  nritiii)^  IiaiiHlM)  hven  opi-nc-d  on  tbn  Eiiriu  lor  thel 
'the  boys  atid  young  uieo. 

The  general  opinion  of  Europeans  in  leilia,  who  have  util 
native  agriculture,  mk  that  it  u.  vnuttoful  and  i>f  Ht<>niluHH.  Mr.  Stc 
ia  HitiHDod  that  this  opiuioo  '\m  unbound.     Consiilt^riufl'  his  i 
and  tlie  monns  at  his  dispoRal,  il  is,  sajs  Ur.  f^torrnont,  ilif.. 
suggest  any  deddod   reform   which   thu  cultivriutr    L-nn   affoi 
carry  oat.     EspeciBlIy  with  Ihe  sprrad  of  irriyntiou,  maaim!  m 
great  want.     The  supply  can   Ix'  only  f^adually    incn^aaed. 
Bweopinga  and  nighi-soil  must  be  bettor  stoii'il  and   more 
spread,  lirewood   must  be  chvapeDod  and  take    tho  placu  oil 
dtmg  caktfM,  and  the  practice  of  stall  ■fi-udiag  and  ebe  aae  of ' 
mnit  boooms  more  gieneral. 

The  first  nttvmnl  u>  grow  silk  was  made  in  1820  by  Mr.  G—, 
tho  Collector.'     Tne  wornta  were  nut  tho  local  Imar  sillcwomuT 
what  they  were  and  wlieiicx,'  they  came  is  not  k&owu.     in   \  ' 
mnlberry  garden  with  a  Buiall  vstabli^hmom  wax  opvnod  in 
and   a  sample  of  the  silk  was  sent  to  Bombay.     A  ctmui 
silk  brokers  proaonncod  the  Munpio  inferior  and   not  anitad 
Cbiua  or  English  market.  For  local  nianuf»ctiin>  it  whn  valnod  of 
14».  to  I8*.  (Rfl.  7  -  Ra.  9)  a  ponnd.     Strong  hnjics  were  fu\*  nai 

■  that  the  silk  would  improve  if  tho  tTvos  gave  bettur  food.  In  | 
Kbiintlesh  silk,  clnsiMia  with  third  or  fourth  clttsa  Canton  silk  ww 
«old  in  Dhulia  at  Iftr.  (Ha.  9)  tho  pound.  In  Xi^^l.  Sij^nor  Mnttt, 
an  Italian,  sti{)orint«ndont  of  ailk  nilltiro  in  the  IXiccau,  inxpcrtvil 
the  Dhuliii  silk  factory.  He  reported  that,  Lhoiigh  in  clmiTBts  of  ttww 
peons  entirely  ignorant  of  tho  proper  mode  of  tnjatiHi^  tbo  wwaa 
ftuti  winding  the  silk,  tho  worms  and   nialborry  trees   throve 

.    He  was  Hurprisod  to  find  tho  silk  so  superior  in  qnnlicy.    It  w 
%t    frotu    £1    I*,  or  t\  6#.  {Ra.  12  or  13)  a  puimd.     He  jw 
noticed  the  luxuriant  growth  of  the  mulberry,  bnt  complained  tloJ! 
instead  of  in  n)wK  close  togothcr,  they  should  have  bt^vn  pla 
twtinty-fiv©  feet  apart.      To  help  Mr.    Giljeme's   oxporimonk 
Bombay  Govemmont  axkod  the  (lovemm«nt  of  Bengal  to  send 
convicts  with  their  bniiliea,  skilled  in  the  management  of  silkwo 
and  in  the  winding  of  silk.     The  convii-tH  cntno  bringing  with  t] 
a  quantity  of  eggH,  but  thoy  wore  urnl  (o  IViua  instead  of  to  Dm 
In  1 838,  Uovom  ment  having  determined  to  concontrato  aQ  thoiroi 

'  Wlk  in  Ittdi*.  by  Mr.  /.  G*ogh»gwi,  0(».lier.S»w»twj  to  ibe  Oovemnujut  of  ] 




tho  Poonn  experimonts  under  Si^or  Mutii,  cinde  over  the  Dhjflia 
RCtor?  to  s  Bobora  nKiiii'O  Niir-ii(Uiltii,  who,  fi-om  titlior  rtpi-fltilitlimi)', 
ifter  a  few  )i.«r<  lic-came  Itankrupt,  and  tbo  mltare  of  sUk  wiw 
a  lip.  The  failure  of  tbo  (.■x)n'riiiifiit  wao  uning  to  w(in(  of 
%KoiaI  kuowkdpt  »mi  (■xjH-ricin^ft  iit  the  perwjua  eu^giHl.  Mr. 
'Bibenif'if    nifuruialiou   waa  enlirely  tbeorftienl.  aod  bo   seema  to 

iTc  Ml  the  diBtrict  soon  after  the  cxpcrimcut  hcgnii.  Hismiwx-fisor 
k  no  particidnr  intcn-Ml  in  Iho  auhject  and  it  was  aegli'<!ti>d. 
'he  pxpcninviii  wuH  Hufflcieut  to  prove  that  tbo  diglricl  was  in  a 
igh  di-^ree  suitable  both  to  the  tnullKtrry  tni'  mid  Ihc  iiilkn-t>rra. 
a  iHiii,  the  epccial  nitvntiou  uf  the  liH.'sl^iithuntifta  wait  dirc^t^td 
D  tbo  sHlijix:t  of  jiilk,  but  nothinjf  se«ms  to  hoTi-  been  done.  In* 
l867j  Mr.  Ashhumer  the  Collector  applied  fur  »  yearly  ffrant  of 
',1hO  {Us.  I&UU)  U)  etiuble  him    to  iiilrodiiee   the   culture  uf  silk. 

e  obsorrod  that,  the  first  taperim^t  had  not  received  a  f»ir  trial, 

,il  thiit  this  second  attempt  could  *e  made  under  more  feivourable 
nrcumatances.      The  «ilk  distrielt*  uf  llciigai  were  cnnn()ot«4]  by  rail 

ith  Kh(iiid<wli,  aud  iho  [wojile  were  ready  to  take  up  any  apeculntion 
ikcly  to  pr<jve  pTv>6table.  Mr.  Ashbumer't  pro(n>»»l  wim  sanclioned  ; 
Mit  as  he  Bix^Q  nftur  left  the  coiiiilry  on  furlough,  the  rxpcrimunt 
lid  lujt  make  umeh  pregn-^ici.  Tbe  eatnblii^hment  was  united  with 
tliat  of  the  Model  tarm  nnder  Mr.  Fretwell,  who  rijiited  Mysor 
tu  i^tidy  the  nuiriuff  of  Kilkwoniut.  In  April  IHGQ,  (he  Collector 
Mr.  Sheppard  ri^jjorted  that  he  was  goin^  to  push  on  mulberry 
cultivation  during  the  n4>xl  ruins,  and  hoped  t'U  he^^  the  rearing  »t 
Wtvmiit  in  the  t-oU)  wenthor.  Meanwhile  th*;  farm  wiw  reduced  lu  » 
oottoii  farm  and  tbe  silk  esperiments  fell  to  tbe  Kitiund.  In  1870, 
Dr.  Hainbritl)^*,  Mtiptrrintendiml  ol  the  Oliuliii  jiiil,  Ik-^iu  an 
Crxp<!rimeui.  with  some  500  egRS  of  a  variety  which  i-an  llimugh  all 
ita  eta^s  in  about  sixty  dwyx.  Thir  sets!  lamie  fmiii  the  DhiirAvnr 
j(ul,  aud  the  first  brt-ed  was  successfully  fed,  and  thuugb  stunted, 
was  healthy.  Of  about  8000  worms,  lOOO  died  oarly.  The  reat 
w«re  liirye  and  utmag,  and  300  niothii  yieldt.'d  &0,O0O  cgg»,  whii»c 
lialchin^  fell  due  in  the  beginning  of  June.  Three-liftiiH  wera 
bat<'hed,  but  all  died  within  n  fortnight  either  from  excessive  heat 
or  from  tbe  smell  of  a  uci^hlMiuniikc  lutriue.  The  co<'uodn  .5100  in 
number,  after  killing  the  chrysalis  in  hot  water,  weigbed  on  an 
average  2 -t  grains.  8U«idy  cffortii  have  i«iii<:e  been  made  to  rear 
ailk  worms  at  the  Bbadgaon  farm.  But  so  f&r  tbe  results  have  been 
tlisnp  pointing.  < 

blights  ar«  rare,  and  iiorer  so  widenpread  oit  to  affect  tfatt  general 
1utrve:%t.  Cotton  oceasiouaDy  suffers  &om  a  blight,  duyii,  uniler 
which  the  flowers  aud  pods  fall  oR.  Ploughing  K^tween  the  rows  in 
said  to  bare  a  good  effect,  and  if,  at  the  same  tiuit^,  a  sliower  of  rain 
falU,  the  dioeaso  ia  said  to  bu  sure  to  stop.  Indian  millet,  j'l'.irii, 
w>uict)iiiu!t  HiifferK  from  a  similArdiiiease,  brought  on  by  mist  or  dew, 
irhich,  tiuding  its  way  between  the  grains,  csusea  them  to  fall  off. 
lb  also  vufTen  every  year  more  nr  leitH  from  diseases  known  aa  kann 
and  ^ii<ii  brought  on  by  haziness  in  the  weather.  Ban  nulTering 
from  kni\f  becomo  elongated  and  of  a  pale  hlac  colour,  and  wImju 
tonched  by  thu  hand  cover  it  with  liliu-kish  duift.  Q<^*ai,  or  the 
ascetic's  luiir,  is  the  name  given  to  the  long  black  plume  into  which. 







tiniler  this  difcase,  tho  Iit'nUhj'  btwil  of  f^rain  i«  tunnel. 
Hcii&etimM  millfj-s  fmm  n  liligbl    Iniown   lu  nuk   and  utnik.     (.'• 
hiijri,  aiid  j'nirt,  nbvtt  tlit'  pod  oreiaris  ripeniunr,  xnfTer  fn>Hi  « 
fnil  i>f  ntin  whicli  cuusotv  lliu  thin  sUlkn  Ui  rot  aud  givi>  w«y, 
moe  ituffi>n>  (mm  Mivi^ral  eiUMnics.     llie    whiU't  ant,  udkai,  i 
two  kinds  of  grabs,  alu  and  hamni,  sometiintaii    nuke  great 
Cold  weAlhvr  crops,  inrludin^  wht-nl  uiid  ^rain,   itulTor  muc^ 
cloiiiliiii:«Jt  niid  fnixis.     Ah  n  prcvriilivc,  ikslu**   nnd    cciw'h 
Bprtukled  rouud  the  cro|M,  and  ilte  6«1<1   U   (Kimoliiueii 

UK-tistK  havw  iioni«Liii;i>«  viaited  the  diJttr^cl,  Imt  uevi-nn 
•numlxTs.  to   do    mufli  b»nu.      In    1869,  a   lai-;^   cloud 
diBtrirt  from  iiorlh  to  south,  and  in  1673  md   1878 
injitry  to  thr  hit^-  en>p».     Thi^  Khandi-sh  cnltivHior  li 
visitation  from  (}«d  not  to   l>e_t>ppo»wi.     Kscopt    pntVfm  lu 
gilt  of  a  nim>o  pla«>d  on  tbc  fn\>und  iu  the  diri*ctiuu  u{  their 
nothing  in  dont-  to  stop  lb(^m  or  driv«  Ihcnn  off.      Parnitv  and 
do  much  harm  to  the  grain  crope,  and  niaiEP  and  sugan-nne 
suffer  al  nii,'ht  from  tno  attacks  of  ju-knls  and  pign.     Itats, 
13-t7-'^  and  1878-79,  also  »ora«tiinv«  onu.-«<!  mnuh  liavi>c.     ffm 
soared   aw»y  hy  watchmen,  and  s  good  closo  fiftiixt  ia   th« 
procoction  againnt  j:u.-kals  and  pigs,  bat  no  practical  remc'd/  fn 
nan  yoi  bwn  discoviT\-d. 

BoHideA  the  arottt  Uurgidovi  fomine  (1396-  I4U7),  which  is 
have  rc'dnced  tfao  popuhition  of  Khindpsh  to  a  fv>w  BhiU  and  1 
the  only  scarcity   iiieuliiincd  bcfom  th»  Iiegiuuing   of  th"  n 
MDtarr  ia  that  of  Iti^y.     lu  thai  yt^r.  followinp  the  mv;i 
camp  a  total  failnre   of  rain.     Lands  famod  (or  Ihuir  nt  m 

utterly  barrou ;  Ijfc  was  ulFurftd  for  a  loaf,  bat  none  woulu  bur; 
ntnk  for  n  calco,  lait  not»e  cared  for  it.  The  ovvr-bountiMtnit  huid 
Was  strett-'lieil  oat  to  beg ;  and  tho  rich  wundvrcd  in  tioarcL  of  Enol 
.,  Dog's  Ucith  n-iM  lold,  nnd  llie  pounded  bones  of  the  dead  WMV 
mixed  with  6our.  The  flush  of  a  son  was  preferred  to  his  Iovm.  ITU 
dying  blocked  the  roadsi,  and  tboHO  whoxiirrivi*d  fl^-d.  Kood  housei 
were  opened  at  Burbinpur.  Kvery  day  souj)  and  bread  vrerr 
distribntod,  and  owh  Monday  JEoOO  {Rs.  oOOIl)  wi-ro  givi_-i; 
deserving  poor.  Tho  Kmpvror  and  thu  nobles  iiiiulegrcaii  roii: 
of  revenno.' 

^      Td  the  troubles  which  followed  Biijirttr's  ostablinfamcntaa  Penb^ 
KhiinileHh  HulTcrvd  more  tlian  any  part  of  the  IJecrao.     The 
18D2.3   was  not,  aa  regards  rainfall,  n nfa von r able,  nor  had 
scarcity  in  the  neighbouring  district*  caiiiMTd   immigration, 
country  waa  proaperoiw,  wull  wiilcn-d,  and  thickly  peopled,  w^ 
two  seasons  ol  lawlessness  spread  desolation  nnd  famine  from 
end  to  the  other.     The  disorders  were  too  great  to  allow  of 
being  imported,  and  the  price  ro»o  to  more  than  a  shilling  the 
(1  »Acr  the  rupee)-     Vi«t   numbers  died  from  famine  or 

*  tt  i>  denUhil  whHhn-  ll>K  wm  ili*  ipokt  DarsU'W  fiuniaeor  om  »bii«t  I 
VMr*  cwlior.     8ee  brloir  uniliT  "  Ilwtory". 
>  BldahlL*  Ktnu  in  KUut.  VIL  10,  II,  -ad  IT. 


,1  -.--ny  left  their  liom^s  never  to  retom.  To  lessen  tho  pressure 
ss  the  P<'shw»*K  giivuniintMit  nTtoliuhi-i]  imp'^rt  diTtieii  and 
.  w^venue;  Uie  export  of  gnun  was  alojipcd,  pHin-s  wore 
1,  and  lUoasureB  tukeu  to  rcproHs  Bliils,  Arabs,  and  Oilier 
Uxjt".-rw,  By  tlw  *-nd  nf  1804  Iheoiunlrv  wost  nirnin  qaiet,  but 
leOM  oi  lliis  Lime  of  friglilful  inismle  aud  misery  slill  reiiuiin. 
From  1^24  to  ISiO  n-as  a  timo  of  prn^t  scarcity.  Except  a  fetr 
fat  slion'on  no  min  fidl.  Thvrx>  vait  much  dt]itT(.>«s  ninong  the 
',  and  atioui  £91,17(i  (Ks.  9,11,760}  of  the  dittrtct  revenue  wttt 
mitted  in  three  years.  Owing  to  short  rainfall,  from  IbSS  b> 
36  wiMi  n  time  of  ffn^iil  actirclly  and  d  in  tress,  Indian  millet 
"  «  ran^n^  tx-tween  aisty-iwo  and  seventy-lhree  pnuudK.  Ip" 
-Sy  prices  rose  from  121 A  to  S0{  pottndit,  and  remissions 
ounting  t«  £6iv>81  18«.  (K«.  6,65,819)  wore  granted.  In 
,&i-l-4.'>,  and  agniu  in  IKi&.-K),  the  failure  of  tho  tnlter  rain 
,nsed  much  distress  and  made  large  remiBsions  necessary.  lu 
855—76,  on  aocouuL  of  want  of  rain,  u  largu  »nit<  of  land  remained 
lOWit,  and  where  sown,  the  crops,  especially  in  Cli<ip<lit  and  SiiviLi, 
id.  A  great  part  of  tho  labouring  population  loft  the  district, 
evon  eomt-  of  thu  woll-lo-do  <ndtivnt<irM  wcro  Imnl  pressed.  In 
lyme  eases  from  60  to  ITt  per  cent  of  the  assesaruent  was  rrmiltod. 
tetvrcen  1^62  and  IHGQ  tho  rainfall  was  scauiy,  and  ou  aceotmt  of 
he  rt-ry  high  price  of  cotton,  the  (frain-growing  area  was  much 
e«luc«d.  Indian  millet  rotte  from  fifty<two  to  lfairiy<6ve  pounds  llio 
npee.  Biit  wages  were  high  and  work  was  plentiful,  and  tlia 
ftoouring  <'1a«»vs  pausvd  through  this  p«^iod  of  famine  prices  without 
Ducli  sulToriug. 

In  I>^li8<0d,  the  latter  rains  failed  entirely  in  several  sub-divisions 
md  worn  tHinutv  thrnughoul  ihe  district.  Tin-  tnirlv  crops  wore  in 
nany  places  below  the  average,  and  the  late  ones  w8realmo«L  evei^- 
rbere  inferior.  Cotton,  csiH-cially  in  Chiili^giwin,  was  only  half 
to  averagu  cmp  and  the  scarcity  of  gra.-ct  was  great.  FvAr*  were 
luterlained  that  tho  Bhil  population,  suffering  from  want  of  food  and 
if  labour,  would  tako  to  robbing  nnd  plundeWug.  These  fears  were 
n<'n-ii.<ii(|  by  ihr  Arrival  of  Inrgo  uundxtrK  of  dcslttuto  {icn'ons  from 
M»lriv:i[-  and  It.'ijput&ua.  where  the  failure  of  the  rain  wa»  moro 
;omp1ete  aud  the  searcity  amounted  to  famine.  Jiiiri  prices  rose 
ri>m  .sevculy  to  twehly-fi^ior  pounds  the  rupwo.  Relief  workif  were 
tarted,  many  new  roads  were  made,  several  irriRation  works  were 
legun  or  repaired  ;  and  i833  (Its.  bUO)  of  the  land  revenue  woro 
omitted.  * 

In  1871-72,  except  a  few  partial  showers  in  September,  there  wad  » 
total  failure  of,  aud  moat  of  the  cropn  wttlici-ed.  In  the  middle 
of  NovemlxT  then?  wii.-<  IicAvy  rain,  but  it  came  too  late  to  snvo  tho 
tarly  crops  and  did  little  good  to  the  lat©  harvest.  Owing  to  large 
importations  from  the  Central  Provinces  tbvro  waa  no  want  of 
grain,  pric«:<  falling  fniin  thirty-seven  to  fif^'  pounds  tho  nipOP.  Rvlief 
works  were  ondertaken  and  ramisaions  to  uie  extent  of  £37,520  16v. 
(Rs.  S,7S,2(>8)  granted. 

The  •cAOty  minfall  of  1876,  H'i  inches  oompftred  with  an  average 
IbF  24'24,  lad  to  failure  of  crops  and  distress  over  abont  half  of  ths 

Chapter  \y. 










IBombftf  I 



(lixlnct.'  The  atut  tmd  north-east  iiaffered  most  aeverelj.  In 
HiMition-to  th«  failure  of  ihe  early  crope,  only  a  few  ehovrers  UA\  in 
Spplejnher  and  Oftobur,  and  most  of  tbc  Kuld-wciUhcr  t'n>p«  that 
were,  sown  jM'riiOus).  Wilb  Ivi^h  gntin  {>rioi>:t,  iitilbl  iit  2ri|  iuslead 
of  fifty-fi>ur  ponudA '  the  rupee,  aod  v«ry  little  demand  for  fioM 
work,  the  poorer  clafiSf>s  foil  into  diHtrc^ss,  and  ttlwut  Ihti  midtUi!  ol 
Si'ptembcr,  tho  m'^d  for  Govemmvut  huip  lii-gan  to  be  felt.  Aa  Iha 
fcjn'in  dt-nlent  were  holdiof;  liack  their  etoree,  sbont  the  middle  of 
N<jveinl>er  several  of  tlic  municipalities  upeni^  RTHiil  Khom  and  EM>ld 
frmin  to  tho  poor  »t  (>(tHt  prici-.^  Thi»  hml  no  iippreciabfe  ^eet  on 
th(-  market.  Through  all  the  cold  and  but  weather,  phoes  remaitit'd 
^  hi^h,  and  distress,  though  not  very  severe,  n*a«  witliutprend.  llie 
Doxt  nuns  (Judo  ltS77)  liogun  wull.  But  ugaiu  tliere  came  a  lonx 
time  of  dry  weather.  In  Aofrust,  prices  rose  to  an  average  of  16) 
ponnda  and  affairs  spcmcd  critical.  A  good  roinfull  nt  thtt  Viid  of 
Aiigii9il  rt-vired  thii  fuiliiig  crup.H.  Fro^jH^tK  rapidly  brigbteued,  anil 
at  Che  close  of  November,  the  demand  fur  special  Government  help 
had  ceaeod.  Thongh  prices  were*  hi^h  and  then.*  wiw  mudli  dtMn.«H, 
};niiii  wn#  altvnyM  tiviiiialilv  and  the  Keorcity  never  deepened  into 
famine.  Though  there  were  many  cases  of  mdividaal  sunorin)^,  ifaa 
distrosfl  was  by  no  means  general.  One  village  liHtl  gooil  crops, 
another  bad,  and  field  differed  from  field  a«  much  aa  village  from 
viUikgi:'.  The  diitlreaa  waa  most  felt  by  the  labouring  classes,  tllf 
Bhils  and  Mhltrs,  the  laiter  of  whom  seemed  at  one  time  likely  to 
•  ^ivu  troulilo,  and  by  llie  |H'tty  local  manufaci iimnt  wliose  imluntriiifl 
'aufFored  greatly  from  tlie  failure  oi  the  onJiuary  demand.  Still  tbc 
distress  was  not  so  keen  as  to  drive  people  away  fur  any  length  o( 
time,  and  fruni  llie  inoiv  tieriutiMly  alTectml  dii*tri<:lH,  Ahmedtiitgnr, 
Sboi&pur,  Foona,  and  Sitdra,  many  oulaiders  came  aud  some  haTS 
permanently  settled. 

'TboHtinikte  wu  in  ana  8S0I}  (nuara  tniloiaf  a  total  nf  10.162,  and  iapoanlatfap 
6W,»U  out '>n.09SkMa. 

■  Firty-fiiiii  |>ouiiil>  For  miUet.  &d/r[,  and  Bfty^ix  pound*  fur  laduti   nullcl.j*^ 
were  th«  ontinary  pnCmL 

*  Tliu  foUoa-ii^  itateBDUt  show*  tfac  dotatla  : 

it* taJ  1  jtemftw  gni ■■  Stipt,  ItU^V. 






Dbnlto         _      ... 


nmu         _ 
Xnsdnl        _ 
MuwuBon  _ 
KuOwMi    _ 
Talufti           _       ^ 
Wndkhfd*     _       _ 
Bk«i»1          ...       _ 



Jii1f*«i          ... 

TnuJ    .. 

tKh  l>tr«tnl>r  1^7* 

tHli  K^ivonthU   un 

UUi  Konnnbti  IhTiI 

Mta  Xo^-•lnbn  !«:« 


iwi  JaD(ui7     isrr 

i«lh  NutTmbn  tinfl 
■III  iaxat\        Mil 
Mil  N^vimnn-  u;« 

)t<nvnibv  tlT7 

Aii«>i«     wrt 
Ittb  ^iiuT    larr 

tnAMnul       inn 

'""'.IS     '*'' 

iKh  i>»i*Li">«  im 

lom  XMcubar  i»n 
ftih  Aprtt          Itre 
inih  HrptMibM  l«n 
IMti  ligcanlMr  ISTT 











m^Am  Umm  four  »i»fci  "Ikv  "  Sutmiwr,  ShIliMa.  ?nliMia,  Bid  H>d&  •«»  OMOod  W  fih* 



ffollowitig  detaila  show,  month  by  month,  the  ntate   of  t]i6    _  ChapMr  IV. 
ot  and  the  meiunrOB  taken  to  relieve  the  deatitute.        *  Agrienlture. 

in  September  (187tt),  a  f^ood  tall  ot  rain  oror  most  of  the 
consideTsbly  lowerwd  prieea,  hdjri  taWiua  fi-oni  twenty  to 
^-8ovon  piiiiiiila  (lOi  nhers)  the  rup«*,  and  ^V<iW  from  twonty- 
bi  forly.fivo  pounds  (13  tkert).  In  the  TApti  villaK^s  of  Sivda, 
'  early  cni\vt  liiut  l>eeu  completely  lost,  and  employment  w« 
i-vided  for  about  J 150  of  the  poorer  ciittivntors  luid  labourers  on 
'  S&vdn-Giitnariil  jAlgsOD-NasintlAd  roada.     Encouraged  by  the 

Kt  Hecond  crop  of  bdjri  was  sown  in  places  where,  owing  to  the 
ns  lack  of  moisture,  tho  firitt  bad  fnileiL  Later  in  the  month 
a  full  and  pricea  again  began  to  rise.  The  early  crops,  except  * 
Sie  wesi  and  north>weet  where  they  wore  atiil  fair,  were  foat 
bierinff  or  hiul  pt>ri«hwl.  By  the  close  of  the  month  relief  work* 
10  opened  in  many  parts  of  the  district. 

^«!t<>b(?r    jsuifled    with    only    erne.   t<1i]|;ht   sbon'er  at  NaAirabad. 
arly  ci^pa  were  fair  only  in  the  west  and  north-west,  elu-where 
mngvd   fnjm   middling   to  very  had,  and  in  some  parts  the 
waa  compIet«.     Cotton  was  flufforing,  and  the  young  shoots 
t«  ooid-wvatiier  eropa  were  withering.     In  Jalgaon  and  Pirola 
I  was  great  scarcity  of  drinking  water,  and  grass  was  every- 
scanty  and  pt^ir.     Uniin  priL-eswere  fa«tt  rising,  and  diAtreKii 
idiu.if  antoDff  the  poorer  classes.  Kelief  works,  mostly  repairs 
Is  and   [>>mil»,   wuro   ogxintKl   iu    thu  dintre^sed  i»rt«    and 
ofraent  given  to  over  2000  people.  J* 

November  there  was  no  rain  and  no  improvement  in  haixeat 
Apcctfl.  I'ho  scanty  early  harvest  waa  reagied,  but  most  of  the 
l-WeatUer  crops  (jerished.  In  a  fe*  towns  on  the  railway  there 
1^  Hiight  gniin  imuort»tiona  from  UetAr  and  thn  Norlli-Wost 
^'Viaces.  In  spite  ot  this,  prices  rose  for  hajri  td  m\  aud  for 
^  to  32{  {Kjundd  the  rui>i>a.  The  Bhila  begiui  cliuuouring  for 
^\c.  During  the  month  the  avertige  daily  nnmber  of  perstna  on 
\^  wiu>  :i2d7.'  Thoce  were  all  ablo-lKMlicd  workers,  uxpiKted  to 
1%  f uU  day's  work  and  snperiutended  by  ordinary  publio  works 
pors.  In  the  first  day.*  of  the  month  n  i^iim  of  t300  (Us.  30<)0), 
[Rented  by  His  Uighnoas  Kolkar  for  the  relief  of  the  ^uuioe- 
fckon  in  Kh&iidv^th,  was  placed  at  tho  Collector's  disposal. 
Pecember  passed  without  rain  and  there  wa.i  no  change  in  crop 
►sppcU,  iJuring  the  month  there  were  large  grain  importations, 
i  Inljri  fell  frijm  twenty-iwviin  |x>uiidM,  about  tho  boginning  of  the  ' 
►nth,  to  '18  j  pitunds  at  the  clofie.  During  the  greater  part  of  the  * 
^nth  jc^lri  remFtined  steady  at  thirty-one  pounds,  but  about  the  end 
toae  to  thirty.  The  aveque  daily  number  n>ceiviiig  t\^ilief  rose  to 
Ji,  3267  of  them  on  puljj^works  and  1447  aged  or  feeble  people 
worka  HU]x>rintende<l  bj  ■a^intant  collectors  or  in&mlatd&irs. 


thn  ttOm  at  w*«**  nriit>i"'1v  i"-\  fortbe  workcn  www :  lot  ■  ima  SO.  {2  a>n<u) 
!>;.  fiir  •  vainui  III.  {It  <:  fur  a  buj  or  girl  o4  IK  <1  •"um|.     Aliontth* 

l(ll«  at  Novanbcf  wlivu  jn  ,,.«#  IS  {>(>iiuila  the  fnpoE.  »  •Iklins  loalo  wm 

rndlKTvi  whUh  |iMvidiHl  tlint  iltv  m^.acy  t>M  iImiiIiI  Tftry  witb  tlia  ptlDO  of  grain, 
'  that »  nun  •hould  Uwajra  rK«ivo  tba  ptie«  at  oa*  [)«aiid  ot  (nua  bn  »d<UtM«i  to 


Wi^^  ^'  On  the  1 9th  erf  Jannary  a  very  heavy  storm  of  rain  and  bail  po 

Igiienltore.       over  th£  district.     "Yhv  ram  (I(.>«lroyo«l  thi-  ririrr  Wi]  tilla)^,  hdJ  th 
^^^^^  bail  BtODes,  weif^uog  from  two  oimcea  to  1  {  pounds,  betijde«  {terHnuly' 

^^fjg  damaffiog  mcb  of  ibo  cutd-wtnithcr  crops  us   h»d    survived    ibt 

'     liTT.  drought,  caused  tbe  deatbs  of  many  rattle.     Suialt-pox  luid  fitver 

[  JaiuMru.  vfVTC  proralont  in  tomo  parts.     fitijVi  prices  mnained  steady  at  28| 

pouudH  the  rupee,  and  jedti  prices  fell  from  tk^ly/to  ^^-  About 
tbe  middle  of  the  month  (19th)  tbe  pay  of  non-ab'lebodied  workers' 
wan  raduwd,  and  at  the  aante  timu  thu  tnak  t««4fwusvuforood.  TIm 
result  of  tluB  ivaa  that  tbe  numbers  on  relief  fell,  on  public  works 
from  i}267  to  2125.  and  on  civil  works  from  1447  to  803. 

In  the  liRtl  lukif  of  ihu  month  there  wan  a  fall  of  about  €8  cxmU 
of  rain.  The  prain  importations  were  aliffht,  and  prioes  rose  for 
bdjri  from  28^  pounds  at  tho  bc^Doiu^  of  tho  month  to  26{  poondi 
at  the  close,  and  for  jedri  from  54)  to  81  ponllds.  Sniatl-pox 
prevnivnt  during  the  whole  month.  The  numhors  on  public  worH 
rose  from  2125  to  (3735,  against  a  fall  on  civil  works  from  808 

In  the  fint  days  of  Ktiircb  bail  Ktorins  coniiiderahly  damag't^^  tl 
crops  in  three  suD-divisions,     In  tbe  beginning  of  the  mouth  Ji 
prioM  foil  front  31  to  36}  poundu  thn  nip«u,  and   thon   ro«o  to 
ponnds ;  bajri  prices  fell  from  26}  to  28}  pounds.     Tbe  numbtira 
public  works  f«ll  from  3735  to  2982,  and  on  ci^Hl  works  from  288 
forty-seven.    During  ibe  mouth  lOO  persons  received  charitaltlu  rdlieli' 

April  passed  without  rain.  The  grain  importations  were  amall. 
Bdjri  remained  steady  at  2B^  pounds  ihc  ru{xx!,  but  jtHtri  rose  from 
M)  to  thirty-one  pounds.  In  some  anb-divisionsfeverandsmall-jwx 
went  provalunt.  Tbo  numlwrs  on  public  work«  ro«e  from  2082  to 
8378,  Aud  ou  charitable  relief  from  106  to  163,  against  a  small  bill  on 
civil  works  from  forty-seven  to  twcnty-ono. 

During  Miiy  thon^  were  a  few  slight  showers,  e^ipecially  in  lli« 
east.  Cattle  were  dyiug  from  want  of  water  and  fodder.  Pr'uxs 
roHO  for  hajri  from  28}  l<>  2t>j  pound*  llio  rupee,  and  for  Jviri  frocn 
thirQ--one  to  29i  pounds.  Fever  aad  smatl-pox  continued.  Tha 
numbers  on  public  workx  f«'ll  from  3378  to  2'>96,  on  civil  works  trow 
twenty-one  to  fifteen,  and  on  gratuitous  relief  from  183  to  fifty. 

Id  the  first  da^**  of  tbv  mr^nth  ther«  were  slight  showors  in 
wOKtorn  sub-divisions,  and  about  the  vnil  good  rain  fell  all  over  tbo 
district,  varying  from  20  cents  to  55  inches.  In  parts  where  tte 
f&\\  was  light  more  rain  was  wanted.  The  sowing  id  iht-  early  crops 
was  l>eguu  itud  made  &ir  progretis.  Cattle  disease  and  ague  wen 
prevalent  during  the  month.  Ji-ari  prices  fell  from  27}  lo  28J 
pounds  the  rtipc-e,  while  luijri  nruiaiiu^d  pretty  mteady  at  2r>|  ponnds, 
with  a  alight  rise  in  the  middle  of  the  month  to  twenty-five  poonda 
Tho   Dumber*  on  pubtio  worka  foil   from   2394   Co   2295  aud  m 

<  The  D«<r  rata*  B«re  :  tort  mui,  th*  piicB  ot  «ai  pound  oJgnuo  and  (rf.   (1 

itirtwal  ol  1^.  |1  oniui) ;  Imrnvrommt,  tbe  price o[ ono  MO^ ofgrun and ^f.   (I 

iiwtMd  of  ii.  H  *uuo)  i  and  tor  k  boy  or  gill,  the  wwJMfcslfs  pmud  of  (ma  i 




ihariiable  relief  from  6hj  to  four,  against  a  rise  on  civil  works  from 
'^t«cn  to  ninety  •one.  .         • 

In  Jnly  an  average  of  3*17  incbea  of  rain  fell,  bnt  it  ttm  badly 
iribntod.  In  tbi-  lint  four  ilay*  of  tfac  month  tboro  were  aome 
ttbowi'rs  in  a  few  Buti>  divisions,  then  followed  a  break  for  it  weok 
sowing  DjKTatioos  ircrv  stopped.  When  rain  again  fell  the 
pie  vatitio  iMbrk  to  tbeir  tieltia,  bnt  mucb  seed  vras  lost,  and  m  the 
mu  in«ii(!ii-i«vD(  oxcept  in  tbo  west,  tha  jonng  crops  began  to 
itber.  Mure  rniftrwas  everywhere  wanted.  There  waa  no  fodder 
except  on  the  bills,  and  cattle  were  being  driven  back  to  the 
Sntpu(JA».  PrifCR  roHO  fur  hiijn  from  2.^}  poundi^  at  the  beginning 
of  ilie  month  to  20}  pounds  at  the  close,  ant^  for  jviri  from  27^  ^ 
30^  pounds.  Cholerft  ww  ulightly  provalont.  The  nnrnborM  on 
{Mtblic  works  rose  from  2295  to  2428  agaioat  a  fall  oq  civil  works 
from  ninety  •one  to  •Dvonly-fonr.  During  th«  month  do  odo  received 
table  relief. 

UcMt  of  August  pusod  without  tftin.  Tho  withering  crops  ware 
tadced  and  much  damaged  by  insects.  Prices  rose  for  biijfi  from 
I  to  loi  p-Minds  the  riipix',  and  fiir  jifin'  from  IflJ  to  174  pounds. 
i«  in  ftuuio  parts  caused  much  aistress,  especially  amoug  tbo 
Bhils.  Cholera  incTvascd  and  Uirgc  numlMrs  left  the  district  for  a 
time.  The  numbers  on  public  works  rose  from  2iJ80  on  the  4th 
of  ibe  month  to  9696  on  Iho  2&tli,  iwd  on  ravil  works  from  582  to 
10,729.  During  the  month  IQJ  persons  received  charitable  relief. 
About  the  close  of  tbe  month  a  goneral  and  plentiful  rainfall,  tasting  ' 
for  four  daya,  groatly  revived  the  cropfi.  Proapocts  were  mueb 
tmpTovod  and  people  be^u  leaving  the  relief  works,  ao  that  in  tbo 
last  week  of  iho  month  thcrw  were  only  6(170  people  on  public  and 
lil.Vt  on  civil  works. 

In  the  beginning  of  September  there  was  good  raJb  over  the  whole 

diplrict,  and  tho  crops  wonderfully  revived.     Later  in  the  month  only 

light  aiiowers  fell  and  more  rain  was  generally  wanted.     There  waa 

Bidurablo  mortality  among  cattlo  and  cholera  wan  pn'Valont.   The 

lin  importations  were  verr  small  and  rupee  prices  rose  for  bdjri 

I  seventeen  to  sixteen,  and  for  jra'ri  from  ninvleon  to  seventeen 

ands.     The  numbers  un  public-  works  fell  from  8010  in  the  fir*t 

ak  of  the  month  to  7191  in  the  last  week,  and  on  civil  works  ttom 

1013  to  600,  against  arise  on  oharitnhle  relief  from  165  to  &19. 

lo  October  with  an  average  of  I~52  inches  of  rain,  the  early  crops 
I  generally  &iir,  except  in  T:iloda,  EdLabad,  and  P&chora  wben^ 
wvro  poor,  and  in  Erandol  where  they  were  bad.     The  sowing 
tba  oold'Wcather  crops  wan  over,  bat  in  some  places  more  rain  was 
ited.     Rupee  priam  fell  for  bdjri  from  1 71  to  twonty-6ve  pounds 
i  forjviiri  from  30t  to  8H  pounds,     llie  numbers  on  public  works 
sU  from  746  to  3663,  ooi  civO  works  from  690  to  293,  and  on 
f  charitable  relief  from  519  to  38-1. 

In  November  no  rain  fell.     The  early,  kharif,  harvest  was  almost 
Tho  late,  rabi,  crop«,  stunted  by  tlie  bent  and  wjint  of 

.._,  gave  but  a^or  promise.    Jvdri  prices  rose  from  32^  to 

thirty  pounds,  and  higft  prices  (oil  from  twonty-five  to   twenty-six 









Iptn  IT. 




pannda  tfae  ropee.    l^e  onmberB  on  pnbltc  works  fcill  {rom  1300 
tht^bo^nniog  of  tli»  tnunUi  U>  tw*nty*fuur  »t  tlie  eud,  on  civil  wol 
Irutn  12^  tu  ciightv.Uiree  on  the  lOtb  of  the  mooth  wben    the   cr 
works  wero  cloMtd,  ami  on  churitablo  mliof  from  3M  to  tva-     At  tlx 
eud  of  the  iiioutb  all  relief  worka  were  closed. 

In  Dvcvmbcr  tbcro  ir«re  Hgbt  alinwera  tu  »  few  pUcoa,  but  mora 
nin  waa  required  for  the  rahi  crDp«.  ha^ri  prigee  tu«.<  froin  twenty* 
six  to  twonty^fivc  pounds,  and  jvan'  pricvn  full  fmm  thirty  to  Ihirtj^ 
fSre  pouuda  the  mpee.  Though  GoTemiSbnt  continued  to  uffer  i^ 
BO  one  ro(|uirod  clutriulile  relief. 

Th«  fulhiwiu^  statement  of  millet  prices  and  of  the  nuwbets 
receiving  n-licf  shows tl*l  diirin^ihe  firxt  Gvumontfasof  1877,  pnn" 
*km)t  pretty  steady  ai  twenty- eiKht  pounds  tbe  rupe«  or  itliout  In  i. . 
the  ordtn&iT  tatus;  that  its  pri<xi  ro»e  rapidly  in  Jntw  and  July  ull 
it  reavhed  16}  in  Angust  and  tiepteniber;  and  diat  ii  tluin  <[iiicklj 
fell  to  twenty-Gvo  pounds.  As  oarty  as  Docember  1876,  the  nuinlMn 
on  relief  work*  reached  171-1.  By  lowering  wiiffos  iu>d  enforcing 
the  task  test,  the  total  was  in  tfanoary  rodoced  to  2928.  Ktoui 
this  it  rooe  to  4023  in  February,  and  then  full  till  in  June  it  was  as 
low  as  2386.  Then  it  stvodily  adranced  till  in  Augutt  it  reacheil 
S€22.  From  thiit  it  rapidly  fell  to  8I>7  in  Norombpr  when  the  reiti'f 
works  wei-e  closed.  Tne  numbers  on  charitable  relief  roae  from  I'tO 
in  March  to  163  in  April,  and  then  fell  tufi^urin  June.  In  Jidy  then 
was  no  cue  on  charitable  ndiof.  Prom  \i'Ai  in,  tlic  namba 
rose  to  519  in  Scptemhur,  and  then  quickly  fell  to  t«B  in  NoTembw, 

[■tut  Knuow. 


Cttfl.     raUI«. 

OMMiiMr      H 
Januy   im 

Fibrour  . 

Joaa  „ 

J»Iy  ., 

Aurbm  „ 
ar|rijeBib*r  ,', 
Oreofwr        „ 

fodtnbu     „ 






_i      n 
















TSUI    »^V. 

two    ti,ftM» 





MU,«>I     w» 





B4W-     ■'■'X. 


^     t 

KMHB  «(  Kin  aari  hil| 
on  UM  Itih  JaiiBiiqr. 




The  scarcity  onused  no  clianffu  in   the  ntea  o£  (»rt-I>ire.<     AdJ 

'  ThoMi  6giirot  mra  taily  «pptoiimat«.  The  tvanoa  toM  Ul  (or  tlxi  irliole  duUkl 
Uptolat  Do««ib«i  1677  WM31-ll>iDche«L 

» Ifc^t  an  »K  •  wil«  (3  <i«ho»  a  iw)  for  •  cart  and  pair  of  baUook*  in  Ui*  dry  Muuaa 
wd  B>1  (4  amo*^  Iw)  in  tli»  »«t.  A  paur  of  UUook*  <:an  b»  yrqd  (w  I  t-t  a  milK  i" 
^idi  a  toi)  in  Ibn  Uir,  and  («  Sid  a  niil«  (3  ailiHU  a  iw)  <d  tlie  wot  Mmnti.  i  i' 
Ur»  art  i*id  hy  tbi>  tifcr.  Th«»«  an  Uio  vUicial  rat«t,  )iul  unvatc  bdividnalk  «i  ' 
tnd«n  oiasaga,  aa  a  nit,  to  hir*  carta  and  bultvcka  at  loww  rato. 


le   distma  never  deepened  into  {uuine,  it  wba  not  necesaaiy  to 

rclivf- houses  or  campe,  or  to  orgaaiau  a  epocial  rclkif  staff.  , 

the  beginning  of  ibe  famine,  dealera  held  liack  thvir  nlooks  of 

in  hi:>pcB  of  a  ri^  in  pricc-s.     Aftcm-ard«,    as  they  found  tliaG 

ju  iMjuiil  bi-  bnjugfat  in  lar^t  ijuuiitititie  by  rail,  thoy  opened  tUcir 

es,  and  though  prices  ruled  hij^h,  thorc  was  no  lacK  of  graiD. 

in  vruA  iinpurti-d  t<>  a  .iiiiull  ttxtent  fK)m  Holkar'i!  and  thv  Xixilni'8 

tones,   NemAd,   and    Bei^r.     It   wsa  also  exported  by  rail  to 

bay,  Poooa,  aud  Shoffpur,  th«  cxporta  on  thv  wholo  czcovding 


special  censQB,  taken  on  tho   10th   May  1877,  when  famine 

le  watt  general  and  tterert^,  Khiiwiid  that  of  274o  workers,  IGSSa 

onged  to  the  Eab-diTiHions  where  the  work  was  carried  on ;  3d8 

iloug^d  to  difTArent  Biib^diriNionK  of  tlio  Ham«  diittricl ;  6-18  wero 

m  other  distHcCBfand  twenty.six  Erom  neighbouring  Btates.     Aa 

1»  their  uccugnttion,  1S6  wore  man  ii  fact  tire  rs  or  CRtftstinen,  598 

holders  or  anb-holders  of  land,  and  1&92  were  labourers. 

lO   tola)   cost  of  tho  famino  wtw  estimatod  at  £30,613    (Rs. 
1,160),  of  jrhich  £30,280  2k  (R».  8,02,801)  were  spent  on  public 

d  crril  worts  aad  £33o  18*.  {R».  3359)  on  cbnritablo  relief. 

Compared  with  tho  former  year  the  criminal  returns  showed  a 
total  incr(>a30  of  S71  offencm,'  mainly  duo,  in  tho  (A>minis:<ioiicr'B 
opinion,  to  the  scarcity  and  high  prices  which  ruled  throogfaout  the 
fear.  Tho  cstiniatod  special  mortality  waa  about  474  souls.  Tbero 
are  no  trasiworihy  Hiatiatica  of  the  numbers  of  cAtlle  who  left  and  * 
returned  to  the  district.  Though  the  loss  of  stock  was  great,  it  did  not, 
Intcrfero  with  tho  currying  of  grain  or  with  field  work ;  nor  in  other 
raepects  was  the  rent-paying  and  working  power  of  the  district 
igvcUti.  Tho  tiiUsl  nn:u!>  xn  1877.78  and  in  1878-79  oxcoc-lcd  that 
ia  1S76.77  bv  61,445  and  118,880  acres  respectirel/.  Of  £301,780 
4<.  (lis.  30,1  7,802)  lh.1  land  u-vonue  for  collection  for  1870-77,  and 
£2H4  4*.  (Rs.  ii,142)  outstanding  balances  for  former  yeara, 
£301.563  la..  (K».  30,15,639}  and  £:J-V. (H.-..  3.')50)  r*Kpi-<*ively  were 
reoovurod  by  the  close  of  the  year,  and  £658  (Rs,  6580}  were  written 
off  as  imicoverable.  In  1877-78  the  land  revenav  for  collection  was 
£3(»3,80U  10>.  (Bs.  30,38,005)  and  tho  ouUtanding  balanoea 
WBountwi  lo  JEI290  10*.  (Hs.  12,90.^),  o£  which  Ja03,777  6». 
(Ra.  80,37,773}  and  £329  4«.  (Bs.  3292)  were  recovered  respectively, 
Mod  t3S  10*.  (IIh.  38S)  writtou  off,  IbuN  nusing  thu  outstooding 
balances  for  next  ye»r  to  £946  (lie.  9400).  Of  £310,069  (Ra. 
ai.OO.Oao),  the  laud  rvvpnuo  for  collection  for  1878-79,  £309,399  2».' 
(Rs.  30,93.91'!),  and  of  the  balances  £377  St.  (Rs.  3774}  were 
raooroml  bufore  thu  doiw  of  tho  year  and  £5  12i'.  {K».  56)  wHtt«a 
off,  IsBvitig  for  fntore  recovery  a  balance  of  £1232  18«.  [Re.  12,329). 
On  tho  lit  of  January    1880  the  torn  outstanding  waa  £595  6*. 

Chapter  JC7. 




hm ifatjjb >r> Ml  JanraMat aaJwoftaew  wahwt  pnblk  joaliM.  0  iniidcv  rktiag 
EflranUwfidaavvniUy,  3i  uniWr  matdar,  licaduiUoaltv,  9;  utidar  robbanr,  ft  |  iHid«r 
|lnriUii||   koiuv-ltraiMM  (ir  koiuW'linakh)^  t6 ;  nnilvr  feurt,  17  i  uDdw-inEMtiM,  ISi 
W  lliatt  (■(  cattle,  at  1  mnidcr  onluuj  tWt.  USB  ;  nnclar  raouving  rtoleD  pto(*ftj, 
^ud  udcr  crimioal  or  hoiuftrMfus,  9.     Polic«  R«part«,  1877. 

1 ' 

190       •  DISTBICTS. 

OliterXT.       Ukd.  (Rs.  59K3-7-8) ;  of  thu,  in  Jane  1880,  £220  2f.  II 

4itflmittiiW-       22Q1-7-2)  were  written  dl  u  ineoovenble,* 

#fa„i.„  No  special   works   were   started    for   the  relief  of  the 

J#7S-77.'  stricken.     Only  the  ordinary  badgeted  works  were  taken 

and  they  helped  to  give  relief  to  uose  who  chow  to  avail  tli 

of  it. 

I  Qov.  K«.  9003  {FfuBrdal),  Kh  Jana  1B80. 

■  X 





ccosiijsa  to  the  1872  censna  returas  tbore  were  in  tlutt  year,         ChnpterV. 

lea  well-to-do  cn1tiv»tonf  nod  profossiunnl  nicu,  1 0,n6i>  personii  CapiUtL 

paring  [K»»itioiis  implyinjr  the  posseitsioD  of  capital.     Of  these 

)   were  bankers,  monvychangcra,  and  iiliupkcopers ;  74!J5  werx> 

;tutnt«  und  Lrwlortt;  aud  lOlS)  drew  tlieir  iuixiiiie»  from  Tvnta 

,ouBeB  and  §hop8,  from  funded  property.  ehariM,  annuilief,  iind 

like.     Co'Urr  the  head  Capitalists  and  iVadent,  th«  1878  lioenso 

■•Besanintt   papers  show  &9,610  persons.     Of  24,101   iut«t!)>ii4<d 

^rly  incomoi  of  more  ibau  £10,  12,2C9  tmd  from  £10  to  £15 

100-Ra.  150),  4736  from  £1B  to  £:i5(R8.  150.  Rs.  250),  2647 
I  £25  to  £Zi>  (R«.  250  -  Ka.  350),  1 105  from  £35  to  £50  (Rs.  350  - 
BOO),  928  from  £50  to  £75  (Bs.  500  -  Kb.  750),  546  from  £75  to 
)  (Rs.  750- R».  1000),  628  from  £100  to  £125  (Ra.  1000- 
1250),  225  from  £125  to  £150  (Us.  1 2.^>0 .  HaJ200},  256  from 
I  to  £200  (Ra.  1 600  -  R«.  2O0O) ,  328  from  £200  SflteOO  (Ha.  2000 - 
SOOO),  239  from  £300  to  £400  IRa  3000-RvtOOO),  116  from 
>  to  £500  ( Ra.  40O0  -  R«.  5000) ,  1 25  from  £500  to  £750  (Rb.  60OU  - 
?500),  fifty.lhr«e  from  £750  to  £1000  (R».  7500- Rb.  10,000), 
aighty  over  £1000  (Rs.  10,000). 
I  the  wi^t,  ciipitailtta  are  generally  GtijarAt  Vinis,  Gujnr  Kflnbia,         C«pit»»W«. 

Uuh-ijr^,    and    in   the  eenlre  and  east,  Chitod,  M&rv^d,  and     • 
lar  V&nis,   Tilnln    and    Pi^jna    Kuiiliiit,    KruhiTiimit,  and    a    few 

ills.  The  trading  population  is  not  divided  inlo  distinctly 
ted  cta^iww.  Thu  wiinc  man  is  ofttm  a  mLTchant,  a  monpylendttr, 
a  bmkcr.  At  JalKaon  alone  ia  chi'i'e  trade  enough  to  allow  of 
I  confining  themsem's  to  fixod  branchm  of  business.  Here 
3  nrr  t)irtf«  bankerfi  and  twenty  moncyleuilcnt,  moHl  of  theru 
<r&d  aud  a  few  Kathar  VAnis,  and  nineteen  tirmit,  two  of  thvm 
ipvan  tilt!  Mofu^wil  and  th((  New  Berir  Comiianivs,  fourteen* 
.la,  and  several  others  of  minor  importance,  who  are  entirely 
jrs,  with  H|^>nt))  at  Fiiir.pnr,  Dhttmngiion,  and  other  Inr^e  towu!* 
surrounding  a ub. divisions.  Of  the  twenty  moneylenders 
BW  confine  tliemselvM  to  moDcrlondiDg.  Except  the  two 
and  tteven  native  firms,  whoae  head^qnarterg  ore  at 
Fiay,  none  of  the  local  traders  hare  a  mpitMl  of  more  than  £10,000 
*  D,0O0).     About  twenty  are  known  to  havo  from  £1000  to 

I  Uuichaploris  compiled  Crau  auMtUlii  lupplitd  by  Mr.  J,  PaBen,  C.S, 









Cotton  aud  i 
But  IJto  ti 

£MO0  (Rb.  10,000-R».  50,000),   and  five   fmm   .E-iOoO  to 
(Rll.M,OoO-Rs.l,OU,000).     Thu  RgcntA  of  the    ltutnl>»^    fir 
(.-hiafly  in  iwlton  nntl  gnun  tt>  tlie  ezlent  uf   frum  £2 
£3,000.000  {Rs.  2,00,00,000-IiB.  3,00,00.0lK))  a  year.     Be 
and  nevcnd  mimir  trading  firms  whit-li  h&ve  apmag  up  wiiliu 
tew  years,  lliere  are  thirUwD  ci>ttoti  brok<!rB,  two  Bnlli 
MArvM  ami  oiglit  Oujurfit  Vlluitt,  wlui,  iKnuidoa    attting  aa 
LmtT)'  on  Bome  trade  aud  lend  money.     Petty  doaltTH,  to  tite  nnhV 
from  seTBDty  to  ucre nty-fivcinoo'tly  MAnnd  VAnis  with  a  snrii: 
Brahouuu, BoIu>r&ft, and  K^lhar,  Liidsakka,  and  GujarAt  V^u,< 
on  bnaineai.  aome  witli  tfarir  own  liut  must  of  thoui    with  Ixi 
j^apital.     Tboy  obtain  NAppliea   Utih   from  local    Uoalem   aoil 
Bomluiy  m«rt;luints.     EiEtn^pt  Jntfpun  there  is   no  lurtrn 
vxrhan^.    Trade  is  larried  on  in  hules  and  coroHra.     Eurof 
cannot  p^t  at  tho  commodities,  cxcvpt  by  Ihu  help  of  nnl  rrc  i 
for,  tut  A  rulo,  the  Khflndush  cultivator  thinks  of^^o  market 
his  inonryleDder's  Teraodali  or  tbe  local  woakly 
11ii^n:>  i«  no  soMimla  clSM  of  inaiiranoe  agents, 
mills  are  generally  baured  sgainKt  Iom  by   Sro. 
in  unkuown. 

The  two  most  nsnal  forms  of  exchanf^  bills,  hmidiM,  nrt  billi  i 
able  nt  vighl,  dar»hani,  and  biilit  payablo  aflt-r  u  «?rl:i 
muitali.*     BilU  ar**  nilber  personal,  dfiatiijoy,  where  tliu  pr 
pvnwu  to  wliom  or  U>  whwtu  ordvr  tht'  [Kijino-Ut   1:4    to   be 
trust,  thdkajo'j,  nliero  payment  i»  made  to  a  nominee  of  the  ; 
known  to  the  p^er;  or  dpocriptiTo,  nwAiij'oy,  wht-rv  a  de«irrif 
the  payee  is  embodied  in  the  bill.     It  is  not  usnal  to  (tmw  biU 
Beta.     A  letter  of  odrice  to  the  ngvnt  or  banker,  stating  the  ao 
drawn,  the  number  of  the  Irill,  and  the  name  of  the  p<Tsou  to  k\ 
or  in  whose  fayour  the  bill  has  Invn  gnuiUwl,  is  considcreil  !<titi)i:i<.-9l. 
When    the   amount    of    Uie  bill    is    reuiitied  in   caab    by    auolbtfTi 
biiiHI,  bill,  or  (itlu-i-wise,  it  is  duly  sifnicd  by  tho  payiM>an<l  rctni 
to  the  j^nntor    luid   lilvd  aa   a  voucher,    khoka.     Unless   the 
ia    bmajiihli,    rciiuiriug    no  letter    of    advice,    it   is    naiinl   fop 
oorre!<]Kindent  of  llie  grantor  (u  Mend  a  letter  of  udviec,  intimating  j 
naymeut  uf  the  money  to  the  payee.    Ko  dajrs  of  g^e  arc  allc 
llltv  bill  must,  if  demanded,  he  cashed  on  the  sptx^^^^ay,  ukI 
case  of   delay  on  the  part  of  the  payer,  month  lyjHHPit. 
acooriling  to  tbe  positiou  of  the  drawer,  one-haU  per  offil  for  bnc 
»  ami   lbr<te-mmi'l<Ts  [wr  cent  for  other  uieii'lutnta,  j|  ch»rRTiI, 
jlaymcnt  is  asked  before  the  bill  falls  due,  discount  at  a  similar  i 
is<)edu(rt«-4l.     If  tho  bill    is  dishonoured  and  sent  l>aek  uncna) 
the  grantor  must  pay  iuter>'jit  at  double  the  rate  of  currwnt  into^ 
from  liie  date  when  the  bill  was  bought.     Ho  mnst  also  pay  n 
acceptance  penalty,  rnifrmi,  varying  in  different  plac^e*.     Cai" 
aeoordirig  to  tho  distHooe  the  bill  had  travelled,  was  also  foi 

If  tho  bill  is  lost  or  stolen,  a  duplicate,  peth,  letter  «tat 

■  Thiv  a  gMwrally  aot  mor*  tiiaa  nln*  Amyt. 



licate  I 

6t  tli«  bill  Anil  aslnng'  for  paymtMit  »  uetinlty  fTrantf  d.  IF  llie 

leU«r  19  loet,  a  triplicxtOr/ttir/^ciA,  lueiiliiiniu^  hutli  iho  hilhdi 

the  p»lh,  is  issiiod,  stiil    if  tbo  jmrpfth  iilso  in  not  furtUciiiiiiu^, 

o(!vii;*>,  jVifc,  UiUlt  meutiDtiing  tho  Au»(it,  the  jiitlft,  nni)  lh«  parpeth 

Bout  to  the  same  effect.     Tlie  ^yer  must  satisfy  lunincif  mi  to 

?  identity  of  tlH)  bearer  of  tkn  bill,  «ni]  iu  doubtful  cases,  shnulil 

imund  m-ciirity  Ixiforo  [Hiyiiieut  is  mnde.     If  be  payti  a  vrrong  tnau, 

haa  tohear  the  loss  aiidjiay  a  second  time  tn  tho  holder  of  ihapf.tU 

parpeth.     The  payee  in  the  case  of  an  advice  letter,  jah,  passes 

wjKirtito  n;'f(iif>t,  while  tbv  hun-d,  prih,  iinti  parw-th  aru    siiiipty 

i)d<     AftiT  ]m'iui>iit  the  Uiuker  debits  the  drawer  with  Iho 

moiiQt  paid.     If  »  drawer  overdran'i?  biu  account,  and  the  bill  ia  los^ 

r  di^^honoll^^v^,  he  alunu  is  roHpouiibli!.      It  is  iisiiiil  nftt-r  eudonuug 

m  Eo  itell  bilt^  to  bill  brokont,  dnliU",  of  whom  lliere  in  a  Inrgo 

raber,  and  who  are  paid  a  certain  percent^e  fwr  tboir  Bervicea. 

truiviiire  i«  iml^tgm  wot,  billH  are  generally  adjutitod  by  dubt-s 

md  crodild,  ami'     "'  '\^tttdi*  wbosic  ratft.t  vary  accordiaa  to   tbo. 

KUidiiions  of  tlj  .tion.     The  commission,  fcoA'afiai,  ib  paid  to 

lie  con  I,;  liisbiirsing  the  cash  Ui  the  payee,  by  the  drawer, 

kndthr  :a,ifal<m,iovl\n^xi\ai>ilMt'Uihttivlix  ui  paid  bittb  by 

he  draweruud  by  the  purcluuer  uf  tUo  draft.     The  ietorchaa^  of 

tills  lias  bwii  gn-atly  siinptilied  by   the  intrudnctieu  of  ft  uiiifunn 

{>iiia^.     Formerly  the  dilTereut  rupeus  and  the  different  rates  of 

xcbange  made  the  system  much  more  compUciitwd,  and  ytwt  a 

lonrco  of  nu  small  profit  to  local  bankers. 

Imports  are  uitiiitlly  paid  by  bitU  iif  oxchnnjfe,  and  exports  by 
noaey.  A  bill  from  £1000  to  £25*^0  (lti..lO,U<)U-R8.:!5,O0U)  ran  at 
mco  be  caahod  by  any  Jalgaon  firm. 

Where  them  is  an  agent  munint,  the  clerk,  ijiirj^tUt-t,  acts  imder 
liin.  As  a  rnle  there  i»  no  ajfent,  and  the  cli-rk  is  Hubordtnate 
o  hi«  mastt-r  alone,  and  is  treated  by  oHt.iiidiTs  with  much  respoct. 
jenwmlly  a  RrAhman  by  twstn,  ho  keej>s  (he  accounts,  advances  , 
noney  to  the  cidtivator,  and  recovers  it  from  him,  superiotoiidH  his 
na-itcr'n  e^vtablishment,  lookM  after  his  lamU  and  servant*,  and  frtKn 
.broad  to  buy  and  »oll  goodt  according  to  his  master's  orders. 
Dxclusive  of  aod  and  other  e.tpenses  and  travellinp:  allowance,  bis 
from  £5  to  £10  (lis.  60-  R«.  300).  Bi-«ide»  small 
occa.-4i<in)(,  he  g<:\*  at  /)ir(ilX(October-NoTember) 
other  article  of  clothing. 

',  merc-hants,  Iniders, shopkeepers, broker.-*,ple»derji, 
utdnfew  high  paid  (lovt-mment  servants,  and  of  countrv  people 
and  lords,  heads  of  villages,moneylondur«,  and  a  few  rich  cultivators, 
twve  money.  .Saviti)^  arc  mosUy  invested  iQ  oruamenta,  in  houses, 
uid  IB  moneyl«iitiii)g. 

Ab,  except  in  Jalgaon,  there  are  no  large  banking  establishmentA, 
Diinrly  all  who  have  capital  engage  in  money  lending.  I'njfisiNionnI 
moneylenders  are  miviully  irnrv^d,  Gujar&t,  and  L^sakka  Vjinis, 
and  a  few  Br^hmans.  Though  the  distinction  is  not  well  marktvl, 
(omo  of  Ihein,  known  as  bankers  or  sar-iff,  deal  with  towunneople  and 
vell-to-do  huslKiadmi'U,  and  olh.irs  with  the  [worer  class  of  vilhigvrs. 
u  villagim,  headmen,  rich  cnltiTatora,  and  shnpkeeptirs  who  some- 

'lyirly  pay 

1  -on 

i  II  or 


Of  t'lwnjiiK' 



Saving  CUmml 



tBombay  G* 



ticuKi  iNtrmw  monfiy  (or  tlic  pnrpnfio  from  pr   ' 

loiri  inoiwy  to  pt>or  oMltivnUirw.     Bi-si'Ii-s  tU- 

tlii-m  is  It  iH^I  ul  I>'W  usurt-rs,  who,  for  aburf  [iwriiAb,  leiiil ! 

mi  lit-avy  luleti  U>  tbe  poorusi  ljurrowor». 

Lock]  tnunuyliMiclcra  and  tnidi'Ts  nni  mid  fco  ^rumblo  nlvnill 
fireBOBt  iitaW.     '  Fifty  yean  ago,'  ibey  aay,   •  wo  hsJ   a  i 
we  know  about  escWti^?,  and  from   the  nnrurtain   ixntfi' 
cnmiicy,  nifulu  lur^^  Htmm  !>}'  uxcban^",  and  <kv  rtnil- 
jti    gold,    »ilvfr,    nniJ     pn-iriwiji    nWui-.*,    Ilirn     the-  m 

invvKtmoDt.    Much  olotb  was  still  miroD,  and  tint  dttiJi  trude  i 
US  handHomu  gaiiu.     TTiirty  jrwira  latur  (186M-ISG5),   dnr 
■demand  cnuM-d  by  Uio  Ainorimu  war,  and  when   gruat  enms'i 
spent  iu  nuilciu^  the  railway,  wu  becajno  rich.     Oor  nld  diibta ' 
recoTered;  great  prolitB  were  i^ioL-d  in  all  branohos  of  bn 
and  new  loauo  were  i»auod  iil  lii^fli  rulos  "f  intorcst.      Tlim  lbs 
camo.     Miiuyof  our  yeututx-s  turuedout  badly,  uud  wben  w«>  aiui^ 
■rcoiivt'r  the  niiidh  lonl  at  inu'i'e.>4t,  we  found  t bat  I.I.  '  i^c 

almost  all'ir  gaiuK,  aud  iti  tlio  fall  <'l  JtricfTi  wi  ;i:>j 

OH.     In  taking  tbem  into  court  and  forcing  tlitMn   to  pay,  bulkl 
and  our  debtors  lost  b^svily.' 

Compared  with  th(i  Ainirrtinn  war  tiin«,  the  ]»ru6tB  of  tradoni 
moneylenders    are   now,   no  doubc,   small.     And    ovi-n    con 
with    thirty    yrnirH  vnrlier    (1830),  it    is    probable    tluit    the 
faiiiilioH    who  had   coiiiiiiatid   vf   thu  dtKtrict    traffic  and 
lendinff,   niado  mor«  and  made  it  earlier  than  the   prraeot 
It  ifl    alHo  tnio  tliat  ihv    Ehttndesh   trader   has   anriuf^   tbfl 
fifty  years  had   to  ll^ht   against  two  sc-ts  uf  vu^dan^ferdaa: 
VAnu^om  M&rvAd  and  &Mii^  from  Bombay.     The  M  nrritd  Vi 
Btrou^^,   more   activv,  and  jx^rhnps  oven     more  frugal    and 
scrupulous  tbaulbt;  locnl  Viiui  itiiil  Briihman,  havu  drawn  lo  llie 
selves  a  v(rry  gntut  Hbart*  of  thi-   dinlnct   ninni-yii'iidiiig ;    and 
Bombay  Ltluitifis,  lar^r-miudoil,  Htronffor,  and  harder  wurhing 
tliw  local  tradeni,  aud  unlikv  Ihum  ma^flcrs  of  thv  nrn   xyslc 
trade  by  rail  and  wire,  enjoy  the  bulk  of  thf  protils  uiado  from 
Tory  lar^  exports  aud  ini[^>urt;»  that  unbroken  order  tod  im|) 
commuuR-atiouHhavcdeveloptid  during  Ihc  pastf^ 
oui>  niurked  featurv  uf  the  present  styl<4  of  biiKi' 
BS]i>irIfr  aa  nwirly  jw  ]Hi)isilite  into  direct  dealing  wuti  the-  gruW| 
and  by  ihi.H  ineauM  thu  piiict-ii  and  profits  of  sevcml  sols  of  midtT 
*  men  havoboen swallowed  up.    Under  thi-sy  t'irciiiii.-<tanco«,  the 
goiug  inidor  and  banker,  disinclineJ  to  leave  Ida  old  biisiueaa 
and  not  forced  to  do  ho  by  want,  may,  as  his  &iRiity  grows  h 
find  it  hard  to  get  opeuiugtt  for  thoni.     But  taken  aa  a  whole,  : 
compimng  the   hulf'tillcd,   balC-cmply,  nud  alino»t  utterly  isula^ 
Kh&udash  of  1830,  with  its  present   well  stocked  and   thiitxtagi 
opened  state,  thi>ro  stt>in.i  no  reason  to  doubt  that  its  Ir^e  *'^'l>\ 
a  much  tnrgtir  body  of  mereliuulA,  anil  bringa  into  the   dtatrti 
inach  greater  amount  of  wealth  than  formerly. 

A  rioh  moneylundcr,  dealing  with  townspcoplo  and  wcll-t 
cuItirstoTS,  keeps  a  journal  rt^kird,  and  a  ledger  kliatfirfni.     Thd 
who  advance  petty  loans  t«the  poop»r  das'*  of  ailriviitont  kcop  ■ 

)9G      *  miWBiCTS. 

S'>mo  village   hpadmwii  anH  ntlipr  n--'        ^  ' 
kiiTdly  towariTs  the  villi»jjrcri<,  tluil  lln>y  IP^ 

which  nmki-M  Umm  nearly  iutle'}H>D(leDt  of  the  cii-il  PtMW. 
advance  ^raiu  or  moiioy  uocjrdiD^  l<>  thu  rilla^^rs'  imuteAue 
and  in  rutuni  tho  wliulv  cm)>  in  »t  luu-vuat  tiiuv   mode  over 
DiimttvlondiT,  nod  from  the  outtarn  be Htts  npart  a  Tnir  <=>- —  '" 
umiiiieuaucu  of  th«  debtor's  family.     Mt^tii'vlunderit  c: 
bavD  no  wish  to  tako  tlivir  holding  f rom  thi;   villH^^crs.     L 
their  intoTMt  lliat  tho  borrowers  should  be  as  well  off  and  wr 
a.-<  p>HitiliIc.     Such  monevlender^  hiv  titiii.'>uitl.      Cc>mj>luiut»  iirv 
genorul  in  Kh)inde»i»  i>f  llii'  f^n-d  mid  uufairiii^is.s  of  Marvntl 
^iiijnral  V&tiiif  itud  vt\iof  foreira  usnrors.     U»ny  uf  tho  husbam 
faiknl  piwicd  for  money  Bnduble  iwitUerto  raid  mir  write, are 
in  thti  inoDvylunder'tt  powiir.     lie*»  ut  pvaa  them  than  llw 
eutui^   in  tho  bond;  no  receipts  are  passed   fur  tlia  insta 
paid ;  and  fn-tih   deeds  are  drawn  up  nud    fn.>!7h    charts  tn: 

jRM'hk'ii  llie  debhT  ba-*  ""  knuwU-df^'.  Thnu  a  suit  is  tilt*d,  nnd, 
nile,  ^iveii  a^iiuHl  the  debtor  in  hia  abwuce.  If  liti  H|>{>earit,  iiiscv* 
generally  brvaka  down,  as  few  villagers  will  risk  ifiving  cvj  I  '.li 
against  tho  mtiueyleudcr.  When  thw  di-crvf  i*  pBs&eJ,  it  i^  -■' 
oxccuttid,  hut  held  ovw  the  debtor's  head  xo  aa  to  iucn-ase  Lho  :ii:^<  tnii 
of  nis  parineulK.  It  tho  inslalinentf  cease,  tim  creditor  takt  •  !*« 
debtors  laud  in  mortgiigr.  Hv  M-ldom  sell||^ai  np  and  Ktill  r-.n 
randy  liiut  him  m'IiI  |a  priMin.  A  debtor  has  seldom  dealing  wtH 
more  than  one  ereditor.  When  he  deals  willi  mors  Ihnn  one.  *h 
object  aometim.>!i  is,  by  pvinjf  one  uf  tliein  ft  pn-ferenpo,  x-  '■    ' 

Uio  claims  of  the  rest.     To  do  thfif'he  hns  to  nmke  over  )>  i  -:r 

U)  lh«  cItosoD  creditor,  a  «tfp  #>  fnll  of  ri!>k  thnt  it  is  a^tdoni  t'ikra. 
llie  Hbiiid^'^h  creditor  uevvr  writes  ofl  hi^^^m  us  a  bad  ilib*. 
Decrees  are  oft«n  ke()t  alive  Cor  years.  For  &(^h>  timu,  when  he 
knows  he  can  Ret  nothing,  evt-n  by  arrestinff  or  rmpriicoiiinff  his 
dehlor,  lho  creditor  ceaw"  to  iuiiH)y  hira.  But  lut  soon  iw  thei*>  in  tiu 
"  chance  of  rum>verin(f  anylhinjr  from  (ho  debtor's  heirs,   pi  .it 

are  threatetHs!  or  a  tJoniprnmiw  is  affrced  to,  tho  crtslitor  irt 

paying  (he  debtors  or  their  heir*  a  f.rillin}^  nmti,  and  udiiein^  tiwi* 
to  jKisa  a  now  Knid  in  the  name  of  all  the  members  ofTbo  family. 

Formerly  much  importauoo  wne  not  attached  to  tho  posseasion  it 
land,  and  people  seldom  tkoug'ht  of  biiyinir  it.  Now  land  suli-.-i  an 
ConimoD.      Tliey     are    either    (Bausfei-s    between    private    |h<>r^on&, 

■  suction  sales  becauMe  the  holder  has  failed  to  {"Oj  Ihc  CfVeninii:at 
/but,  or  sales  by  order  of  thft  civil  (vjurt.  A»  n'g»rds  the  Kile  T.ilne 
of  limd  no  trviitworthy  iufonuatioD  itt  available.  Inprivntc  tr^i 
the  nominal  valm.^  in,  for  private  rcaaonvvory  often  widely  dju> .,  „. 
from  tho  md  value.  GoTeninK»nt  sales  for  failure  to  [Miy  rent 
are  generally  onlv  of  the  poorest  laudn,  iind  through  fear  of  proWou 
mortgageti  or  other  cncumh ranees,  court  sales  gxually  fetch  oolj 
nominal  prices. 

At  Jalgaon  (he  priiNt  of  land,  suited  for  bnilding  purpo«eB,  vari«i^ 
from  £IU0  fo  £180  (Rs.  1000.  Its. IKOO)  an  acre.     lu  largo  crowded 

villages,  the  tJovennnwnt  rale  vai-ios  frwm  -lii.  lo  8*.  (Bs.  2  -  lis.  4)  for 
five  I'qmin;  feet.     For  public  puriiuacs  land  i»  nsmilly  taken  at  tHvutx 




tbe  &ase«s[neat,  that  is  from  £1  10«.  to  £7  (Ra.  15  •  Rs.  70)  the 


H  mnd^^'s  am  of  two  kimlx.     In   ono  the   cifdi'tor  takes 

ion,  pays  reut  and  tillage  charppB,  rpajw  tbo  crop,  aiid  nfivr 

!arntii>  intcTcut  and  profit«,  «llnw»  tho  debtor  to  tafco  the  anrplus. 

jnd  iiiid  niura  ooinitirm  form  in   for  thu  debtor  tu  bold  and 

lan>I,  to  pay  tlie  rent,  aad  haod  over  tbe  intcroftt  to  tbo 

roitbET  in  money  or  in  grain.     Often  altw  debtor  aod  creditor 

tilling  (be  litm). 

ifitx'ii  yoars  ago   (1864-65),  dnrinjr  the  yeaiwof  high  prices,  the 
Tatnr  wae,  for   a   time,  companitively   i-igji  and  linprcceiientedly 
prosperoas.     Instoud  of  paving-  off  his  dt^htii,  he  nqaniMlvrcd  bin  oaeiljr  * 
csTDvd  — ■  ■  ■  ;-t  marriaii^w,  caste  dinners,  and  other  extrava^necs, 
And  a^  It    was  rpry  frood  and   money  was  easily  rai-icd,  he 

iiKtirrt-U  I:v-Li  debts.     With  tho  fnll  in  pnidiK^n  pritv*  (i8(tiJ.1%(>8), 
5  rnliivjiiontftgainfoiiudlhomselTos  in  difficulties,  'fhen  foUnwe^ 
.:i3  of  scanty  rainfall  and  short  cr<)p!',  ntiii  creditors,  uneasy  ' 
■  outfitanilinjpt,  forct?4l  tnniiy  of  ihi-ir  debtors  into  (ho  civil 
Wiiliia   ibo   last   ten  years,  amonij'  the   poorer  clwM«  oC 
irs,  indebtedness  is  said  to  hftvc  cnnxidorably  incTeoaed.     At 
it   is   CMtimiaed  that  nut   more   than  ten  per  vunl  of4b» 
imltanti  pinpulatio^jncladiQfp  Uhils  and  others  who  are  mere 
field  labourers,  cao  aSsfA  to  begin  thti  year's  tillage  without  the 
monerlendcr's  help.  * 

,0  condition  ipf  tho  Bhil  ciillivnEor  in  the  nortli-wost  of  Kh&idesh 
iai.  Tbei^  the  landholderaWe  mostly  Gtijar  capitalists,  not 
t  proprietors,  and  tbo  Bhils  wwro  fomierly  contented  Co  servo 
)iieni  for  clotheit  and  food,  liquor  now  and  then,  aiid  a  finnll  sum  of 
iv  whenever  tkefWhildren  were  married.  Of  late  the  demand 
lliil  Inboar  has  inorca«ed,  and  wagon  have  gn-atlv  risen.  On  the 
hand,  the  rw;!tli-iticni  i>f  their  diiiputes  with  theii-  employers  has 
transferred  from  the  ma^strates  to  tho  civil  courts,  and  tho 
Gutar,  by  tbo  i^omnoe  and  csrele«i>neMa  of  tbo  Bhil,  luui  him  again 
'  .hi*  tuercr.  The  liujar  a;((rees  with  the  BhU  that  the  Bhil  is  to 
Htb  Uoiai's  land  and  that  they  are  to  sharo  tho  produce.  Ad 
CO  is  uia<le  to  tlie  Bhil  to  buy  bullock.'*,  aud  u  bond  is  drawn 
Op  with  a  premium  nt  iweuty.fivo  per  cent.  Tho  Bhil  grows  the 
CTopa  and  is  fed  by  tho  Gujar.  At  tho  end  of  the  year  the  Gujar 
talm  the  cn^p  niulJHil.'s  olT  the  Blilf  on  the  ground  that  he  has  to 
pay  for  the  liuDt>tTk9.'  Nest  }'ear  the  Bhil  agatn  gets  clothes  itud« 
m^  and  is  t<.-ld  ho  baa  stUI  somotbtne  to  jAy.  Ho  asks  for  a 
^■iMiioni  of  his  lCv:(iunt,  afid  as  a  preliminary  is  sent  for  a  new 
^ftirod  paper.  With  a  f^  soft  words,  soma  money  to  buy  a  robo 
^B  Bia  wife,  and  a  little  li<inor,  a  new  bond  is  made,  tho  meaning 
^R-*  ':■;   Bhil  doea  not  understand,  and  be  goe»  luack  to  his 

^fc_.  .^' for  better  luck  next  ywr.  After  stmpRling  on  for  a 
^^^^kt'Wo  he  det'Tniine!*  to  leave.  Then  he  finds  th»t  bis  partner, 
^^^Her,  has  hLi  acceptance  for  £20  (Rs.  200]  or  more;  that  Iho 
YSalfchck  he  had  toiled  for  is  not  his,  and  that  he  and  alt  he  has  are 
at  his  nj«"ter'»  tnerey.  A  dw^ree  is pii!i.«ed,  and  iho  Bhil'n  grxidw  are 
wnod  and  auld.     Tlwu  his  master  offers  him  a  chance  of  retoni,  and 






aervas  for  some  time  more.     Again  he  jfrows  ti 
id  nfuHUH  til  work.     T1m>  nuwlur  lin»  !<till  sutDe  i  i-^i 

4  Ute  iJii^at  nf  Ilie  civil  Miurt  ugoiu  brinci>  tht*   Uiui  toi 
Uiini^  fco  on   Etudi  year  to  yonr.     It   ia   iiwl.   nDRmn 
a  Bhil,* ODiler  prut^ncxr  cif  ilio  transfiT  of  his  debt,  Ui  Iw 
from  OQO  c^(^dtto^  L<>  ouothur.     A  tiliil  with  a   decree  '■■•^•' 
Worth   more   tbiui  ouo  whoso  debts  &ro   emalltT. 

IB  entvmd  in  d|^Mnu],  nad  iw  h  Bhil   will   sulirr  xsi 
nther  thiui  di»j|rraoe  UWotbor,  thit  threat   Ui   send  her  Ui 
jxil  iit  lit  auy  time  eBoagh  lo  make  the  Bhil  do  vrluLtovur  his  i 

I     Very  few  nrtixniw,  not  more  thnn  ton  per  ctMit.,  are  bw>  trvm  i 
Xike  other  Khdndetdi  nuineyed  daasee.  arEisaus   nho  hmtx 
act  as  moneylenders.     Except  in  Urge  towne,  few  of  the  Ipsh  tlriijl 
croftoncm    can  luAil  their  own    willi  th«  skilled  ;;     "  m|itili«| 

tDOHeylenderH.     Mom  are  at   the  luercy  of  tho  mn  :>axei 

(carefol  to  k<x-p  A  strict  unnnt  of  a«Erk«8  reudrred  nr  pay 
miido.  Hatiilloum>weaTorJ^X'ii^/<>,  tM,  m  •  nde,  in  tho  ha 
nionev  lend  era,  s4viiir»,  who  adraooe  money  or  >am,  aud  in  retetl 
,  vet  the  goods  when  ready.  Few  woaron  have  more  than  fs| 
(Qe.  20Oj  sunk  iu  th«  trade.  Formerly  their  Dnipli>\-ni('u( 
CCmstAQt,  but  of  late  it  has  beoXne  Houiewbat  uncertain.  Tbff] 
generally  own  a  houfto  worth  from  £5  to  X50  (Ra.  50-  Rs,  SOOt;! 
omamentn  ond  fitmilure  wnrtli  fromXl  U>  £■>  (Rw.  lO-Rs.  ^0);  aw!  i 
hxHo  iiiiii  other  tools  worth  fi-om  1.1  to  £&  (Rs,  10-  Rs.  oO),  Pcm; 
Btho  bu)iy  i<e»)^on,  3Juy  to  October,  a  good  workman  eanu> 

"to  2«.  {annaa  4 -Be.  1)  n  day.     For  thu  reitt  of  lUo  year  1..    • j, 

eamingH  amount  on  anaverag^to  3i.  (2aiiNu«].     Si^inu are  we3-t 
do ;  bat  moat  are  indobtod  to  moneylenders,  and  work    under 
orders.     The  bblk  of  the  Khflndosh  women  kHTI  prufer  thi-  k 
haiid>w»vttn  robes  and  bodices  to  any  forei^  articles.     C' 
are  decidedly  better   off.    They  are   frw  from  the   m-  U 

'     control,  and  generally  work  with  their  own  ciqiital.     Biu! 

either  work  for  daily  wages  or  on  oontraet.    Thoo^h  not  uii  _- 
Klreo  from  the  moneylender,  they  are  seldom  withont  work  and 
"better  off  than  weaven,  dyer»,  and    cotlon-rarder*.     Cilcfdwi! 
have  no  need  of  capital.     Working  in  gold  and  sUrer  tmnpljed 
t]ie  etiiitumers,  they  ohai-ge  ^  oommon  plain  work  from  I  ^d,  to  Sil 
(1-2  nnncM)  tho  tola  of  silver,  and  fnim  .^^  to  t><J.  (2-4  aNii'i«)  Limj 
•     iola  of  gold.     They  are  a  thrifty  claatt  and  are  uot  geirtmlly  in  del 
'Carj>onler«,  paid  either  from   Id.  to  Is,  *Jd.  (S- 14  anna»)  a  day  or  1 
tho  piece,  have  no  ligwlar  enlploJ^neut  and  nrv  little  Iwtter  off  tha 

rday  labourvriL    In  small  Tillages  they  ore  sometimes  paid  ia 
Itfibonrera  are  employed  in  tho  fields  botween  June  and  Janui 


when,  in  niiiek  succosaioii,  oome  the  xtiwiug  and  reaping  ^>f  t} 
early  and  latetmtMi,  the  picking  and  cleaning  of  cott^m,  and 
ploughing  of  land  for  the  next  xcaHon.  Women  as  well  as  uion  „ 
emiMOTed  iu  weeding  and  harvesting  crops  aud  in  einuitig  cotto 
Id  February  and  March,  labourers  bring  headloads  of  gra^  and  fu. 
from  waetu  lauds  for  sale,  and  from  April  to  June  tliey  6nd  wor 
in  botufO-building;  road-makiug,  and  other  village  ioba.       I-^xoei 





1^  th«  few  yoars  before  aai  attar  the  cIosd  of  lite  Amcnooa 
far  nuii  llio  0|<fiiin^  of  iht:  riiilwny  Ihnin^h  KliAinlcsh,  umikilled 
I  (orkers  w<>re  pn)l)abty  never  better  off  ilian  they  uow  arw.     Fifty 
ttthri;  afjo  tho   wngus  of  nn^killod   Inliour  wore  cxlromely  low,  imj 
i.t  till-  AAinu  time  oinplo\inont  waa coiii|>»ml ivHy  uiie«M-t4iin.     Fifteen 
r!DWs  a^,  on  account  of  tho  fftvat  deuianil  for  labour  in  innknig; 
ni]w»yM  and  from  ttu;  flourifihin)^  i^luto  of  the  cotton  trade,  the  \'^o 
ft  labour  nxic  vwn  tuore  tluin  ihtt  viilntxiUBdnco  and  utJN^  prices, 
ieeiilea  thia,  aa  nio&t  of  the  labourere,  fiapetSftlly  those  emjilovi^  in 
elds,  iroro  paid  in  kind,  thoy  i(hun-d  with  tho  femiors  in  tho  general 
fit    from  high   prydiico    jjriwM.     Siiico  tht'ii,  vxt-opt  durinjf  tho 
iai  fiimiiio  yearii,   ltMJS-((y,   1871-72,  and  I87(i-77,  pric»M  luivo 
lUun  nImoBt  below  their  funni-r  level,  but  owinjf  to  tho  roDtiniied 
tuuiiil  for  labpar,  wnfrt-«  hiiv»*  not  fulli^ii  in  an  wpiii)  dt-jfrw.     At 
I  Bame  tiivLtheir  n-nut  of  thrift,  and  their  fundnesH  for  KpcdSiiig 
ir  money  on  omaments  and  opium  or  Uqnor,  combine  to  ke<tp 
kfanartTA  iioor,  and  iii  many  ooseH  to  plqjBgD  thoin  tep('l«K«ly  in  debt. 
[ooeylenilerH  seldom,  at  onfl^irae,  aavdStee  day  laboiin-rs  more  thjia 
2   l(>«.  to  i.^  (Its.  25- Rm.  30), bnt  ttiuirliubilitios  often  exceed  £10 
Kh.  100).     Im  uakiuif  Mm  udranoeathe  moueylonduroftiiu  n>qiiir«a 
labonrer   to   pteoj^e  his  labour,  hia  house,  his  bullocks,   and 
motimi'H  wen  h'w  fuioily  pol»  iuldornaim*nlK.     Whvu  the  Inbourer 
no  pniporty,  the  moneyleudv  vsually  demnndci  n  reapeclablo 
ty,  OP  forces  the  whole  family  to  sign  tho  bond. 
.,&bontlwoortltroo  per  cunt  of  Ubo  Inbonring'pupalationin  the  cast, 
"  "  bout  ton  j>w  cent  in  the  west,  raise  mum-y  liy  mortguginif  their 
These  men  are  generally  pnyill  Inndiiolders,  who,  by  Bomo 
lUy  or  mi(^)inp,  have  fallen  hopelusxly  in  <ii.'bc.   Afon  who  mortgage 
leir  l&ttOtar  aro  \uiwn  lut  ycnrlieR,  mtddr*,  because  tlieir  term  of 
ice  lasts  for  on^Br  more  yoant.     Lnbonr  is  gi'iivrully  mortgaged, 
tiier   to  clear  oS  old  debtti  or  to   raise  a  sura  of  money  to  moot 
karriage  or  other  ('xpeuHes.     Sometimes  a  man  mortgages  hiit  own 
d  sometimes  his  children's  labour.     The  rm-n  who   take   labour 
mort^f^  are  gimernliy    rirh  land^iwuvrN,  ilctl'inukhi,  jidiils,  and 
iliejTH,  who  employ  the  mortgagers  in  field  work  and  6ometimo8 
niesseugera  or   duns,  mahaifutis.    The  labour-mortgage   bond, 
&Ued  »  year  deed,  filkhat,  in  on  staropt^d  jiuper.     Sometimes  the 
lortgager  in   advanced  the  whole, *BBi  aomelimes  only  unc-half 
th©  sum  aneed  on.     The   common  plan  is  that   the  labourer, 
orkingsololy  lor  his  benefit,  isi!Hpp!ie<l  with  food  at  the  mortgagee's 
nst,     Under  thw  form  of  Bcre«>mc-nt,  a  labourer  takes  &i>m  three 
four  years  to  wurt  off  a  debt  of  JEIU  (R^.  lOO).*  Occ^isionally  tJw 
Uldr  lives  by  himself  and  is  bound  lo  do  only  a  Certain  nmoont 
F  work  for  his  iitanter.     Undiir  this  agreement,  Uie  laboun-r  supiMirtH 
imself,  and  in  two  years  would  work  oB  a  debt  of  £1U  (Its.  100). 
tiihiar'a  stirrices  cannot  bo  banded  from  OD«  uMmr  to  another, 
bey   are   willing  workvrji,  and  generally  do  their  share  of  tbo 
reemcnt  freely  and  without  punishment.     Sometimes  they  mn 
Bfuy,  and  formerly,  though  they  now  refuse  to  do  so,  the  mngisfmtoa 
km!  lo  euforcc  tho  bond.     Their  services  uovcr  l>ocome  hefediiapy, 
the   houses   of   wealthy   headmen   and  landlords  is  ft  cloeo  of 

Chapter ' 


tSombity  Gue 


in  ftii 


boredltttry^lainiTs.     Byforo  iV*  jiassiog  of  tli«   Act  (V.  irf  IS 

Uieiib  people  witru  lidtnlfiuiou  auil  boutlmrMmen,  the  liropert y  of  i 

ina«UT  oud  liable  to  be  sold  by  hitn.     Tbcy  now   bolJ   tiif  pia 

of  hired  sonmnls.     In  prai.liru  thftir  conilition    ia  tittle 

boy  «ro  wt-ll  Iruiiti^l  by  tbeir  msjrtera,  nnd  few  of  Ibom  bare 

',  tlieir  ojiporEiuiirica  of  raUing  tbeDuclvua  from  the 

Tliougb  the  bulk  of  fiie  Kh&ndesh  moneytondera     are 
and   unBcmpalonB   ia  their  dcalini^,  nnd,  WtDe'   fon^i^trr*,  i 
much  wi'iilth  out  of  tho  diiitrint,  thdir  capiui!  titid  tb<'ir'lliri(t 
xkill   ill  iiiifiiey  matters  are  of  the  highen(  ralae.     Wii.himt 
gteniDs  for   hiinrdiiig    and  tho  pitilustt    pr?s:^iiro    tbey    pal    on 
dvbliim,  thr  bulk  of  tho  mouoy  how  yearly  saved  would  n.-vrr  I 
been  earuGil,  ur  if  cttrued,  would  have  beeu  apout   iti   fecuiLiugj 

Accordiiif^   In  rc'liirim  propiired   in  1820  nador  C 
orders,  from  1788  to  171)7,  in  Amalneiv ^rsnd^,  um] 
aventgo  daily  wage  of  a  carpenter,  a  blacksiflBh,   m  weavi-r.  aiiil< 
tailor  vnw  6<t.   (L  niiii'i«) ;  of  a  bnckhiyur  nud  a   beartu-  i)|i/.] 
a»»i>*)  i  »ud  of  a  labourer  :]<^  (2  ann'u).     Bulloi-k     hire  waa] 
(■iaitittM)  a  day ;  cart  hire  waa  from  U.  to  '2t.  (at.  6 -11k.  l),aacot 
as  there  was  otxi  or  two  ]»irH  6t  ltdloek» ;  and  puDV  bm^  niu 
{aanna").  Botweeu  1798  andl8l7,  there  was  a  conititK-rableic 
in  tho  earnings  of  skilled  nnd  unskilled  vrorkers.     In  181 7  the  i 
vi»gv  of   a   cari>i!i»lt^r  wiw  D}./.    ((JJ   anna*);  of  j^^Iack^mttb 
(r>  annOM) ;  of  a  bricklayer  8)i.  (5  j  annmt)  ;  of  a  wosver  ^J.  (4  nnuu 
of  a  tailor  71<f.  (6  aniidx)  j  o^a  basketmaker  5J'(.  (itj  aiiniM) ; 
bearer  7[d.  (&  axiKM)  ;  and  of  a  labourer   l^'l.  (■^^innajr).      RuTTdl 
hire  was   £>(!.  >(G  au»<M]  a   day;  carl    hirC  fro^   I-*.  G(/, 
((tv.l2-Re.lS);  and  pony  biro  was  ll^d.  (7^  lumTs].     BoO'.-i-u  i-: 
and  l8'i!U  wajjca  changcil  but  iitl'Ic.     Cart  hire  viaa  from   24.  taj 
(Bo.  1  •Kit.2),  and  puny  hire  wa:*  Ic  (8  anntm). 

Tn  IS28,  ten  yean  after  tho  introduction  of  British  rale,  the '. 
wage  of  nniikilled  Uiliour  was  for  a  tiinn  Sil.  to  -l^'l.  [i.:i  nttnti*), 
a  woninu  2irf.  to  3<(,  (ll^aitnan],  and  for  children  utidor  fout 
2Jd.  (li  ai»jwM).  At  tho  same  tinw,  besides  tho  daily  jiri'sent 
handful  of  ears  of  grain  at  harvest  titnc,  the  wogeit  of  field  Ul 
were  3d.  (2  <mit(M)  for  a  man,  2i'i.  Ui  anno*)  for  a  wotnan, 
l|d.  (1  anna)  for  a  child.  In  field  work  men  nsed  nI.-<o  to 
i^ugngfM)  by  the  month,  without  food  «t  8*.  (It*  -I),  and  with  foodj 
from2*.  to4*.{He.l-l{fi.2),  Tho-se  e  11  giigi*  men  lit  generally  lusted  fji 
two  to  fotir  months  and  ended  with  harvest.  Of  skilled  labot 
ordinary  In-icklayqv  and  carpontcrs  were  paid  In.  (8  annm,),. 
clever  ^-orkci^lsTSt/.  (10  anmiM)  a  day.  Of  personal  sorrtuitH,  the 
monthly  wag^of  a  tailor  was  £1  (Ka.  ID),  and  of  a  gro<»n  16a. 
(Ua.  8).  funy  and  cart  hire  was  |il.  and  \{ti.  a  milo  (I  and  2 
a  ^«).  PnymenI  used  to  be  ntaide  in  copper  ooiux  mllud  <(, 
and  ghivniit  worth  Jd.  and  gi2.  (J  and  1  aiiiia). 

In  1842,  the  daily  wage  of  uniktlled  labour  was  9d.  (2  ant 
Far  from  large  towns  field  workers  wore  usually  paid  in  grain,  wiU'i, 
perhaps  at  Div&ii,  tho  pretieBl  of  u  tnrban  and  a  pnir  of  shoes. 






D  of  tho  |*riun  wa«  about  l\d.  (1  ann 

wuf^  IimUm]  till  uhout  IS-'iO,  whvn  tW  making  of  milwftyn  itud 

r  public  wortcH  began  to  ^ect  the  lalxmr  mitrket.     Kr-jto  titat 

labour  ha«,  vxcvpt  in  1877-78,  steadily  riaon  iu  ralue.    In  1863, 

Ij  yrngv  of  uuHkiliod  luUmr  n'iM  for  mou  from  6(f.  U>  10) 
WitiMMj,  for  womeu  from  (Jti.  toli</.  (3-4anaai'),  audforch 
■om  21(/.  to  3d.  (l|-2  anmw).  At  the  same  time,  amonj;  sli  ^^ 
ibuGivri)  titu  (tuily  w»go  mw.  For  Htooo  mnsotm  an<l  bricklAyers 
10111  }*.  to  Is.  6d.  (8- 12  antww),  for  cnr|)ont«nt  from  l<i.  Od.  to  2«.  tid. 
iHH'ia  I2-Ro.  H),  and  for  tailors  from  U.  toU.3<{.  (iJ-tO  a»na«). 
ut  biro  WHH  )«.  6(/.  (12  anntut}  a  ilay,  or  2^'^  (I J  attfiat)  a  niilu  in 
L»  fair  miinth.4,  and  3(1.  (2  aitnaii)  iu  tliu  roitu.  Punjr  hire  was  |('.  * 
oniiii)  a  mite. 

Botwcon  IS70  aad  1880,  thg  daily  wage  of  unskilled  labonr  Ium 
imained  prptly  mii!(tatit  at  6.i.  (i  ann<u]  fitr  a  man,  SJ**.  {2i  rinn<w) 
T  a  womao,  und  frnm  IJJ,  to  M.  (1-2  aamui)  for  h  child.  Duriofr 
^0  1870-77    fainiue,  eo  givat  wa«  the  eupply    of    labour    seeking 

iiildynii^nt,  llmt  iiM^iit^^  »{  tin?  nin;  in  produce  pnw*.  ibt?  nit^H  of 
Oidcilled  inlionr  fell  lo  2^  {\^anna)  for  men  and  i{d.  (I  attaia)  for 

A  iipccial  cliuft  of  uiLtkilled  carriers,  or  hattuHn,  work  in  gang*  of 
irty,  flod,  except  tbat  (be^'beadiuHn  baa  an  extra  quarter, 
]eir  daily  eorain^pi  in  cqiuil  Hliaree.  Tliey  are  paid  I  }■/. 
(*)  (or  iinliiKiliu)^  fntni  OUO  to  70|  pouadu  of  graiu,  and  ji/, 
Ru)  <for  cari^'in^  ii  bide  of  nn|n<^ktHl  outton  from  Ibe  wars- 
DBseti  to  tbe  cotton  presses.  Id  tbe  busy  hoomuu,  frorO  Kwbruary  to 
lay,  thvir  aveni|ro  diiily  oumingii  nmotint  to  about  0(i.  (4  anttae). 

Town  workor4nn(l  craflamen  aro  naid  in  coin,  and  liuld  wnrkom 
lartly  in  tn^i'^  audr^rtly  in  coin.  The  cuHtom  vaAes  in  different 
Uirts  of  the  district  utid  with  ditfurent  ero]M.  In  Kiivt-r,  payment 
t  harvpHt.  time  U  nHually  a  percentage  on  cImi  amount  of  tliv  crop 
at;  white  in  Sirda,  except  in  the  case  of  the  millet  crop,  thu<  form 
if  payment  is  almoal  tmknown.  Day  labourers  are,  as  a  rule,  ]uiid 
,t  iuton-ala  of  fonr  or  fiv<!  diiys  when  their  wages  (generally  atnouut 
■Ixiiit  2jt.  [Ko.  I).  Town  labonrew  gi^to  work  at  daybrc^ak,  como 
^ume  at  noon  for  dinner,  and  after  reatiiijr  fur  Iwo  liourn,  wurk 
ill  sunaet.  Field  workvrx,  iMiginniug  at  daybreak,  and  taking  their 
illut  tiri.-iiil,Ki]i<inHnndpi<'kliMirclintiiey  witli  lliem,cHl  tbcmal  noun, 
id,  after  i-estiug  for  about  two  hours  wi.rk  on  till  dark.  CoWou- 
licbing  is  paid  for  at  Id.  for  nine  pounds  (about  I  ptV  a  ponnd).  A* 
WmI  workt-rwill  eani  from  IJi/.loSi/.  (I -2itnii(i«)  aday.    Tlio  peopio 

Ry((d  iu  thiH  work  are  chiefly  women.  Ourinvnoat  of  Ibo  nuns 
\T  into  tho  cold  weather  (Jumi-Fobmaqr^.  field  workers  End 
ymont  in  litdpinj,'  liiiHbaudm<-u  tn  weed,  wii(i.h,jj(?ap,  and  harvest 
npir  hrnjiM.  Kriitii  Fcliriuiry  to  Miiivh  iJiey  iirtt  uNiHklly  employed  in 
iringinj;  lieadli>ad&  of  grass  foi-snle.  During  the  rest  of  the  yvnr  I  bey 
lelp  bricklayers  and  carpenters,  and  repair  roads,  dig  pondH,  gin 
iotton,  and  nirty  Inads.  Uuusu  Mcrvnnbf,  whether  in  towns  or 
rilii^^s,  arupnidfrom  Sa.  toI2*.  (Rs.  4-R8.6)Hmnnth.  Wngvit,  when 
rork  is  unbroken,  are  \K\\t\  every  week  on  market  days,  otherwiae 
hoy  are  paid  daily.  Iu  a  labourer's  houoohold  tliv  wife  gt-uvnilly 
B  411-26 

CfaapUr  V. 



Chapter  V. 





vofn*  cnmi^h  to  provide  tlit>  family  with  salt,  oil,  cbillies,  and  spiceil, 
'pcriia|>!t'»lK>ut.4Jii(--Kixth  of  llic  family'  fnnds.     Childn^a  cam  coons 
to  keep  iheiiu<eiv(>a  ju  clMtheH,  nml  nuiy  lie iukid  to  cantributui 
oDO'twclflli  of  the  familj^  fimds, 

llio  rL-turns  of  pradaco  prioce  streloh  OTor  an  unusually  long  Be: 
efjetarn.  TIkv  tSq^^  (u  two  main  wota,  ouv  for  tlio  tliirty-th 
yeateocdiuK  IH2(I,  prcpan-d  fortbi!  Amnlncr,  Ei-aiidol,  amlNtindiirlji 
eub>divisiuoa  in  1 82U  ooder  Captain  Briffg«'  orders,  sud  iho  other 
for  tliu  fnrty-six  yoarii  ending  IS78,  couipilod  by  tho  Dhalia 
mdmlntdilr  from  ntcortU  and  (p-niti-ditalers'  ncoonutii.  Between  the 
^  two  seta  of  retarna  thtfe  ia  a  break  uf  lliret-  yeai-a  (1821  to  182S]. 

Tbu  find  Hot  of  thirty-tliri>e  yeare  includes  three  poriods,  ouu  of 
ten  yeara  1788  lo  1797,  ono  of  twenty  yoars  1798  to  1817,  Md  one 
of  thre«  years  1818  to  1820.  The  firttt  periodj^m  1788  to  1797, 
was  n  timo  of  ver^  cheap  grhia,  with  the  rupee  price  of  Indian 
inillet,  jvAri,  ranjfing  from  210  pounds  in  Erundol  to  280  pounds  in 
Anialner,  and  averaging  245  pounds.  Th«  8«coiid  period,  from 
1798  to  1817,  was,  apart  from  the  greal  1802-3  famiuo  wh«n 
millet  rose  to  uboul  four  poTiuds  the  rupee,  a  time  of  dcan^'r  gntin, 
with  millet  priiN,-s  mngiug  from  129  pounds  in  Amaluer  to  140  lo 
Kandur)}^,  and  avcru)^ug  litA  pounds.  In  Lbe  three  years  ending 
1820,  produce  prices  rose  most*  markedly,  Indian  millet,  ^"rdri, 
Tarying  from  nixly-thrce  pounds  in  Anialnor  l«  ninnty-four  pounds 
in  Krandol  and  Hreni);iug  Kovvnty-xix  pounda.  The  JoUowisf 
ntati'incnt  gives  thi>  chief  available  details  :  , 

SMiuUJt  I'roduct  PritAt  tPmiiuU  Uie  ttupa},  tUs-lSiO. 


Tbf  years  1821, 1822, and  lS2:t,for  which  no  returns  aro  avaiUM^ 
*ftro  spoken  of  as  a  period  of  rapid  spread  of  tillago  and  lower  pri^H 
than  liad  been  known  for  thirty  ycarw.'     Then  followed  one  or  tw^ 
Beosous  (IS2t-1^2t>)  of  Krairciiy  nearly  amounting  to  famine,  with 
Indian  millet  rulina  at  from  seventv-four  to  seventy-nino  pounda, 
or  about  as  high  as  in  I S 1 7.     The  fifty-tbrc-c  years  siwoo  1826  may 
bo  dividwi  into  firo  periods.    Sis  yiwirtt  of  cheap  grain  (1827-1832) 
with  Indian  millet  ranging  fi-om  ninety  to  144  pounds  and  avonigii 
aboot  117;  four  years  of  scarcity   (I833-18315J  with  Indian  mill 
varying  from    sixty-lwii    to    !«tv«nty-three    pounds   and    nversg"" 
sixtj-six;  eighieea  years  (I837-18M),  excluding  the  scarcity  y* 

>  rnrlhtr  d<4sUi  aro  ffivcn  Mow.  P.  W2. 


oE  l838-3ftancl  1816-40,  af  luw  pricoH  wirli  Indijin  millet  ra'ig^iif; 
from  eighty  to  l(}B  nad  areTs^Ug  about  IHi  poujide^  aud'tliirtuen 
jrcwv  (IS-'ii^'  1867)  of  hi^^h  pnous,  partJ;  owin^  to  several  etru^ons  of 
short  cn>i>!)  aad  partly  ft  ttit^  American  n-arand  (Jil-  tiitn)dut-lion  of 
milways  sud  public  wdi-Icb,  with  prices  Tarymjj  from  thirty-two  bo 
cighty-four  and  avcnieiug  fifty-four  poands.  jjl|iu]  twelve  yi-ars  tlut 
huveHinoepa!<8ed(18(}S-l879),  ludiait  millet ^HRhnvv  rariw)  {rom 
Beventy  to  2-li  and  averaged  about  foi-ty-six  pounds.  ITie  toud^ucy 
in  thrao  yuan;  hiut  keen  to  a  fall  in  prices.  But  thia  teudi-ncy  bas 
boen  aiijtd  tliiiH  met  by  four  bud  lii>rvt^!il«  followod  liy  uliiioiit  famine 
prices,  in  18G8,  1871,  187tj,  and  1877.  ITio  foHi)wiiig  statement 
showd  tbe  at'aiinble  details  of  the  prices  of  the  chief  cereftU  and* 
pulteSj  and  of  cotton,  bolwcuu  IS'H  and  1879 : 

SMtuMi  Prodmct  Priat  (Pomtdt  Uu,  RaprtJ.  JBSt-J879. 


Fnn  Pmon. 


Thus  Pmon. 














i  § 



1     t 

iBiOui  taiii«i  .. 


















W  «41 

_4_,     Ut  •.Tt    !• 






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iW  It} 

Ciiptniu  Br^ga'  retoms  for  tho  first  set  of  t]iirty-lhr(>e  yeant 
(17vS8-1820)  iacmde  sonio  interesting  particulars  of  the  prict's  of 
fowls,  chtok«ni<,  mid  t^ggn.  from  tliest;  n^ttini!*  it  would  seem  that 
pu  an  averanri?  during  the  Brat  of  his  three  jtenoda  (1788-1797), 
fowls  sold  at  3d.  (2  artna«}  a  piuce,  chickens  at  'i^d.  (1  j  annn*),  nml 
vgf^  at  about  seven  for  a  puniiy  {8  pic*).  In  tho  second  period 
(1793-1817)  tlio  avomge  price  of  fowls  rose  to  about  &l'^(3l  anntu). 


fBombAj  Gaiett 



tVdahU  Mid 

of  cliiolci^H  to  iibiMit  ^\d.  (2Jt  annaa),  and  of  efffrs  to  five  for  apenaj' 
(8  pirw)'  '\'iu-  ctirn'-nt  (1880)  pnccH  of  Iiipmi'  tlinw  iirticles  in  the 
three  siil>-di visions,  Anialiior,  Hramlul,  luii)  Niuiilurli^,  to  wliicli  th« 
old  rctnrne  rt-for,  arw  for  a  fowl  froia  Hd.  to  U.  ('i-S  aatum),  for  a 
chioketi  from  lt<f.  to4}4l.  (1-3  onnw),  and  for  eggs  about  Uvee  for 
a  peon;-  (8  pieti). 

MvtAls,  cotton,  clarified  butt«r,  oil,  fnel,  '"^'^  apic««  aro  sold  bv 
wi'i^'lit.  In  vm«  of  gold  Ibo  follotrinf^  weiiflita  are  used  :  2f 
guixjiix,  one  nil ;  fonr  im?*,  ono  rajun  ;  and  twvlro  miiad*,  ono  /«/«. 
Bartoy  grains,  jotw,  formt-rly  in  uso  'aa  weigiit*,  are  now  seldoin 
oocn.  Tbd  tola  is  a  little  more  in  weight  tlian  the  British  rupoo 
•  which  weighs  only  itUiwn  magtU  and  oj  punja*.  Th«  gunj,  rod  and 
abont  the  size  of  a  sntall  pea,  bi  tho  Mood  of  ihu  Abnix  prctmtorioa, 
and  Ibtt  ml,  a  )itt)o  larger,  is  the  soed  nf  tbc  diUhiiri  tiv-e.  ToIm 
anil  »iif»ij«,  icijiiiin-  or  octngonal  in  shape,  are  made  of  brass  and 
sometimes  of  China  pcirvvliiin  itnd  d<df.  For  vroiKbing  silrer  the 
Brirish  mpeo  is  always  used.  As  tho  rupee  la  not  always  of  uniform 
weight,  in  wholivude  ptu-chase«  discount  at  (he  rate  of  oight  pqj 
cent  is  ajlowod.  Thy  vltvapur  metals,  copper,  brass,  iron,,  aaf 
lead,  and  clarilied  hutur  nnd  nil  an'  mU\  at^ourdiug  to  the  followiaj! 
tul>lu  :  three  paitt'm,  UnMiuiua  pitvos, onu irAAdiii/;  j  fourcAAni^fit*,  oiio 
jiAcuhor;  two  juirflfra,  oao  nr/iJbfr,  equal  to  a  pound  ;  two  (irJlA«r< 
or  ptMioda,  ont'  ii/ifr  ;  five  «Aw»,  i^ne  }iiiari  ;  two  jHitHg,  one  dhadi  ; 
fonrr//(.>.?i>,  onoiw*»«orMiiiund  ;  ihrcti  wmji*,  ono /JiiHn  ;  twenty  man*, 
one  fchandi  equal  to  fivi>>sevenths  of  a  ton.  The  table  -obrtcrved 
in  tho  caflc  uf  ootton  is  :  eighty  fo{a«  or  2^  pounds,  ono  Kher ;  forty 
gkifrJt,  nuo  man  ;  thrco  mang,  one  palla  ;  ton  tmwM,  or  SiZi  pouuda, 
ono  kfutH'fi.  The  Kombny  khandi  of  784  p<^unds  is  aW  octeu  used. 
Ttit'so  weigbta^re  made  of  inui  and  aUimped.  Grain  is  hTKOHurod 
by  bnuiM  and  copper  cylinders  according  to  tho  following  tiiblo  :  four 
ehhali'd-Ji,  one  /wro/iT,-  two  y)'ir^A<r8,  one  aehhrr;  two  nMA/rn,  one 
thr  ;  twd  shfv»,  ono  aiHtiiti ;  two  aiUiolU,  ono  }>(iy/(  ;  four  loiy/w,  oa^ 
tMa !  twclro  tlol/iy,  one  ffl<i/).  The  map  raries  from  660  to  ~"^ 
pounds,  ntzoording  to  ihv  diilorvnt  twrts  of  grain. 

Brass  ami  copper  pota,  serrtng  na  q»arti>r,  half,  and  whole  ei^^ 
rupee  ahi^a,  are  used  for  moaauruifT  milk  and  small  qoantities  of 

Fuul,  when  wanted  in  Inrgo  qnantities  for  spinning  and  wuaving 

iiiilln  and  other  lami  iiinniifw.'t'Oriei*,  i.t  brought  by  mil  and  calcohitpd 

t    )niona;whon  bonfttfor  daily  ntto,   the  Nine  of   the    headlonda  op 

'cartloads  deternuiiHThe  price.  Qfftsa  is  sold  by  the  hnndn'd  bundloa 

and  somubiiues  by  the  hradloiid.  ^M 

In  the  CWH>  of  cbilh  either  the  foot  or  tlie  yard  meeanre  is  ua0m| 
Beady  made  waiscclotha,  dhotar»,  are  sold  in  pairs,  and  womes'e 
robes,  Utgi^dt,  and  pieces  of  S&vda  coarae  cloth,  known  tM  jolt,  nro 
eold  singly.  In  imqunring  Uiphc  clotliH  its  woll  aa  in  measuring 
mr|ie|ji,  j-'ijanm,  and  (Vinr»e  mmr  clutha,j'orttf,  both  tho  length  and  thv 
bii^ndth  are  taken  into  consideration, 

Bricks  are  Hobl  by  the  Ihonmnd  ;  nvftent  nnd  hcumj*  of  leak  and 
other  furt-at  lindier  by  the  Hcoro  or  huudrod  ;  and  lai-ge  posts  and 
)>iUur»  singly.   Their  buw  and  appcaniJiee  regtilwto  the  price.     Iq 

,oaa  1 







laifl^  porcliasea  timber  is  Talaed  by  its  cubic  conteiitB.  The  mean 
breadtn  and  thickuess  are  found  hy  meaaDring  the  breadth  and 
ihickmisB  of  the  log  at  the  two  ends  and  in  the  middle,  and  dividing 
the  whole  by  three- 
Heaps  of  gravel,  murum,  and  road  metal,  khadi,  are  measured  by 
their  cubic  contents,  the  nsoal  unit  of  measurement  being  a  bards  of 
100  cnbio  feet. 

Before  the  revenue  survey,  and  still  in  some  unsarveyed  S4tpnda 
villages,  the  district  land  measure  was :  twenty  kdthis,  one  pdnd ;  and 
tm/aty  pdnds,  one  bigha.  The  survey  measurements  are  a  chain  of 
thirty  feet,  one  anna ;  sixteen  annas  one  guniha,  and  forty  gunthas, 
oae  acre.  Thirty  gunthds  are  equal  to  one  bigha,  or  1}  bighde  are 
equal  to  an  acre  of  4840  square  yards.'  Partdn  meaning  four  bighas 
according  to  the  old,  and  two  bighas  according  to  the  modem 
oalcolation,  is  a  word  often  used  by  Kunbis  speaking  among 
themselves.     Twenty  partdn$  make  one  aul. 



Weight*  am 

^TheMgAameaaTae,  b«Md,  it  is  sold,  on  the  length  of  the  hand  of  Peshwa  Mftdhav- 
Iftrll.  {1774-1796),  TBriea  in  different  places.  The  idMi,  five  hands  long  by  one  hand 
brcwd.  Mid  to  have  bees  carred  in  stone  in  the  Shonvdr  VAda  at  Poona  was  at  first 
tiM  aoonited  measure.  After  a  time  the  length  of  the  Peshwa's  hand  became 
naggaMMd,  and  the  hand  was  taken  to  mean  the  loDtjlh  of  a  man's  arm  from  the 
■Ibcnr  to  the  tip  of  the  middle  finger,  with  an  additional  span.  Hence  arose  some  of 
ilwrariations  m  the  size  of  the  bigha.  In  some  places  it  wm  equal  to  U  of  anaoie,  or 
too  bigluti  were  equal  to  Sfi'l  acres.    Mr,  J.  Pollen,  O.S. 





Chapt«r  TL 


Karlg  Bbtdit, 



SECTION  I.— C0MMCNiaiTI0:*3. 

Tub  mrly  rock-out  rpimuoH  at  Ajanto,  at  I'&tna  nwir  QbAlii  „.  __ 
■  at  CbAudor,  and  at  Niaik.  make  JtpTx>b«ble  tliai,  as  far  back  aa  the 
,  BCcouTand  first  vpnturies  ttefore  Cnruit,  tni<!l«  iyito»  bctwucn  north 
upd  yfflt'b  India  ]iaHwd  dowj  to  those  places.  " m  U»o  thu-d  century 
after  uhriBt,  the  author  o£the  Periplua  (2-17)  mentions  tbat  trade 
crouod  Khtodc'sh  from  Broach  to  I^ithan  on  tht;  Gudi^vari.and  to 
Tagartfta  days  furtlior  oasl.^  The  n-)n»ini>at  Bbamw  n*-*!'  '^  ■  i r 

makeTt  f>robable  that  thia  trade  panned  from  llroacli  tliroi.       :, 

the  south  bank  of  tho  Tfipti  by  ^'"tsarr&di.  and  through  ths 

po«GonMT!^«i?»Mcmii>wn.   If 

;ffli'rif«iLPiti:^  v^f  1 



the  statement  tbat  it  lay  ten  dajntotbeeostof  Paithan  ts  ootrect,  the 
trade  ^wobably  poaseu  eastvardn  tiirougb  K)i&iidi»th,  tvaTiuf?  the 
district  either  noar  Pfttaa  or  near  Ajanta  The  road  though  very 
difficiiU,  wa.1  i>as8able  forvramns.  There  were  alao  from  very  oiirly 
times  mcTO  diroct  ry  tc*  to  tho  »cn  coiut  by  Xfleik  throngh  the  Sir^ 
TTwI.  *fu)   Yitin  Bhor  paasea  to  tliit  ancient  m«  portti  of  8up6ra, 


The  riei  cave^and  tcmptc  remains  at  Ajanta,  Pfitna,  and  OhSndor 

seem  to  sbow  that  till  thu  MimnlmAii  con({ii«^l<  (13(10),  the  pat-i^-s  in 

tho   SiitiiiAIa   hiHa  continned  the  highwayfl  of  au  iin^Ktrtaiit  tmffic, 

jUnder  che  early  Mnsalmins  the  route  by  Ihi^  Hat-v^n  ^r  Sit^Mogj 

ipass  from  MAIww  t"  KliJinik'sh  nisi;  to  imporlonev.     In  )d06  H: 

Kiifnr.  at  (he  Houlh  entrance  of  this  paas,  established   the  city 

devi    I 

India  and  GuiariU.' 

dm-tnt;  the  fifteenth 

and  Hixtc'enlu  ^nturioH,  tbe   time  of  the  greatest  epk'udour  of  the 
*  ^Muwtlmiln  dyuftiity  of  Ahmedsbad,  a  line  of  traffic  to  north  Giijar&t 
and  tlie  coaat  alouK  tho  nortb  tmnk  of  the  TrfptJ,  and  from   MAlwa 
_  ongh  KnkarmaDoa  over  the  Buv<lka  urCbiii^ :  '■  I''  j^gla,' 

Cwo  other  IJnea  mnst  have  Twen  of  special  im^  ^  l_;,.     i.  Ik:.  Aairj 
was  the  4»pitelj>£  Kb&odetib.*  Of  tnese  one  runs  north  and  soiii 

'  MMt  □(  thii  chapter  i>  oonipileil  frou  ni>t«riiJ>  wpplicd  l>y  Mr.  J,  PolUn,  0.: 
>  MoCrindle-.  P«ni,lu«,  l2S-i«l. 

■  SamQ  notioei  of  uid  oM-ly  hirtoO^  ol  Niiiik  an  ^von  below,  p.  SSS-iMOl 
*  Lee'i  thn  BatuU  (13411.  '  Otptain  CIudm'  Itinenuv,  60. 

■  DcUiU  of  Aiirgwl  an  ^vod  belownndarJPkcM  tit  Intcreat.'  B»i<fc«  >U  legMKUiy 

Id  sontbj 

imnortwiM,  Aaii^cl  wm  uia  cliict  plueo  m  Khindnatt  baton  Ui*  MiiMlnrtii  ccoiqi 
■ttd  afMrwAtdt  unckr  Uic  FArnki  kiagi  Mora  Biubmpnt  wM  cataUiahtd  <l400f. 

from  north  and  contral  Inditt  through  th«  Sitnrol  Pftsa  by  Aeirgattj     Cbapt^W 

Ihiring  the  iwsventecnth  und  tho  firsl  Iialf  of  che  eiphtconth 
wntnriiis,  whoa  Burhtopor  waa  at  the  height  of  Jte  power  ttiitl 
Snrmt  ww  the  chiw^  POTt  of  wcatern  InSia.  the  bnlk  of  tJic  great 
traffic  between  ttie  inlan'd  ouuntries  nnd  Iho  ooftst  passed  through 
Kh^odesh.  Tbo  EnropoM'  rokvelleni  of  the  aeveat«entb  coutury 
diwrilw    tl^ic   main    i-out6    oa  pasatng   from    Stirat    wist   ihrour*"' 



Piinioliier,  Ninipiir' 



TiiUiwr.   Cho 


urat  Co 

<ur,  and  then  §tra<;k  jigath  thrpughji 
Snnss.  to  Golkouda.*  ' 

Daring  the  eariv  yenra  of  thiu  century,  Munitlut  miarule  almoet 
deatroywi  the  trado  ofjf hAndMh.  At  tlie  begiunlog  of  llritish  nJo 
there  wiTo  no  made  roads.  ^Tho  tracks  wore  tIl-appoint«d  Uiid 
deficient  in  everything  but  di»<;omfort  »nd  daugcr.  J-ew  and  far 
between  were  the  miserable  hamlets,  and  the  monntain  paesee  were 
Its  riiLa''<'-1  luul  impractatsble  as  their  Rcrcv  poBtwssora.'*  In  18'26 
the  1 :  tifs  were  from   DhHJiu  -.ui  u  irtiitrw,  155  miles  north  T>y  i 

jn    and  TacTiora, 


north-east  bvAmalP'       _  i-ar- 

■erenty-throo  miles  )o  DhnLj^ot ;   «uat  o^^trolanES 
108  miles  to   Hurhtinpor;  i^oiith-ciutt  1iy    It  had 

iran<iol,uiul  t>fl 

eighty-four  miles  to  Ajiuila ;  &ou(h  by  MeTianbara'  and  tlie  Itayl^ 
pa**  to  Ani^ng^had  :  iwiith-wpst   by  ^t&legaoD.  Ch^ndorrwSifc.  and  \ 
the  Thai  n<i.s» 
,t>f  lauen'nittle 
jny  yoara 

JUT  war««| 

'  17&  inili<e  to  BhiwiKJi.  a  nmli!  juissiililv  for  t-vi-ry  sort 
ii  and  west  l.v  Pjnip«^gf  f..»l  Nk^An..j-^tp  s..r«t.  For 
the  onlv  one  of  theao  tracka  on.woioh   money  and 


iWPt  waa  lb>  great  BombuT  nnd  Agrr-  fv  ■'.   t   ad,  by 

^n^jvad.  and  the    I'aJaBner  or  tjindva    pass.     The  ivad   cntvrH 

kli^udwn  noar  the  Dliulia  villa^'n  of  Jhodgn,  and  mnniug  north 
paaaee  through  Virdul  «;ron.tiiig  t.ho  Tilpli  at  SAvalda  where  there 
n  a  ferry.  It  then  runs  due  north  through  Shirpiir  nniil  it  reaches 
the  Kb4ndosh  boundary  in  the  centre  of  the  S&tpudfis  near  tho  fort 
of  Borglmr.  Tfau  Ttipti  is  the  only  nubridgi-d  river,  and  except 
between  tlie Tifiptiand  the  Ptalaeiner  or  sindva  pass  whereit  is  gravelled, 

li»  road   is    metalled   tJiroughout. /  In    18-j3-">4,   Bomo   progreNi, 
I  made  in  improving  Ihu  cifigLBlfld'* "'   the  district.     About  one 

lltiodred  milen  (if  fair  wrtilher  nads  were  made  at  a  cost  of  £988 
S.  988il).*  But  until  1803  the  main  Agra  highway  aiHid  most  of  the 
funda  set  apart  for  road-making  in  Khnndenli.  Sinew  theU'vyofa 
special  ctnut  for  lucjd  works,  rotul-buildlng  has  ma<Ie  rapid  nrogreiia. 
At  Sfingir.  on  tho  Agra  road  about  twclfo  miles  north  of  Dhnlia,  a 
mnch  nged  line,  made  partly  from  Im[>iL'ria1  nnd  partly  from  local 
&iud«,  pauses  norlh-wvat  through  Uangurtin,  Chimtnnu,  Methi,  and 



'  8irT.  noan«IS]in  Ken'aV< 
>  ClraJiua'i  Btiil  Tn1<w,  1. 

ojaM,  IX.  WR  i  Tavemior  1)60(1)  in  Hania'  Vofffm, 
*Tay*Tai»r  in  Hvriit'  V..¥»(t»«,  II.  369. 
•  Bon.  R<T.  Bee.  XXVI.  of  1»GS,  put  X.  3012-13. 

"caupter  VI. 
Bod  tea. 




VikriiD,  twODly-foiir  inilwi  to  Doudaicha.  East  from  Dholia, 
fol-ty-aix  iiiilen  through  I'Jlrola  and  Knindot,  runs  n  gravwHwl  and 
unbrid^rcd  local  faud  road  to  MhasilTad  railway  otatiou.  Kiviin  Uiiti 
linw  It  fUTHvollod  and  unbridged  bmncb  mns  twenty-two  miles  Boath 
to  Kaj^wii  niilwny  Klatioii,  and  a  wcond  braQcli  passes  iJx  miloM 
oortli>weat  from  Krandol  to  Dhamagiion.  Souta  from  Dliiilia  & 
roud,  gravelled,  drBined,  and  bridged  except  over  thu  (lirnn,  runa 
Uiiriy-four  niilos  to  Cluilis^on  atatton,  and  from  Cbfilisgaou  La 
contmned  seven  milea  Aouth,  through  llic  Oiitram  or  RftomtigaoD 
pKES,  to  the  border  of  Hie  NiBim's  lerritoi-y.  From  Dfanlia,  west 
towards  PiinpAlfcr,  a  nKui  has  been  finished  thirty-two  miles  to  8&krt. 
»  From  S^kri  a  tine  Li  cI^a^(■d,  and  \\w  pari  ovor  thr  Kinidnilniri  pas^ 
bridged  and  metalled,  cbirty-eigiit  miles  north-west  to  Naviijmr  on 
tho  way  to  Sural.  In  tho  cast  tn'o  lines  centre  at  Jalgaon,  one 
fourteen  miles  fi^m  Nori  in  the  Kouth,  giwvcUod  and  bridg«d,  ll 
otlier  from  Dharan^on  twenty  milea  to  the  weAt,  of  which  the  Gr 
three  mile«  to  the  Girna  have  alone  been  liuished.  In  the  sou 
from  Pilfhora  stat>iou  a  gnivt'llod  and  <]niiiiud  roa<i  rans  eight  mil 
west  to  Bliadgaon.  8iiuK^  tho  ofHining  of  the  railway  (l^('&),tlii 
old  Asirgad  road,  rnnning  eaat  from  Jinidga  on  the  Uombay-AgTi 
road  to  Burhilupur,  has  been  deserted  and  left  to  fall  into  decay, 
lieitidfic  these  and  the  short  gravelluil  roads  that  run  between  the 
towns  and  stations  of  Miiheii,  H^vda,  and  Riiver  uu  tbo  JalMilpur, 
and  Varangaou  and  Bodi-ad  on  the  Xltgpur  line,  are  many  mu 

ased  fair  wimthur  c^rl  tracks.' 


Of  ninety-four  passes  throngh  the  hilly  country  to  the  west, 
uorlh  aud  sonth  o(  Khlindt-jili,  tiftevu  are  in  iht'  ?^nlivrti|ri«,  iifty- 
four  i»  tji^f  ^^ty^dAfr  and  twenty-five  in    the   S  Of  the 

fifteen  g^y^^j^iamfi,  seven  are  in  the  ran^L  ...  ^.n-ating  the 
Pimpalner  sub-division  from  the  IMngs  aud  the  Kiailt  district,  and 
nintr  are  in  the  sputa  that  intersect  the  IMnipalner  sub-divieion.  Thotte 
IwMling  into  the  DAnga  are  RoiutiAKiiAiti,  near  RAyjiar,  pasxable  for 
*  half- 1  ad  en  ca^Ue,  aud  Ohanmalk^bi,  nvw  VJmharpita,  Uurely 
posfablo  for  carts.  Those  leading  into  the  Nfisik  diwtrict  are,  (ho 
HtLeARIdHAT,  on  thu  mnin  line  bctwuvn  IJonU  and  Mdmk,  bridged 
and  in  good  order;  FlBOLiniKiOHlT,  {Mueoible  for  carta  bnl  with 
little  tratfic ;  llKt>Ai.VAi>iOHAT,  a  track  for  foot  paiwengen ;  Mo«daka, 
on  the  old  road  from  Snrat  to  JUnlegnon,  a  fair  pwss ;  and  lUBCbvAni, 
passahlo  for  carls  but  in'  v<try  bw!  order.  Those  in  I'impalncr 
•  are  GRonBaR.i.T  near  ChaOJpaHa  and  one  between  Scri  mul  Audi, 
*  payable  for  foot  passengers  and  nlAideu  atiimnls ;  KcjjpaipAkuih.^t. 
nbiiut  fift«vn  miles  west  of  Niaimpor,  on  the  main  n>ad  Ir-Iwoch 
Dbulia  and  B'li^t,  described  in  I82U  aa  full  of  forest  but  pass-tlilo 
10  carr'iages,^  now  bridged  and  metalled  and  with  considerable 
traffic;  CuvlkiiAchAi).<iii   and    TuAhkpAda    on    the    road   botw 

NandtiklSlr  and  Ntxj>mpiiir«rith  fair  traffic;  Man  or  TXHi>o»ADJliu,dH 
the  road  between  Unihmauvel  and  Dabivel,  barely  nasaable  for  mrts^^ 
Gu&TitiRi  on  the  road  between  Ashtana  aud  Miedtnpnr,  througli 

<  Cootrilqilol  by  tXk'tar  A.  T.  Miuiil«T,  B.E.,  Exeeatir*  bgtPMa  Khtrnkiii. 
*  t^ptain  Cluixa'  luucnij,  Iff,  tfS. 

-"  *^- 

"    '^ 



Kliorna,  in  good  order  mi<1  mlh  coii«idvn>l>lv  trofRc ;  TssABoiiti, 
on  tlio  rOAtl  from  SfUcri  u>  Siz&tnpvr,  wiUt  littlo  tmlliuj  n!ii 
KMAmnftmn'stti^  OD  Uie  rood  betweon  S«v&li  aod  Nizdmpur, 
tbi'i'iii/lt  llhrtmor,  ia  good  repair  and  with  ouuHtdoriiblv  tntfiic. 

The   Sat[)udii   ^)u^^vl^s^   iK-j^miiiif^  from   the  west,  are   AMLifiici, 
loading  from  Am!i  towards  Dhadgaon  and  thoK^thi  state,  pa&sabk' for 
liuloD  mdluuks,  olopkaDts,  nnd  cniuolH;  SatarqAri  niii!  ijinoi-VKeXBi, 
from  S&Targnon  and  t^iiigpiir  belovf  t.ho  hills  to  the  K4tlii  stale,  inuwabto 
Cor  unladen  animala  only ;  VAlhkkiuaiii,  DuKKAritiAiti,  AkomibjIbi, 
ttnd  Ai«ahu.u)IiAt,  all  leading  to  Dkadg»oa  in  ibv  north  and  Taloda 
in  the  wjulh,  jum.-'iilflo  only  for  unladcu  aninu^la  a»d%>ot  TuuiHoiigors 
carrying    headloads;  ChAsmeuohAi,  about  thirteon  miles  north- 
vrrat  of  Taloda,   also  on  thi>  road  to  Dhadgnon  and  thonce  to  tho 
Narbwin,  in  1820  chokod  with  forest,  now  [)A^al>le  for  inodvrntcty 
laden  donkeys  and  bullocks,  and  with  some  traffic ;  BdtAka  or  Dodra- 
DDvAtifiAT,  Nautba.  and  KakuiuAk).  od  the  ro&d  from  Dhad^^aoo  to 
Sural,  Inu-uly  pusabloby  fout<  |Nii»cngore  cnrryingheodlondejNAVK- 
aivauiT,  on  the  road  from  Akr&ni  to  Shdhilda,  passable  for  lightly 
liwlon  camels  and  ok'phants ;  and  TuiuKMumiiT.  on  the  road  from 
Tunmmiil  to  Khiili('nlii,  pnssnble  for  fimi  imiAst-ngers  with  hfndlonda 
and  lightly  laden  bulIocKS  and  donki-'ys.    In  Sbirpiir  the  only  l»SSG4 
itro  VadAli,  It  cart  roud  from  Ltieur  lo  Va'Vi!i ;  ikiid  MXi^niu,  a  cart 
road  from  (janpur  to  M^Mpur ;    Bakvaji  «r  Sl'^alpevi.   north  of 
StUt&nptir,  in  the  Barr^ui  state,  tjiou_Bual  i\>afl  froin_iui!or  to  Sural, 
pOMablo  but  hard  for  cattlu;  Palahnku  or  tJiXf^yA.  on  the  BotnlMy- 
Agra  road,  alwut  thirty  uiilcjt  wist  of  HarvAn  or  Hukaldevi,  with  tbrco 
Unea,  two  of  them  pa^alil^  for  carta.'   In  Chopda,  besides  sis  fo»tpnths 
U»odniorL- or  less  by  the  people  in  the  pfains  and  tht^  Bhils  of  Ad&vod 
and  filhor  ptncvn  in  brtngiug  down  head  or  biillwik  ioiids  of  graKSf 
fnel,  and  biimbooii,  there  are  the  following j>asses  iised  by  carta : 
EAkuvAoiiAt,  leading  from  Vardi  toGandyaDovAra  and  to  Bormali, 
paxitablo  for  carta,  with  traffic  tn  wood  and  lHiinl>oo!<;  CiiACRiurATi, 
between  Kunnidnud  Karfnind, po^sablo  for  laden  cattle;  UiiAiLiBAitt, 
twenty  mites  nrtnh-<>asl  at  CAioptla,  botwpeu  MAlapur  and  Chirmim 
~(udin<^  also  to  Kharjou  in  His  llighnt-M  Ilolkar's  lorritorv, 

Me  for  Iftdtm  bullocks  and  tarts,  with  it   Viiojitri   Iraflic  in 

wood  and  lutmboos  ;  SinvA  Bagda,  on  the  road  from  Varad  to 
Vaijiipur,  formerly  passable  for  cattle,  lately  taken  up  as  a  famino 
work  and  made  into  a  cnrt  rood;  Va^jAi-ub,  a  cart  ru«d  from 
Adgaon  to  Vaijitpur,  with  no  spvciid  'timHic ;  and  Umaktbi,  a  cnrt 
road  from  M&malda  to  Umarlbsatid  on  into  His  Higbnoss  flolkar'a 
lerritiiry.  In  tUvda,  besides  t«'euty  mounbiin  footpaths, 
VAruimdBi,  MaiiclbAki,   S.Wkuki>^uAk),    NivoivaiKi,    Aii<;atrAri, 

ItVEIMSI,    VlsXvilU^BI,    SaTIE^IrI,    DHAVUOAEBiEI,    pAL,    MiEtllR.iltl, 

Umhia,  Hinqonebari,  KIorAdi,  LovaKj  AuB.d'AKi.DniHoaATt,  Palox, 
GcnoianATi.  nnd  Viboub,  need  gcuonilly  bj-  Bhita  in  bringtt);;  bead 
or  bullock  looda  of  wood  and  bamb<x>it,  Lliu  following  are  the  chief 
paassB ;  Hhidalbabi,  from  P&I,  with  a  considerable  traffic  in  wood 





'  [b  ISHthii  waa  th«  tiighrfwl  to  Mlinw,  Imim  unbckltbjr  that  1i«t«f*9  Anffuat 
tad  DnotnlxT  BaropouH  preferred  uiy  other  nrnU.    C^ytaiu  t'lutw*'  Itiuoiuy,  4% 

■  4H— n 

IBombaj  0*i»t 

ipter  VL 



vo    J 


bn^ug'bt    by   Vanj^ris    from   ITia   nip^hDOse    tTolkar's   l«rrito' 
lft»t.Ai3iiiAin.   from   Al'bn(i4i«  Ui   Pill,  »  cni-t  rr>ai]  with  «o   tmirib 
?\[,\\mn|[..»r-iirl  mml  fn>m  Maogrul  lo  UnriaiulUo  Central  VVitvincei 
with  iii>^']K'fialliiifliL-;J^A||jji  i-arl  ruad  from  River  to  PAl  wilti  Inil 
in  fiipl  and  bamboos,  nnil  from  Sjiviln  (u  t'lil  with  do  epodnl  tru 
and  GASisAiTit,  n  van  nMid  from  Pddala  co  Neiiiltd, 

Tl>r>  S^lnijily  MBjii-ii  nro  bc|^'nt]inf;  from  tbo  east,  ^JAlffl^*   above 
Fanlcpur,  ut>uiil  thirty  miles  »iiii()i-4')uit  of  Piiiboni,  wisily  pa»snbl 
by  PiirtK;'  HaldiAouAt,  and  Jasjali.IohaT,  jiasHablo  forladen  catll 

UoKDBSHVAIKJlliT,      »    fool})>»tll  ;     J>»'>E.SAKI01|At,     NAndI^AoIIAT,    »Ui 

SDKXDRXaiiAT,nT1  jmnsnblcforlitdoii  cviltli-;Siiii[onAT  niu!  AktcboiiAl, 
■  [i>i>t]ii)tba ;  KAtAnAT,  also  a  footpaib,  fi>:im  Uoi'osv^di  to  Sllrar^.ion 
where  a  fair  is  favid  in  tbu  month  of  Chaitra  (Murch -April),  in  honour 
of  tbo  god  K^ttoba  wlio  haa  a  U-inpIo  there ;  AsaoqiiAt,  a  ftiatpntU 
from  S&yf;aon  to  Mohun  ;  MUAisanAr  from  SilygnoD  to  Uetiiin, 
p«MSsab1v  for  liiden  c-iittlv,  much  iisod  by  people  going  to  the  Siivar- 
j^on  fair;  tiAvTAi.AanAT  oi-  Amra,  Ix-twocn  ChiJliwciion  and  Kumiiul, 
the  old^tradeTm^^^BTrijrarilie  hill  fui.t.lhc  ruiiicd  oilv/d  l'a(ua 
Etaiidtt.  It  wiiN  oncw  nwd  by  carta,  and  though  now  out  ofropair, 
loiulvd  carts  with  looked  whonle  ant  bo  taken  down  with  diBicidtji; 
It  vras  ori^nall;  umde  by  Aumugxeb  aud  repaired  by  Lieutei 
Outram  when  be  srtt-  '' "■  •  IlhiU  at  Kannad ;  KAxnoBAcnAsoNua, 
frouTTjoiija  iiiurSii  Knpnnd  ;  XimodAt,  from  PAthnrie  lo 
Stilbktind,  pa&iable  U.-r  hidL^n  bulIncljB.  Ob'ritAir  or  KAsMNoATnHAT, 
ten  milos  wmth  of  CliAlifywon,  w«»  in  1870  pn:)vidi.'<l  with  n  comploto 
cart  iiMid ;  it  has  niuob  traffifi  in  grain,  pulse,  oilsotd,  fruit,  and  cluth. 
JuxoxvAc'iiAunirffromShiTflpurto  Jununa,  passable  for  ladpn  cattle, 
was  much  ii^cd  before  tlio  Outram  pass  was  made.  Beyond,  iu  the 
tutrwnio  »oiith-west  are  n  grunp  of  small  piMtscit,  KALnnAr,  from 
V&nm (i J  Amim  ^OhAtohAt,  fntm  Ahank^i  t«^>  Aml'iila;  Gaxksohat, 
from  Pdtnato  Kalanki;  and  CHiLHAnonAt,  IJADnAnanAT,  Khbkbokda, 
and  Mlkcik!,  from  Kluiradi  toLodhra;  and  Uanvatohat,  from 
rimjnt^iu  to  Lodbra.  TJiMc  arc  all  footpaths  passable  for  unladen 
cattle  oulv.  _  __       _. 


Under  the  British,  Iwsidcw  by  ronds,  the  diatrict  connnanioatioDfl 
liave  boon  improved  by  the  opening  of  tliu  Qrent  Indian  Peninsnl^^ 
Bailway.     Ilie   portion   of  the    line,    about    142    oiiles,     wilhwB 
Khiiiid('-*b  Itmil.ii   v.ii-<  bcgiin  in  1852,  nnd  opened  for  trnliic  between^ 
ISfil  and  18(55.     It  enters  Kliiiiidcsh  «t  its  wi nth- west  conior,  a.  few 
^uiib-3  north  of  the  town  of  Ndydimgri  iu  N^ik,  and  nms  ncirtb-east)^ 
keeping  near  the  oourso  of  tbo  Gimd'as  £ir  aa  Jalgaon.     In  a  lengtf 
of  eighty-two  miles  between  the   western  bonndary  of  the  distrif 
and  Ithiuuivul,  where  the  line  divides  into  the  Jnbalpnr  and  Nii 
l>ranche«,  there  are  nine    )it«tiou!i,    Cb&lisgaon,  Kiijgaon,    Gilli 
Pllchon|^ftheji,  MhiisavadiSluBpIi/Talgaon,  and  Itli/idii  (NuHira 
From  tRmsivnl,  on  th*  Jabaipbr  line,  a  diatanoo  of  thirty  milea, 
fire  atations,  Uujkheda,  S&vdft,  Kiuibora,  Kitver  and  Kh^fipur,  nn 

'  III  183G,  It  waa  a  gooA  gaa  ro«4  Mul  tbe  only  nmto  (or  out*. 
lliiMTary.  ISS. 

on  flio  X^ppnr  line,  n  dii^auco  of  twenly-cight  milos,'  atv  t^o 
stnticiiis,  Vimiugiuiu  and  Nndgnon.  Ex<re|>t  tlie  bridges  ttcmes  the 
Vii^hur  near  Nasirabad  and  aci-osBtlic  T&pli  tmar  Diijklieda,  tho 
liiiu  was  Bunplo  and  OMily  modi*.  Uouidcs  tho  ordiuHty  buildings 
fcl  the  diiltircnL  eUtiona,  costing  from  £300  to  £1^00  (Rs.  SOOO- 
15,000),  witJi  a  statioD  master's  ho«ee  and  bookinpr  ufiice,  and 
at  Pacliom,  Jalguon,  nud  Kiidgvon,  Bmall  waiting  ruoiim,  Uie.rxi  has 
b«!n  built  at  llie  Bhnafiral  junction  a  handsoino  atation  at  a  cost 
of  £80,000  (Re.  8,00,000),  with  large  bath  and  refrcBlimont, 
a  Inr^^u  worksluip,  dwellings  fgr  Bun^pcan  enipluyccs,  public 
gnrdeuit,  )uindM>me  rcawling  roomi<i,  und  a  gyytkhana. 

Tile  chief  road  bridges  in  Klulndesfa  are,  on  the  Bombay-Agm' 
ruad,  across  tbo  Pilujltm  at  Dhuliu,  a  stonv  bridge  with  twcutjr-nino 
openings,  fift4>on  of  (Iiirty  fwt  and  fonrtoon  of  eight  foot  span,  and 
ajrrosa  the  Bori  on  tbo  Dbulia-Ch^liKgaon  road,  a  etone  bridge  of 
fifteen  openings,  nino  of  forty-fivo  ftwt  and  bjx  of  tw«nty  fout  Kpan. 
A  llyini!  bridgo  at  Muhunbdra  ou  tho  »une  roftd  vras  carrit^d  away 
ill  the  1H72  tlood,  and  a  new  one  is  now  being  set  np.  'i'ho  chief 
railway  bridges  nro  five  in  nnmbcr.  Thrct-  of  thctn  with  thirty  f«;t 
openings  uu  Ibe  Tctur,  l)i<>  Itola,  and  tbi!  Korunda,  all  tributaries  of 
tho  Girna,  wcro  works  of  no  special  difficulty.  Tho  bridge  near 
Nni<ira))itdncr»SK  thuVitghiir,  which  ialioi-cSOO  ji^nls  wide,  iMncistwl 
ftt  Brat  of  ten  openings  s[>anncd  by  iron  gicdera  on  Warren'a  prindple. 
Five  of  thofio  openings  were  afterwards  removed  aud  filled  in. 
Souo  after  leaving  tlio  jnnction  iitation  nt  Bhiicuivat  tho  line  eruttseti 
"be  T^tj.     The  nver  is  oflO  vardii  wide  and  subject  to  audden  and 

roro  Hoods  rising  tit  times  to  a  btjight  of  sovcoly<eiglit  fi'vt.  U 
was  ut  firft  spanned  by  a  bridge  87'>  yni'ds  long,  conttistiug  of  five 
opeuingB  of  lltS  feetaud  fourteen  of  sixty  fcot  covejvd  iron  girdcnt, 
and  twonty  orctivs  of  fi-rty  font  each.  Tlio  beds  of  the  Vilghur  aud 
the  TJipU,  aa  well  as  of  the  arosller  rivers,  are  of  solid  rock,  and  for 
tbo  bridges  good  foundations  wero  oblninoil  with  eaae.  But  tbe 
Lpuksonry  wiiK  in  ninny  coaos  uuiialiK factory,  aud  as  some  of  tlio  bridges 
niavo  shown  signs  of  fidliu'O,  it  has  boeu  found  noocHHnry  to  build  tlitna 
on  a  new  tlcKigii  with  piers  of  iron  CTliiidcre  filled  with  conci'Oto. 
Tlio  TiSpti  bridge  ivas  in  1^72  rep!oc*>d  by  a  new  bridge  on  this 
principle,  about  652  yards  long  and  consisting  of  tweuty^ight  spttDS 
of  sixty^ix  ftt'l  ond  (ivo  of  luO  feet  girders. 

The  only  pnblic  ferry  in   the  district   is    acro«  tbo   Girna  a( 

;}i1ehnnbiini.     After  tho  lo»«  of  the  flnng  bridge  in  1872,  a  double 

*ferry  boat  twenty  feet  by  tiftx^eu,  drawingabout  throe  feet  and  ablo 

to  lio^d  fifty  paxsongers  wae,   iu  1874^  built  out  of  local  fau<U  ut  n 

cost  of  £300  (B».  8000>.» 

Besides  this  pablic  fonyy  forty-eight  private  boats  ply  at  diSerenfc 
plnocn  on  tke  Ttipti,  »onio  workidjkthrouf^hout  the  yonr  wbore  tlio 
river  is  never  fonlable,  and  some  during  the  rainy  seiiDou  only.  'J'ho 

Chapter  Tl 


*  Thii  Imncti  liaa  (wco  of  «[>wiial  importaaoe  ••  It  eaan«cli  Bomhkf  iritli  ona  ol 
tha  Ur^t  Mill  txat  O0tlnn-){rnwing  'iMTJcta. 

■  lliw  IxNit  Iu*  for  •ouie  Uuo  l>Mn  out  oi  (Vpftur,  oad  tbc  Iiitn  contract  ia  turn 
\\S»)  hM  %  Uw  Mil  cvtttrMtor. 

[Bomlny  Ouett 



Cliapt«r  VI 




•b  UfficM. 

d<y>tli  of  water  lu  thcso  plnoes  varies  from  five  to  thirty  feet.     Of  i 
f'>rt.y-vif(lit  Tnpli  ImkiIh  mn;  w  in    Ajnalner,  Boven  are  in    HhusAv 
four  ill  L'itiijiibi,  two  in  Hrandu),  one  in  Nandnrbiir,  two  in  NatiiniiK 
nine  iu  Sfivda,  sovoa  in  Mb&luUla,  mnu  iu  Sliiqiur,  Uiree  ill  Talix 
an<1   one   id   Virdel.     The  IxmU  ure   gonerallf   built   of  teak 
PmluUha,  Hiiroii^lMiiA,  and   other  Kbdn^sb  Tillagvs,  uti<]  xoc 
times  broa^bt  fi-uiii  BurhSnpur  or  Bombay.     Tlwy  vary  in  siat',  fr 
ei^hU'ifn  feet  lon^f  liy  eiglit  brcMKl  and  thnr«  doop,  to  fortv-aeven  fa 
lonff  i>y  vliiven  bniad  and  lliroo  deep.     They  can  cany  from  fif 
to   IW  paaiM^ogera  and  some  of  them  from  four  U>  fifty  nmniaE 
Their  chargca  arc,  ftir  a  prammf^r,  from  ('(.  U>  i'l.  (i  -  J  iinna),  ' 

*«»imals  fmni  jji^.  to  3<l.  (1-2  oHtutt),  and  for  carta  from  d4.  to  i 
{i-ioniMM).     II10  whole  vcarly  nnmbcr  of  pasBODKcrs  Y»ric»  fr 
100  to  7000  aud  oi  aniinai»  from  300  to  14>00.     II1U  boats  ooat  frof 
£16  to  £3S0  (Ka.  ir>O.It<(.  aSOO),  and  but  for  nearly  twenty  year 

The   erow,  vrbo  are  also  the  owners  of  the  boats,  «ru   p.!mtnd( 

Kolii^  iiud  Blioie,  and  sonw  am  BhiU,  Mhdrs,  ltaj|>utit,  and  PardeRhiR. 
When  ooi  eriiployod  on   tiiu  boats  thi:y   work  in  the  Gelda  ur  do^ 
•omo  other  unskilled  labour.     They  imw  tlie   boate  with   paddle 
geuvmlly,  in  limes  of  Hood,  starting  a  mile   or  two  higltei'  up  tl 
streaui  tJum  the  plucu  tituy  niako  for.   Othur  rivers  are  crnased  eitbe 
by  swimiiiiiiK  with  gourds  tied  under  the  chest,  or  on  a  gonrd-bnojM; 
oot  launcheil  Humo  diHtanco  up  the  ittninm  and  guidc<l  neroxH  by 
or  ibnw  Bhoiit  or  Kolia  swimming  on  eilherside.     Theasualcoa 
18  from  Id.  to  j(j.  (l-J  unjia). 

Besidea  twelve  travellers'  bnngalowti  at  Arvi,  Bodrad,  Ch^lisgiKii 
Chikalval,  Dhulia,  Jalf^aon,  Khed,  Karddna,  PiUhoru,  Pulaanoi*^ 
Shirimr,  Songir,  and  Vinchur;  nine  difttriet  ofEcenj'  buu^alowa 
at  Bctt&va<I,  U|futUtval,  Uhamngaon,  Dhulia,  Jalgaon,  Nandurbdr, 
Nardtina,  Kangaon,  and  Sanndina;  and  seven  public  works 
in>4p«ctors'  bini^tows  at  Cbimtana,  IVmdaicha,  Kliod,  Kundaib^i,  ; 
McbunlMkni,  ^ilkri,  and  Vinchur,  there  are  ninety-live  reat-boasMi^i 
dharjna»hiitiis.  Of  these  one  m  in  the'Aiiuilnor  sub-diviaion,  scvo^H 
are  iu  Bliuaflval,  four  in  CliAliif^a'jn,  two  in  Chopda,  ten  in  Ohulit^^ 
four  in  Erandol,  six  in  Jdmnor,  nine  in  Nandurb^-,  four  in  Nasirabad. 
nine  in  Filohora,  Gve  in  Pinifxtlner,  elevou  in  Savdn,  eight  in  yiuUuida, 
five  in  Shirpor,  two  iu  Taloda,  and  seven  in  Virdol.  Of  the  twelve 
Iravvllwrs'  b«ngalown  two  aro  in  tho  Bhunival  sub-diviaion,  five  iu 
Bhulia,  two  in  Shin)ur,  aud  one  each  iu  Ch&lisgaon,  Pichora,  and 


Tbo  di«trteb  of  Khiindcsh,  forming  part  of  the  Khdndeah  poati 
division,  oontoiiut  fifty-three  post  ol(iec«.     Of  tliese  that  at  Dhulia 
the  chief  disbun^iug  office,  is  in  charge  of  a  postmaster  drawing; 
yearly  i^iliiry  rising  from  £120  to  £163  (1^.  1200.Kj*.  1080);  &.__, 
ooa^l  offices  at   ithu^va],  Jalgaon,  I'd<!hora,  and  Sindkheda,  are  in 
chiirge  of  deputy  poetmasters  drawing  from  t4S  to  £60   (Ba.  480-_ 
Ra.  600)  a  year ;  twenty  sob-ofRces  at  Amalner,  Bhadgaon,  Bodv 
Cb&lisg«on,Chop<ln,DbaraDgson,  Edlabad,  Kmndol.  J&mner,  Miliojij 
NunilurbAr,  NusirabacI,  Farola,  Pimpulncr,  S&vda,  Shali^<.lu,  t^hirpui 
Songir,  Vamngnon,  and  Yival,  are  in  chnrpo  "f  sub-depnty  post 
masters  drawing  from  £18  to  £48  (Us.  ISU  •  Kb.  -iSO)  a  year ;  cLcvei 



offices  at  BeUvwI,  Fnixpur,  Mlms&vaJ,  Ner,  Ncn,  Nimbofa, 
I«i/.iiin)>ur,  Ptionda,  RanfUa,  H&ver,  and  Taloda,  are  in  ck»r}^  of 
brauuh  poBtmaatera  drawiaff  from  JE12  to  £14  8*.  (Ra-iaO-IUl+l) 
i>  year;  aud  Euvciit^vn  bruticli <jfBix-<( a(  Ad&vad,  Aa(>da.BH}iiUIurpar, 
Dondtticlia,  KaigaoD,  Kaualda,  tv'a)*ardeTta,  Ndndra,  Puldhi, 
PimpniUi,  Prakiana,  Shendnrni.  Sinid,  Sukri,  Tliiilncr,  Utnin,  and 
Viruel,  orw  in  clwrgu  of  villtigi!  «cU(niliiia«iLew,  drawing  bcsidofl  Uieir 
ati)i(«ltnafitcrt«' aaUirias  from £3  Vls.totfi  t2ll.(Ra.36-BsA^6)  ayear 
from  the  postal  depart mont.  The  potil  ot1ic«  at  Pimpalucr  ik,  from 
October  to  Ftf bniary,  rt-niovod  to  Walpur  tlitio  the  in^mUtdur'H  )icad- 
quart«r».  The  MiUicji  post  office  is  oiieii  from  December  to  February 
white  the  hdr  laata.  Tbe  branch  onicv  at  Kuiuid,  in  tho  Niii^  a* 
domiuiuns,  twenty  miloo  6outb-cA»t  of  ChiUi^aoD,  id  tnannged  as  port 
of  the  KluUide«h  postal  divitiioD. 

These  offices  are  sapervised  by  an  inspector  with  a  yearly  salary 
£240  (Rs.  24UO),  bclpox]  by  a  sub^inspoctor  with  u  y«»rly  mlary 
of  £90  (ti«.  900).  At  tiomo  of  Ute  chivf  titat>on»  papera  and  lettora 
are  delivered  by  thirty-two  postmen  with  yearly  salaries  varying 
inym  £9  12*.  to  £12  (1{H.%-Kn.l20).  In  some  platxm  poKtal  rniuer* 
do  the  wiirk,  receiving,  iu  addition  to  tlteir  salarieH,  from  tl  ■!«.  to 
£2  8».  (He.l2-R8.34)  a  yuar.  Village  postmon,  ninoty  in  number^ 
rocuivo  from  £S  8*.  to  £12  (RH.»t.  Rit.I20)  ayeiir.  A  pony -cart 
poat,  RUinagod  by  contractors,  runs  daily  both  ways  from  Dhulia 
and  Ch&lisgaou.  Tbo  mails,  cnrriod  along  tho  nortli-oast  section 
of  tfav  Groat  Indian  Pouiusula  Railway,  ore  aortod  by  travelling 
office  ftorters  who  have  the  uae  of  a  aeparate  carriage.  The 
1  sorting-offii-o  at  the  Bhuslival  nulway  station,  in  charge 
ofBcor  drrtwing  £120  (Ra.  1200)  a  year,  in  siiiM-rvised  by  tbo 
perintendent  of  travelling  post  oiBcvs,  Bombay  divisioD. 

BL>«idv4  the  railway  telegraph  offices  at  the  different  nulway 
stations,  there  are  at  present  (1880)  two  Government  telegraph  offices, 
one  at  Bhnsitvul  and  the  other  at  Dhnlia.  The  total  nnmbor  of 
ill  1879-80  was  2036  at  Bhas&val,  148  of  them  Qovitrn- 

ntand  1888  private,  aud  9+4  nt  Dhnlia,  410  of  them  Oovemnicnt 
nnil  534  privalo.  The  oorrefiponding  tigiircn  for  1870-71  and 
I87b'7ti  were  '278  and  734  for  Bhusival  and  408  and  458  for  Ubulia. 


Putt  OSoN 



The  earliest  Khiindesh  trade,  of  which  details  remain,  is,  in  the,  * 
third  ooMlury  aftt-r  Christ  (247),  the  tralHo  Ixttwcon  Broach  and  the 
southern  marcs  of  I'aithau  and  Tagar.  The  chief  im|K>rta  were  wine, 
brasa,  ooppor,  tin,  and  lead,  coral  and  chrysolite,  cloth,  Ptorax, 
wbito  gWs,  gold  aud  silver  coiui^,  aud  i>erfumes.  ITie  vxporia  were, 
from  Paithan  a  great  qaantity  of  onys  atonea,  and  from  Tngar 
ordinary  cottonji  in  abnndiuice,  many  sortsof  mnaliu!!,  mal low  coloured 
cottons,  aud  other  articles  of  local  production.'     Under  the  F&raki 

>  HcCHndlo'*  Poripitu,  ISS,  138.  Tlw  f^d  anil  silti-or  coiiw  •ram  impotted.  not 
from  n  want  o(  Itio  pix«iu«*  h«1>1«,  but  iMlisrsa  wofluofart.  Tbo  imi«r  tutus 
Ibal  lb«y  ytcliled  «  imfit  wlion  vxcluuiecd  for  the  loul  nouc;.     Ditto,  123. 





kiadrs,  in  the  fiftepnth  anJsiixteeiith  conturies,  besidivijciiri  whirl: 
in  iiuiiij  places  yieldfd  thi-ee  crops  a  year,  Khdudcab  gi-ew  romarkulily 
Gne  vvgctalilcs,  excotlt'ni  rice,  plenty  of  fluwcng  Knd   frti!t«i  ana    I 
abuudnnco  of  l)ot«l  leaf.'     In  tiio  seventeenth  century  thore  was  ^J 
great  export  ot  scented  rioe  and  cotton  dotb  from  NavApm-  is  thlH 
W08t>  a  hkrge  pnck  Iftillock  triule  id  gmiii,  and  n  very  grc«t  product io^H 
of  tobiu)co,maigo,and  dpiura.'  Tboffreat  trade cemre  wne  Burh^ijmr, 
in  u  ]>ai't  of  the  cuantry  with  as  iiiucli  cotton  as  any  in  India,  wtie>«    '. 
wiTo  madv  nrodigioii.-t  i{iiaiitiiieM  nf  very  clvjir  inid  wbito  cslicuts,    | 
some  painted  with  (lowers  and  others  with  6owerfl  nut)  a  tiisitue  of  eoM 
and  silver,  and  other  ct^tton  cloth,    lliotie  were  sent  in  vast  qnantities 
to  Pvraia,  Turkey,  Muscovy,  PoUiad,  Ambia,  Grand  Cairo,  aud  other    | 

At  the  bcpioninff  of  Bn'tiBh  rule  tbo  yearly  imports  from  Sarat 
BndDiuuMi,broti[;hlon  pack  Inil!wk^,were(;Mtim«ti!i!iitnl>ont. 1^,000 
(Bs.  -J,0O,O0O).  Of  ihia,  salt  represeuted  i2oOU,  nn;tal  .E2 12.'>,  spiws 
£2GW,  dates  and  dried  nuts£142U,idum  £1200,  sugariloOO,  pieco-  ' 
goods  £3000,  and  drugs  £2000.  'llio  local  itxportv,  including  i^t  ton 
ynrii,  coarse  cloth,  blankets,  gunny  bags,  piipvr,  hemp,  twine,  oil, 
tobacco,  dyea,  honey,  wax,  hides,  and  sheep  sent  cbietly  to  Boriir  and 
Mdlwn,  were  valued  at  about  £12,000.*  Alwut  1824  an  importimt 
cfaango  took  place  in  Kh&idesh  trade.  The  export  of  Uer&r  eutton, 
eastwards  through  MiratiiiKir.  to  supply  tbo  groat  demand  of  tho 
Bengal  cotton  weovers,  oeaaed  firom  tJie  couipetitiun  of  English  ' 
gootU.'  AboutthcHitme  time,thoe«tabliahmeDt  uf  order  in  Kh^ndosh  | 
nnd  the  iiDprovemenl  of  the  route  by  the  Thai  pass  to  Ithiwndi,'  led 
Bombay  merchants  to  bring  ^wtton  from  Berfir  t^tmii^ht  to  the  sea. 
In  18341,  a«  much  us  31 ,000,000  pounds  irent  through  Khiindciihfrom 
Berfir  to  Bombay,  and  in  tJie  nine  years  following,  the  avt^rage 
quantity  was  3-i,75O,O0O  ponnds.     This  cotton  wa«  carried 


by  puck  bullocks. 

ponndB.     This  cotton 
It  vnui  ostjmotoil  itmt  not  fewer 



til]  locks  were  employed,  and  in  years  of  scarcity  the  want  of  carriage 
was  often  a  great  difficulty/  At  this  liinc  tho  price  received  by  tho 
grower  was  wlxmi  a  penny  the  pound,*  Tho  exporters  were  either 
rich  local  traders,  or  Bombay  native  (irnis,  wbo«o  agents  sent  out 
clerlca  to  make  advances  to  luidholders  and  village  faeadmen,  or  bo 


tbo  ' 

>  QUdwin'a  Ain-i' Akhwi,  n, ffl. 

*  Sir  T.  Roe  (1619)  in  ono  cky  mot  kt  loftit  ID.OOO  bollnclu  cwryhc  grain.  Kc 
VojkgiM,  IX.  250.  TavtraUr  \\WOi  (Ilkrri*'  Vayngat,  IL  S73)  Mdiwi  iniligovf 
mnrt  kinij,  eviuin,  nod  luinMU*  (inanliUM  uf  toliaooo. 

■Tavcnuo-  11660)  iii  llnrris'  Vnngok  IL  VC  Abut  >'ul  |ieOa>  notiuM  ttut 
Kbandwh  wiu  fuiiuui  r^-r  >  (iiM  rtsB  oilUd  atorUA,  nnil  that  at  DbarUtRMB  ririnu 
•ncl  linn  wdiu  niaiW.    Glwloiii'*  Alo'l-Akbriri,  TI.  ifl 

*  Tlicr«  wa*  aUo  at  Uiani  a     oniMidaTablu  cljnirt  of    cotton  !>]■  th«  KnoclniMii 
pOM  to  Surai  muI  on  (mii  Rural  lir  »ra  to  Itniacb.     Malcnim'a  (lovoraincnt  ot  Iiii 
loTl   Fniwick   (IMO),  VomUy   AKH-Iloitkultiinl    Society    Rni>orUf    Chapi: 
Ooaaaaor,  S}, 

■  The  vxiiort  of  nalioxM  (rom  Vttffd  f«U  frota  £l.l>fi9,9M  in  ISID  to  £2Sa,  121 
ISStt.    C'ba|inuiii'a  (^lunicrcc,  T4. 

*  Tbif  T)in)  pa»  waa  (182B)  «Mty  for  tarta  j  Ike  Pioiiecn  were  at  work  nakiog 
tcttd  to  Bhiwiiili.   Captain  CHsMa' Itia«T»rr.  115.   ImiirovcmMtatrtoit  on  in  the  dah 
Iroa  tB3fl  tii  t^tl.  Cnapmaa'a  CnnniHroe,  367.  *  Cli*pmau*ii  Conineree,  *a^ 

*  In  I8S7,  ri77  ptnoc  waa  tliuu^ht  •  good  iirioc  (Cbafnan^  Cetoutonx,  63] 
IS47  tlie  pnoe  «m1  «1  (Ditto,  CS). 


buy  from  local  dealon.'  In  1841,  tht)  Botnbay  ootton  trrxle  HiifForad 
ervai,  loosog,  and  for  some  years  i-oniiuaod  df^pr^nsod,  Lbe'nsport^ 
fpom  liomlmy  fiilliiiH;  fivm  104,795,001  j>oimil»in  1841  to47,i05;3U 
in  ItiM.'  Though  in  1848  priixi^  Imd  somewhftt  risen,  tliv  cut.lon 
tnulu  was  in  u  very  l>iid  etato.  Tlii>  powers  wera  hopelessly  inilebted 
and  awn\  litllu  fur  tliv  statu  of  ttioir  crup.'  As  Darlr  as  \ii26  tlio 
Thai  route  was  passable  by  carts,  and  in  1844^,  aftt^r  (hv  itiipruvtimonts 
to  tbo  road  wotre  finialiea,  cart^  bo^n  to  take  ehe  place  of  pack 
bulluckn.  ]u  18&2,  ho  many  Khnixlui^li  cartii  woro  employed  that 
their  carninffK  Itad  an  important  elTect  on  the  condition  of  chi!  pcoplo. 
As  fioun  HH  uio  harveiit  was  housed,  laoay  laqflholdera  either  atai'ted 
witli  their  cart«  for  Khiinigaon  in  Benir,  or  l(»oWecl  for  a  faro  at  Iiomu, 
Fr<»ii  ikinLr  or  Kh&ndeiiili  they  Btarted  for  Ubitviidt  and  Mildom 
rcdu-nod  empty.  The  trip  took  aboot  six  wi>eka  and  they  uet ted 
from  &2  to  £2  10«.  (Bs.  20-R&  2(>).  IE  fortunuto  they  made  two 
trips  in  the  seafuin.* 

ijiuce  IS')'!,  by  tbo  opcninf;  of  the  railway,  the  trade  of  Kbitndesfa 
has  (ipvatly  c-liangcd  and  deve1opi.^d.  Botwoon  1808  and  1878,  the 
figures  show  an  iiii*reai««>  in  paiiHeugiira  fi'om  47ri,lO0  ty  727,->05,  and 
in  ipMida  from  43,121  to  1 14,540  tons.  The  chief  passenger  fltatioua 
art'  Bhimlviil  with  an  increase  from  200,872  in  I8G8  to  3lJit,775  in 
187^,  and  Jal^in  witltsu  increaae  from  511,073  to  74,2!IC.  Jaignoa 
is  the  chief  goods  station  and  sbowa  a  rise  from  15,310  tons  in  1868 
to  47,003  tons  ia  I87S.  The  following  statement  shows  for  esch 
stiitioii  tbo  cliatigcs  in  tbo  tmfHc  during'  tbo  ten  yoarii  ending  187S  : 

KlutadfA  FoMtftgrraml  Oeodt  TVii^  JSSS,  1S73,  ami  I.V7S. 

Ml  la 


mt.          { 



■^     a™*. 




KjtIlEltflll          -'- 

(i^iia            ...                  .- 
f*^;ur«         ...         .._        ... 
Mtbljl            _.         _ 
MIlHtVllJ     .„         ..         „ 

Bhlnoll         ~ 

Jhlfffftn         ...        _.t       _ 

Hhntlv^l  Jiuu:tl4i«i 

Jf3»alftr  tta. 
Dolkhola     ...       

SAxI'l     . 

KiHT      .                               

KbiUii|n>r _ 

mtpor  LI— ^ 









































Cluipter  VX. 




>  Mr.  Venitirk,  i!oiab«y  Agri-UorticultnrsJ  8o«nly,  IGUi  Doocnibe*  IfiM. 
■  CfaApsiaii'i  Canaueraa,  68-  *  ClutpnuM'i  Oaminoroo.  91, 

•  Dtpuin  U.  Win^ntu.  W  of  Sdlh  Mnrel)  IS5S.  Bun.  Uur.  ScL  1. 1.  TbMO  1mm 
jnitniFvii  M'en)  not  .1  Putd  uin  t»  l!i4  )iB*(i«ni)nioii.  Tho  work  «-&■  vary  trying  ftna 
nticcuFty  txil-^w  Um  SabrMri  luUa  iiutiy  eUtlu  diwl  or  wen  iDJuivil  for  life.  Boio. 
Oor.  Stl.  XCItL  Se. 






*Coinpnriiip(Vie  grwds  returns  for  1873  luxl  1878  thochiof  rhnnf 
are,  uinfer  exjwirla,  ao  increase  iu  cottoii  seed  {rom  notliiitg  in  lii-it 
toiwt,  in  firewood  fn>tn  fottrtooti  to  9023  tons,  io;  f(taia  from  HUSO  b 
33,092  tonM,  in  bidvK  »nd  horns  Front  tbirly-dvu  to  231  tunit,  ii 
linseed  ham  4208  to  5826  tons,  in  timber  tnm  ten  to  112  tons,  ij 
country  piece-goods  from  eight  to  fifty-tliree  tons,  in  country  twi^ 
from  tou  to  1 17  t(in«,  und  in  tobacco  from  (wo  to  thirty -«ix  tonil 
There  is  a  tall  in  cotton  from  1<),!J90  to  li),40l  tons.  L'n»Ier  im|Kirtj 
theru  is  a  rise  in  cotton  from  407  to  2526,  in  firewood  from  nothini 
to  864£,  ia  grain  from  77-18  lo  13,4^4,  in  moliU  horn  869  to  1577 
in  meha  from  notliin^  to  bii6,  in  oil  from  twcnty-nne  to  2'13,  ii 
'  Etiropoan  piece-goods  from  253  to  361,  in  country  piece-goods  froq 
nixty-foiir  Lo  233,  in  «tignr  (ram  $50  to  2300,  and  in  tobacco  froa 
three  to  287  tons.  There  ia  a  decrease  in  timh«r  from  536  to  243 
and  in  European  twUi  from  275  to  2&6  tons.  The  details  are  glvel 
iu  the  fullowmg  statement : 



ure.          1 








CMlm       ...       ,„      





OMkrii  tni 



Krolt  and  1'*crUI]1«i      .., 





nivKw<i   ...      ...      ...      ••• 










BMt«  k>d  Il-inu 


















ml    ^.      . 

'  — 




riOfs  KBoAt,  Kurcpfftn  _ 




r>(Tviin#s  •Kiiainr      _. 





SjJI       ,> 





Siiifi;  mill  MtlnWH         ._ 





PandrlA      ...       v.       w       ..- 




TIM     ' 

llDiInr       ...       _,       „       ,„ 




MS     , 

TwIM,  Ktirvft     



TwM,  evunlry    „      _ 














Toul    .. 





Except  tlio  produce  that  finds  ii«  way  to  llanrii^d  and 
etatitm^  outside  of  Khfiudcsh  limits,  the-to  milwny  roiurne  r^preso^ 
tho  bulk  of  che  trade  of  ct-utnil  and  soiithfra  Kh^Qd^Hh.  In  tbd 
I.  north  and  west,  where  the  inllHiTicc  of  iho  railway  i«  little  felt,  t<her<j 
is  said  atill  to  be  n  cousidenibiti  Cradt-  with  GujaHtt,  chiefly  in  cluthJ 
grain,  d>'cs,  and  oil.* 

Bceides  increasing  traffic,  the  railway  has  cheapened  cmrt  ratofl 
from  X».  6d,  to  Is.  (12-8  annas)  a  ihiy  or  2Jd.  to  l\<t.  (IJ-I  nnna) 
a  milu,  fot  freo  a  number  of  ballocka  and  a  large  lK>dy  of  ou-riorfl 
for  the  work  of  tillage,  the  great  wont  in  Khjtndeah,  and  quickeae<| 

'This  tT»(Ie  WM  ill  I87e  iitiinAtcd  at  £40,000  (Ki.  4.00.O0O).  Il  wm  mii]  U 
Mimtoy  trocn  8(1000  to  40.000  pnok  bnllo^ka  aol  from  luOOto  laOO  c»ft».  Stmt  St«< 
tM&M  Anoovat  ia  tbt  bumlia)'  GucUccr.  II.  1^.  Ia  tbc  Uat  ;or  or  t«-o  tiM 
capCTt  of  oottoa  by  tin*  nnitv  bM  to  ninic  extent  nvh-cd.    Soc  kbov«,  p.  lea. 




trade  ao  that  the  bit]k  of  tlio  cold  wouthcr  crop  comoe  to  marl^t 
before  the  rains  set  iu,  aad  in  trmiHit  sulTors  niuvlt  lt«)i  than 
formori}'.  ITiv  raibrfty  has  olw  made  jKiasible  the  opening  of 
sleam  hicttirifii  aod  pn-.-uteti,  hnat  iulrodnciAithu  BhiUi^,  new  and 
tnoro  pushing  traders,  and  bj  competitiuu  hati  lovrvrod  ibv  profits 
luid  IvKsenod  the  Dumbor  of  middloineD. 

Thechiof  agencivA  for  MpnMKling  im{iort«  and  for  gathering  exports 
are.  trado-centrea,  markois,  fairs,  viliagft  ahopx,  and  p(>iidl«r«'  pnclctt, 
Kxcdpt  Dhutin,  Knmltirbiir,  and  Parola,  all  the  chief  local  centres  of 
trade,  lihusiival,  C'h^tingtioii,  Fui/gnir,  Julgaon,  ildhojl,  lUver,  and 
Savda,  are  either  on  or  close  to  tlie  Hue  qf  rail.  Their  Kfidittg 
mcrthants  nie  Bhiitilis,  Vituis,  and  Bohonts,  with  capitals  of  from  • 
£C0O  1<,W(>0(>  (Its.  o'.>liO-K«.  :J0,U00),  who  deal  direct  with  Bombajr 
and  other  large  markets,  collecting  and  exporting  cotton,  grain,  and 
other  local  produce,  and  iniporting  hardware  and  cotton  goods. 

Except  c«lU)n,  which,  l>y  a  svitwm  of  a<l«incee,  tho  export  traders 
or  their  itubordinates  collect  from  ihe  giviwers,  iuo«t  pniduco  passc« 
through  the  haud»  of  Mcvcnil  middlemen.  As  a  rule  the  bushand- 
innn  hnn  received  advances  from,  or  tiiorlg;tgi*d  bis  crop  to,  Homo 
village  moneylender,  who,  in  turn,  has  borrowed  from  some  larg«;r 
capitalist.  Sim  lliirly^tn  ported  articles  generally  pass  through 
scTcnil  bauds,  l>elwee!i  the  merchant  who  bringd  them  into  Ibo 
district  and  the  countryman  who  buys,  either  at  his  village  shop  or 
at  some  fair  or  market  booth.  Xext  to  the  chief  tnulo  o^'ntres,  in 
tho  (liAlribuliou  and  collection  obgoods,  come  the  market  lowni;. 
At  these  towns,  on  a  tixed  day  in  the  week  a  market  is  held, 
whore,  besides  the  permanent  stitlT*  of  timlen?  ikiid  shopkecpera, 
fieddlert*,  hawkers,  and  agents  for  some  of  the  larger  dealeni  H«t 
up  booths,  aad  offer  for  sale  copper  and  iron,  vcesela,  glasa 
bracelets,  turlwnH,  waist  cloths,  womou's  rx»be-9,  ot«r*o  cloth,  dyes, 
cotton,  oilsi'ed,  clarified  butter,  garden  produce,  oil,  and  gnuu. 
Special  markets  for  live  stock,  ponies,  cattle,  and  sheep,  are  not 
uncommon.  The  booths  are  generally  set  up  over  night,  uud  at  an 
early  hour  the  murkt'l  i-t  thronged  by  people  from  the  villages 
round :  and  after  a  slack  hour  or  two  in  ttie  beat  of  the  day,  it 
agaiu  fills  towards  the  evening.  Almost  all  tho  traffic  is  done  by 
money.  But  in  serenil  market  towns,  especially  in  the  mnro  out- 
lying parts  iu  the  west,  Bliils  and  other  wild  tribes  bring  fuel, 
honey,  and  lac,  and  in  (heir  iwason,  moha  berries  and  cKdroli  seed,  ^ 
Mid  biirt'-r  ihwm  for  cloth  and  trinkets.  When  the  day  is  over,, 
the  sellers  pack  what  remains  and  more  to  the  next  convenient 
market  town.  Tboiigh  chiefly  a  iqowib  of  distribution,  these  nv^rkets 
give  dialers  and  ihu  ugeuLi  of  export  houses  a  good  opportnuitj 
for  buying  or  arranging  for  buying  field  and  other  produce. 

Be«ide»  wi-okly  markets  at  cert^n  well  known  places,  fairs  are 
held  at  intervals,  and  at  Miheji  thero  is  a  yearly  produce  and  cattle 
ahow.>  The  chief  EhAndesh  hum  arv  shown  iu  the  following 




•  Datwla  ot  Out  M«h*j)  Ckir  w*  gjina  niMlor  -nAoM  at  latcrtst '. 

(BoaVftjr  i 

Chapter  Vt 







Kkii>d**k  Fain. 

' — -^ 





Sai    ::   :. 





Uulto..      . 




imtHm     _      ... 


«.»         ...          . 

lUj       ...         _ 

It    . 

8    „ 


HMdartto  'Z 


Si    ii 


lafi  fffl 





1  „ 



BlMiiliinil  ... 

3ESW--    ;; 


Miultnl     ... 

nglri  ..      . 


!•    - 



FxoepI  that  they  arc  miicli  targfr  gntlien'ngM,  Ihi-sc  fairs 
tittle   From   the   weekly   inarkeU.     U«iii(I<w  by  liu'fl]  |)«'c]dle 
travulliiiK  tii'aiora,  most  fairs   arc  attended  by  tbe  agents    of 
Irudcnt,  sonio  of  tbetn  k-ailiug  fintis  in  distant  toirns.     Tlie 
ftTlides  of  traffic  are  clutb,  pota,  carts,  and  live  stock. 

Even-  !fti;ge  villago  lina   its   Bhopteeper,   generally  a    Cliit 

Miirv&<[  Vdni,  vrlio  deals  in  groceries,  spices,  (rrain,  salt,  oil,  trngv 
molasses,  and  other  supplies.  His  wholv  ><to<^'k  is  worth  From  £( 
to  £25  (R»,  11)0- R-i.  2.^0}.  He  buys  some  of  the  innre  liusiiii^  war^ 
tit  onft  iif  Ibe  chief  distnct  trade  centres  or  at  some  large  fair,  Bi] 
most  of  his  stock  i.t  Ixnighl  (r«m  timo  to  lime  at  the  nearest  umrict 
or  nub-diviaioDal  town.  As  the  rich  lav  in  the  chii.>f  piirt  of  thej 
grain  nnil  gro««nos  for  a  wholo  year,  ouying  them  iu  the  largq 
murkiM^,  they  take  from  the  villagv  Mhopkevpvni  ^uch  porishab^ 
articles  only  as  cinrilipd  buttA-,  oil,  and  sngar.  The  middlti  anl 
poorer  ctwsM,  except  what  they  thomsclves  produce,  draw  hIidm 
all  their  HUppI^s  from  Ihu  Vlltogo  i<hopkeeper,  and  accordin^f  ^ 
their  credit,  pay  n-ndy  money,  or  what  is  coumiimftr,  have  a  vrooklj 
or  montblyacconnt.  Even  in  the  wilder  parts  the  village  uhori 
keeper  seloMb  ImrtODi.  He  in  very  often  a  moneylender,  and  i 
the  accounts  of  many  of  bis  customers  oil  and  apicc  catrivs  aro  o£ta 
mixed  with  iuou»y  ndvftnu4>s.  j 

Below  the  village  shopkeeper  ia  tho  poddler.  Some  are  craftsUM 
who  work  up  a  slock  of  goods,  generally  cloth,  during  the  rain 
raonlhtt,  and  in  the  fair  Mi>aaon  move  from  village  to  villa^ 
(iffei-iug  them  for  sale.  Others  ttell  grocoriciB  and  hardware,  moTiu 
'  from  honse  to  housu  generally  with  a  pack  bullock  or  a  pou] 
•Especially  in  the  wild  weaUmi  districts,  many  of  Uiwio  hawkey 
do  iha  bulk  of  their  busiDoss  by  barter,  giving  the  ti-ibesmd 
trtnflA  and  cloth,  and  taking  foreiit  ]>n)duce,  moha  flowers, 
eh&nJi  seed.  In  thin  traflic  tne  hawker  haa  getioraliy  very 
the  best  of  the  bargain. 

Another  cla«a  of  wandering  traders  are  tlio  profeeaionsl 
the  Lamina,  VanjAris,  and  Nligoria.  In  the  »outh,  uudcrsold 
by  carte  and  afterwards  by  the  railway,  thoy  have  almoat  dianppe«r«j 
or  at  least  have  oeaned  to  work  as  carriers.  In  the  wilder  tracti 
to  the  north  and  wms,  Ihay  still  form  part  of  the  local  trade  systen 
Tho  Lanubut,  with  their  buUocka  ana  cows,  bao)  l«aJlc  am) 




•  « 


ag9 ;  tbo  Vnojlinit,  witli  thnir  bnltoeks,  take  graiti  nntt  oilsved 
to  the  ixiaat  imcl  briug  buck  ttall;  and  (he  Nitgiiris,  with  Ibei'r 
carts,  carry  both  grain  aud  timber.  In  haaling  timber  the  L«mJtuii 
fiUftun  tUi!  liigK  I'ne  un  vnvh  fiilo  of  thv  pack  saddle  luid  drag  thom, 
trailing  on  the  grtiuud  bevoud  tbo  buiWk'H  tail  and  g«iior»lly 
making  deep  cuts  io  the  road,  Woat  of  the  Vanjliris  are  can-iers, 
but  thoirtuii'^j  or  loaders  deal  largely  in  bullocks,  riivjrhave  always 
a  stock  of  cattli^,  and  at  tiw  and  of  the  hot  seaaoii  travel  from 
Tillage  to  village  selling  the  aniinaU  generally  for  cash  and  soiue- 
times  OD  crt-dit,  and  the  proceeds  of  the  salu  are  rvidiitod  on  the 
TaDUH'tt  rvturu  ji>unify.  The  Vanjan.-t  bi^  their  atock  in  Nemid 
and  MAlwa,  aud  drive  a  very  flourishing  trade,  especially  when,  in* 
goo<l  yeartt,  the  Kunbi  can  afford  to  add  to  hislivu  stuck.  Tha 
uuIiot'kH  are  sold  in  lot«,  puthat,  of  from  ten  to  twenty,  tbo  prlco 
being  &et  dua-n  at  ao  tntioh  a  head. 

Of  Imports  tbo  chief  articles  are  salt,  metala,  cocoanat«,  dates, 
grocenea,  oil,  hardwnro,  indigo,  mwchin<^ry,  twift,  and  pteoc-guods. 
JBalt  was  formerly  brought  almost  entirely  by  pack  bullocks  from 
Surat.  Sonw  small  oiiantity  still  roaches  the  western  districts  in  this 
vrtty,  bnt  almost  the  whole  Kupplycomc.i  from  Itomlmyby  rnil.  Under 
motnls  come  gold,  silver,  coj^r,  brass,  and  iron.  During  the  time 
of  the  AiR«rican  war  very  large  quantities  of  gold  and  silver  found 
their  way  into  tho  diKlrict.  Most  of  themivere  made  into  ornament* 
and  tho  rest  hoarded.  During  tho  scarcity  of  1S76-77,  a  large 
smoiiut  of  gi>td  and  silver  in  bullion  and  in  ornaments  left  the 
district  cbit'lly  for  HoinWy.  During  tho  last  two  «eit.-^oDS  tlw 
better  harvcat^  have  started  anew,  ihongh  <jn  no  very  large  scale, 
the  import  of  silver  and  gold.  Copper  and  brass  wcro  formerly 
imported  in  blocks  and  worked  first  into  ^^liccts  and  tWn  into  ut«nKils. 
OE  late  years  ready  made  8he«ta  have  been  largely  imported  from 
Bombay,  and  considerably  lowered  tho  price  of  brass  ware.  Ready 
made  pots  and  drinking  mugs  nro  ulso  hnxight  fronnMi.sik.  But 
these  are  used  by  the  wnll-to-do  only.  The  import  of  iron  has  of 
lato  increased.  It  is  much  used  for  cart  tires  and  axles,  and  in  the 
manubctiaro  of  iron  water  pot«.  All  of  it  comes  from  Ek>mbiiy.  The 
trade  entirely  in  tbo- hands  of  liofaora  MusaimAmj. 
Cocoannta  are  brought  by  Vanis  in  considerable  numbers  by  rail 
from  Bomlwy,  and  are  distributed  over  tho  district.  Dates  and 
groceries  are  brought  by  Yiiiis  in  small  qnanlitien  by  rail  from  , 
Bombay.  Some  of  the  western  [xirtf  of  the  district  still  draw  their* 
supply  of  groccnes  from  Sunit  by  pack  bulloeks.  Hardware  articles, 
iron  buckets,  wnt<cr  pots,  and  frying-pans  are  brought  by  rol^rom 
Bombay  mainly  by  Bohonis.  IViKt,  both  Knglish  aud  Bommy,  is 
brought  by  rail,  chiefly  by  V&ni  merchants,  ana  distributed  over  tho 
district  to Iw  woven  in  hand-looms.  Of  latotheoutturn  of  tho  Bombay 
Eactories  has  to  a  great  extent  taken  the  place  of  English  yam. 
Piece-goods  are  of  two  chief  kiud-t,  haud-tnade  and  steam -mado. 
The  hand-made  goods  are  turbans  and  women's  robes,  from 
Burbin(>ur,  Yoola,  Ahmednagar,  Surat,  Ahniedabad,  and  NigjHir, 
and  waifitctoths  from  M&legaon,  Yeola,  and  Xagpur.  Silk  waist- 
cloths,  robes,  and  turbans  are  brought  from  Borhdnour,  Yeola, 
Sarai,  and  Ahmedabad.    The  tnadtinc-mado  piece-goods  arc  coanse 

TnMta  8y»teni. 


[Bombay  Qi 


iit»Ling  cloth,   cliieflx    fur    wuntoloths,  Hheot«,    aud   tuneU, 
Bombay*;  nnd  finer  fabrics  and  prmt«  from  Knglimd. 

The  railway  retama  ahow  th«it  ih*,*  imjiorlfi  of  conntry  cloth 
of  late  iQCT«aM>d  more  rapidly  tkau  those  of  ^n^fliifb  cloth, 
cloth  is  almost  piitiroly  brought  by  rail  to  Jalf^mn,  ChAliKf, 
Manmild,  HAhwJi.  Naeirabad,  and  oUrnr  niilway  dtationa  by  Sldri 
and  other  \'tlaj8  and  BohorM,  and  from  thoee  centres  is  distributiid 
over  the  dimrict.  Silkx,  like  pieoe-KOods,  am  of  two  chief  kinds 
mnvbino  and  hand-made.  Thvre  is  no  demand  in  K  biiiKicKh  for 
8t«atu-mado  Etiropean  m\k*.  Hnnd-mailA  ailka,  chiedy  turhaun, 
scarfs  and  hfHikvn  fnua  Burhiinpor  and  Yeola.  and  bro«idea  from 
'Burat  Kiid  Ahniedabod,  are  brought  into  llio  distript  S'lmotimus  ^^| 
trarelliug  peddlers  on  bullork  biick  or  in  chHh,  and  partly  by  mil  w\^ 
ppraonal  linggagD.  The  chief  dealiTH  in  tiilks  are  GujarAt  YAuis. 
No  claui  of  niorcltauts  deal  exclusively  in  silks,  but  almost  all  rich 
merchants  keep  them  in  stock. 

fizfiurU.  Of  Export*  tJw  chiflf  am :  of  T«^lal>Ie  products,  cotton,  gTHin, 

oibiood,  chiinili  »eeii,  eartbnuts,  myrohatans,  TnoAa  floweffi,  (i/  or 
madder  roots,  and  timber ;  of  animal  products,  honoy,  wax,  lae, 
hides,  and  horns ;  and  of  manufactured  articleii,  ctariGcd  bnttcr, 
giam  oil,  indigo,  I'urlH,  and  cloth. 

CViuH.  Cotton  is  the  chief  article  of   export,  representing  in   qnantitj 

about  115,000  bales,  and  ill  value  about  £1,050,000  (B».  1.05,00,000). 
At  the  beginning  of  British  riilo,  the  only  local  cotton  wim  the 
poor  uliort-stapli'd  variety  now  known  as  VailiSdi.  Ki<:ept  u>  Sural 
littlo  was  exported.  The  trad^was  in  the  haudit  of  petty  dealers  who 
stored  the  cotton  in  warvhouM's,  vakhdrs,  had  it  cktinvd  oit  native 
hand  gins,  ehamikt,  and  sold  it  to  the  local  handloom  wcarerti.  In 
1824,  tht;  ojicning  of  an  export  trade  to  Bombay  had  the  effect  of 
trauxferring  the  cotton  trade  from  small  doalors  to  moo  of  capital, 
many  of  thorn  Boiulmy  mcrclmntii.'  'nii.-i  iiew  trade  did  mitc-b  for 
thf  country  by  providiug  a  market  for  ciittYm  when  the  competitiun 
of  English  goods  hnd  reduced  the  hnndloom  weavoni'  demand.  At 
the  same  time  ihc  camavu  loBonibiiy  wii»  at  tirNt  butli  cosily  aud 
waetehil.  Loosely  packed  auubken  chielly  on  bullock  back  over 
rongb  nnbridgcd  roads,  the  cotton  lost  greatly  both  in  qnautitjr 
and  qiudity.  'I'htj  carriapp  pxpciiBOs  from  Jalgaoii  to  Boiiiliay  were 
,  {(J.  (3  piet)  a  pound,  and  thn  fn-ighl  aud  olhrr  duirgeti  to  England 
•irere  so  heavy,  and  the  Liverpool  piicea  so  low,*  that  for  many  vt-Jirs 
bis  cotton  yiiildcd  the  grower  little  more  than  I<(.  the  pound.* 
Beside*  injury  on  the  road,  cotton  MulTcri-d  much  at  niiiiiy  sl«)^-s  of 
its  progress.     The  grower,  hopelessly  indebted,  gave  little  care  h) 


'  Ctmptiinii'ii  Coninwpee,  75. 

'Tlivil^tAiU  witT*  :  Ja%»ai  toKadliclincarlHiiwnrli.  R«.  I-I  amna,  uhlppinf  elis 

to'B'imlis.v 'mB'na»   mnn,      hi    1S48   Uic  eon  of  tnkiiiK  «  Wrimft,   "(U  polmJn,  I 

Wiarxiijpi-'ii  I"  KiJkIi,iI  i.iiT,  iii  Kilouttc.  wu  Hn.  IB  aii4  lUr  Ual  uhiuRO  Ro.  1  tiuira, 
Carringii  uai.  •i>iiuil.riii»  |>r<iiiutxUu  at  Ri.  Bi-rlti,  lu.     Ea*t  liutia  ?»[*«»,  Id.  "7. 

'  riiii|im*ii'«  t'"iiiimrid.  W.  Iti  1M8  the  p^i^■c  per  |hiui»I  i<f  i-lnui  nitWm  Vfirjwd  fraiB 
nbiiut  Irf.  to  IJrA  Till*  ]7j-i<-i'  <M  out  (mv  tho  i-oi)!!!?,  >iij  Uic  I'ultiiAUin  pmi  grain 
uultoil  ol  ix^ttm.     Ewt  Imluk  I'npcra,  111,  7(i.  ^| 


I  cotton  crop ;  »n<l  its  vhIuo  was  further  losseoecl  by  adullerotwtu 
ut  ttit*  Iiaiida  uf  middleuieu.' 

Since  1860,  the  introduction  of  Umnivati  and  Dhanv-dr-Amorican 
eeed  cotton  ium  grvatJjr  niittod  the  tii1ik>  of  the  Khrindt-itli  crop,  nod 
tlio  o[)euittg  of  the  railway  Una  cbea]>oued  and  qnickeued  curriasc 
and  atopiwd  loss  in  transit.  Compitrod  with  £1  6».  (Us.  13)  the 
former  (181'7)  cost  of  cnrriagtr,  tJie  ruilwiij-  chnrgv  from  JitlgiMjn  to 
Bomlniy  iit  about  £1  2*.  (Kit.  II)  a  kluttidi.  Little  change  hstt  been 
nado  in  the  system  of  ffiuuiug  the  cotton.  PlAtt  saw-gins  were  for 
a  liiiK>  used.  But  bosidw  lowvHug  tho  Taluo*  of  thv  cotton  hy  It. 
to  (m'.  (Ki). --flH.'l)  »  HaiuJi,  they  wasted  iJie  »«ed,  knocking  oS 
the  gonuinatintr  point,  and  from  the  smell  of  oil,  making  the  seed' 
ueelesa  as  food  for  cattle.  For  those  reasons,  though  then?  are  two 
slouin  ginning  f»cU>rio«  at  Julgiujn  nud  »nti  at  Mhasivad,  almoal  tlio 
whole  crop  lit  ginned  by  Iho  old  itatire  cleaner.^  During  the  last 
two  seasons,  ItiTtJ  and  I87tl,  considerable  c|iiBDliticB  of  uncleaned 
cotton  faaro  bt'vu  M^nt  from  Jalgnon,  Pichora,  mid  Clinliigaon, 
to  be  much ine-gin nod  in  Surat  and  Broach.  In  |in -n^iug  there  haa 
heen  a  marked  change.  Within  the  Imst  sixteen  years  eleven  full 
Steam  pressos,  seven  at  Jalgnon,  two  at  Dliulin,  and  I  wo  at  Kajguou, 
were  started.     Of  these  omy  eight  are  working  at  present. 

Of  lute  yenra  the  cotton  trade  has  to  a  great  extent  gone  back 
to  tho  sysU-m  of  s<IvancvN  that  wa-s  miivorifii!  bofow  tbi-  prosperous 
yoars  of  the  Anifricau  war.  Kuropenua  have  made  little  way  iu 
Kk&ndesh  and  the  trade  is  still  almost  entirely  in  native  bands. 
The  only  change  tine  been  the  introduction  of  a  new  clo^  of  native 
mi-rrh»nl.-*,  thi-  Bumbiiy  Hhiitii'is,  wh'o  to  a  large  exti-nt  buy  both 
from  Idcai  dealers  and  from  gi-owers,  and  press  the  cotton  for  direct 
shipment  to  England.  According  to  the  eommoit  practice,  from 
Bcpttmlx-r  tti  the  (md  id  April,  growers  and  petly  dealers  go  to  the 
exjiortera,  and  contract  tn  deUrer  a  certain  quantity  of  cotlou  within 
a  given  period.  These  time  contmcts  are  generally  of  two  kinda. 
ITie  contnKt  known  n»  jatap  i»  entered  into  when  the  plant  is  not 
even  in  pt)d.  It  in  homenbat  risky,  but  the  value  of  the  cotton  is 
calciitaied  at  al)out  fourteen  per  cent  (lis.  30  the  khandi]  less  than 
current  rates.  Money  in  ailvimcewlix  or  six  and  a  half  months 
before  the  date  of  the  delivery  of  the  cottnu.  The  oilier  kind  of 
contract  is  for  shorter  periods,  rarj-ing,  according  to  the  aeaaon, 
from  one  week  to  one  month.  The!;c  contracts  continue  to  be  made  < 
till  about  the  Ix'ginning  of  May  when  the  ginning  season  closos.  Id* 
this  case,  ali<o,  the  advance  is  made  at  a  rale  somewhat  le-is  than  the 
cturrent  price  of  cotton.     When  thu  cotton  is  ready  the  merchant 


*  dujiRun'ii,  Coinin«m  01.  Accontit^  t«  Mr.  Klptinurton,  b  tSlS  [Eut  l»i» 
Papon,  IU.  7")  the  lucTchnnt a'liuKml  moiiV}'  to  th«  uuJtivmtor  on  th«  Mwtiritjr  oJhJi 
gniwiiig  crop,  the  eiiltiriitarMgrMiiiiC  to  (Ifltiver  tJ«cott(.ii  and  hftvo  (loiu  ten  lo  ISftcoa 
per  ««nt  of  It*  mulMt  price  dnlaotwl  in  iiaynMnt  <>(  tbr  lulvancc.  It  wu  bclivicd 
that  nuwjr  noreliuiU  <tiarg*<l  a  vtill  btavier  rate  (nr  tbnrixlvMiciB. 

*Tlie  tnluc  □(  th«  machinu-ginncd  cotton  in  lower  iHxAiun  of  dtoaUcged  dortmcUon 
of  thu  Uapto  Uiil  the  iitaining  of  thv  raw  maltrinl  b}-  oil 

'  llatt  MW-guii  wrra  intriKliiVBd  b^  (lovcminoiil  in  I$40.  The  ooot  of  giniiiug 
WBi  aboat  halt  ot  the  ctat  by  tb«  band  cleaucr,     Eait  India  rapcn,  tlL  79, 

IBombft;  Qi 



iptw  VI. 


gqfit  to  the  Keller's  faoose.     Tiia  cotton  is  there  weigh  ed,  luai 
over  to  tint  morchimt,  tskon  by  him  1o  his  Vfud,  weijfhi'cJ  a 
time,  and  tho  bolnnov  o(  tliw  price  paiJ  to  the  prower.      In  IS79 
tiiDO  coatmcl,  jaliip,  price  for  seed  cotlou  wim  llV.  (Hs,  S)    the 
with  four  ihert  allowaDcc,  and  for  clctui  colloii  £1  12jp.  {Ra.  10) 
inaN  witb  ttj  «/m-a  ftUowaDcv. 

A  comparison  of  price"  imd  nont  of  eiqw>rtin^  cotton  iu  1 847 
1879  shown  iluit  in  iht-  Isst  ihiriy  veurs  iho  viUiio  paid  for 
in  KhiiiiilcMh  baa  risen  from  Id.  or  HJ.  to  W.  or  Gii.  the  poi 
In  ltA7  the  local  pricv  of  cotton  wiu<  £1  &).  &H  (Il«.  13.H.8)  a  kka 
of  784  pounJx.  lliecost  of  cleHniujr  was,  by  tho  niitive  chnrak, 
-(K*.  9)  a  ir'iawit,  and  0'.  (Bs.  41 )  by  Baw-ffinfl.  IWking  char)(«a  Wi 
10».  (fo.  5),  and  tho  coal  of  camaffo  £1  0*.  (Rs.  13),  £1  U.  (Ke. 
•8  hr  aa  Kolnhct  wharf  and  2«.  (Re.  1)  more  to  U^nnbny,' 
Oarrent  (lS79j  prioe  of  Kbiudeab  standard  cotton,  Jalgaon  <iii 
ee\u&i  to  "fullv  ffood"  fair  Uinr^vati  and  Ami'rican-WHxl  Dharw 
£18  I6».  (Bs.'lSfiJ  thi.  khnuiii  of  784  i»>uiid*.  Faiapur  cotton  w 
i»  nura  felohea  about  12a.  (Kn.  6)  moi-e.  Of  tb«  whole  £18 
(B&  Ittd),  about  £1  -is-  {Rs.  12)  goes  to  tho  middleman,  and  tho 
to  the  grower.  The  middleman  clean;!  tho  cotton,  the  coxl  of  cleaning 
boinjf  nearly  corerod  by  Ibe  value  of  the  seed.  The  charge  fat 
packing  inio  bundles,  (tohla*  or  bundrit,  each  of  280  to  320  pounds 
(3j-4  mans)  ia  lis,  &V.  (Rs.  Gj]  a  khindi.  Of  this, prcosing  coata  bt, 
(Ra.  2i).  baiidH  fit.  (R«.  3),  and  Imga  U.  6d.  (12  n«n.i»).  Portorai 
is  I«.  (8  annav)  a  khandi,  and  tho  railway  charge  to  Bom 
a  £1  If.  8d.  (H«.  10-13-4).  As  the  exporter  gives  drafts  od 
b&nker  at  Bombay  at  the  rulu  of  about  ODO>half  per  cent  dii^couut, 
(Re.  1)  a  khandi  is  charged  aa  commission.  Sumelimes  aUto  there 
an  insurance  cbj^rge  of  Is.  10)d.  (15  anna«)  a  ihandi. 

Under  grain  como  hdjrl,  jatri,  wheat,  and  pulse.  The  btijri' 
Bent  chietly  by  rail  from  Jafgaou  nnd  Chi'dir'gaon  to  Bombay; 
wheat  fi\>m  ijh&hida,  Taloda,  NnudurI>Ai',  Ninder,  and  V&Utn 
to  Bombay  ;  aud  the  pulse,  including  lur,  ciiavli,  mufi,  and  peas, 
from  Janincr,  SAvdu,  and  DhuIJa,  to  Bombay.  With  so  uncertain 
a  rainfall,  the  supply  of  grain  varies  so  greatly  from  seaMin  to 
season  that  what  in  one  year  is  exported,  is  in  the  next  in  greitt 
local  demand.  In  avcnige  year-s  tho  greatest  export  of  grain  ta 
from  900  to  1300  tons  (3000--1000  m»/M). 

-  Under oilseedHcomeaemmum  and  liniieed,  grownchioflyin  Adin 
^)hanora,  Cbopda,  Vavdu,  NAnder,  and  Pfltouda,  nnd  wnt  by  rail 
Bombay.  Charoli,  the  seed  of  the  ckdr,  Bnchanania  latifolia,  mi 
used  in  nmking  mttire  8wectmc«t»,  ib  largely  exported  from  tH? 
Akr&Di  division.  The  tree  i.s  carefully  proiccted  and  Ihn  i«i,Hids 
aw  gathered  and  made  ready  by  the  Bbds.  Some  of  the  crop  tiioy 
bring  to  market  IhcmifelTos ;  the  rest  is  bought  by  petty  dealt 
who  go  through  the  Akrdni  villages,  gathering  it  in  small  (jaantiti 
It  is  finally  sent  (o  Surat  and  Bombay    by    Bohora    and   Vi 

n  ta    I 


>  But  b<U»  Papcn,  lU.  7«-77. 

"*  Tht  cbid  i^jri  npcttiBg  tnukcto  4i«  Adi'rad,  Dhuor*,  Cbopda,  uii]  Dbulia. 




arcUants.      EnrtliDiitM  te  grown  n«    a    gitrdm  crop  chiefly  jn 
tMkli,  Faizpur,  Ner,  Smtlklit-dn,  and  Sivdft,  »tid*eent  bj 
to  Dombay.      Myrobalans,  found  chiofly  in  tlie  Taloda  forests, 
'  gathered  porHy  by  Binh  und  partly  by  the  foruisl  dcjnrlniuDt, 
Kvnl  cbietly  by   rail   lo  Bombay  and  to  Surat<  by  carts.      Moha 
arp    filtered   by    Bhils.      Tht'  whole   moha  crop   of  the 
(nortbuni    .SiiljmdjiM    and    el^i-wherf    undor    the    hills,  is    bought 
ibft   local  liquor  cuntractora.     Id  the  wedt  aoue  in  expurtod  to 

SincD  the  GoTcrameDt  forests  have  luiexi  oloHcd,  tho   Khfindmh 

[dcniHtid  (or  liiiil>vr  lut-t  biN^n  chioRy  inet  tropi  the  iresitom   AEufartkfl 

t«tMl^s.     Tho  li-adiu^  liniher  mart  la  Taloda,  where  for  oi^ht  months  * 

pin  tho  year  a  lar^e  bueiness  its   dono.     The  wnodcuttorH  and  ecllora 

ani  thv  Itbiiif,  botwooii  whom  and  the  bnyera,  n  cliiMit  of  Vntiiii  itct 

an  interpreters  aud  bi-okera.     Of  tirewood  there  ifi  a  coosiderable 

import  by  rail  to  Jalgaoo.     Tho  supply  chiefly  comes  from  the 

iNizilni's  (orcst«,  and  is  »ont  by  mil  from  PAt^hont,  ChAlisguon,  and 

)  KAJgaon  to  Jalgaon,  where,  on  account  of  the  pressing;  and  apinninir 

[&ctories,  a  large  quantity  of  firewood  i«  yearly  oonsumod.     Of  animal 

products,  th<t  hi'iiuy,  wax,  and  lac  are  of  little  c«;n.tCM{tten<^ii.     They 

i»re  gnihored  by  Bhils  and  other  wild   tribes  chiefly  in  the  Sdtpuda 

'forests  and  arc  dii-t  rihii  ted  over  the  diKtrict.     Some  ouantityof  lac  is 

expurt^s]  to  Htirh^ipur.     Hides  and  hornx  aT«  sent  in  conKidomble 

quiuitities  Co  Bumliay.     About  six  years  ago  a  very  briak  trade  wax 

carried  on  by  BohonU,  Khojas,  and  Memon§,  and  more  tlian  £20,000 

(Rs.  •!,O0.O0O)  worth  of  hidua  and  horns  wvru  uxjxirted.     8ineo  then, 

Hit  all  the  local  titoreH  have  t>»on  exhatiHtHl,  tht.-  export  liaa  greatly 

declined.      Clarified   butter  comes  n-om  Dhulia  and  Iterdr  and  is 

exported  by  BhiitiAa  chiefly  to    Bombay.     Grtwa  oil,  is  nuidu  in  the 

west  and  sent  across  the  country  chiefly  to  Maanifid,  and  from  thore 

exported   by   rail    to   Bombay.      Carls,   made    chiefly   in   Talods, 

Pimpnlnor,  and  Dhulia,  aruin  demaud  in  Burh&upurand  Khiiudosb. 

Coarse  cloth,  both  bandwoven  and  woven  in  the   Jalgaon  weaving 

fectory,  is  sent  in  some  i^nantitica  to  Ber^r  and  oven  to  Benares, 

Irat  DIO01  of  it  is  oonsnnwd  in  tlio  districts 

Chapter  Vj 




KhfindcKh  crafts  and  iodnstries  aro  of  local  coneeqnonce  only. 
The  chief  are :  in  mineral  satmtiutces,  working  in  gold,  lulvcr,  brass, 
iron,  stone,  earth,  clay,  and  lime;  in  vei^tablo  products,  wood*  • 
cutting  mid  uirpi'ntrj',  tciigur  and  catwhu  making,  iliHtilling,  oil- 
Dressing,  and  tipiuning,  weavijig,  dyeing,  and  printing  cintou  cloth ; 
in  animal  prodactE,  the  making  of  luc  and  clarified  butter,  the 
we«riug  of  .lilk  and  wo»l,  butcher's  work,  and  tho  making  and 
working  of  leather.  Gold  and  silver  working  goes  on  in  a!moi«t  all 
market  towns.  Most  of  the  workem  nr»  Maratha  Sonera.  They 
have  seldom  iitiy  store  of  metal  or  omamentM.  Their  customers 
generally  bring  to  the  goldamiths'  honsea  the  metal  ihey  wish  made 
mto  an  ornament,  or  tbe  ornament  they  wish  ntelted  or  re-made, 
aod  aa  goldsmitha  are  proverbially  cunning  and  unscmpoloni*,  the 
ctistomer  generally  seta  Bonte  one  to  watch  wfailo  the  goldsmith  la 


[Bombsy  6b 






VI.       a^wDrk.     Kltundeah  ffoldnnitlut  lunlce   little  oxcopt  ver?  .jntfa 
Jewell^.-    Those   of  UliulU   ftud  Naudiirbir    h&ve    tho    ' 
mutui.     Tlipy  huvv  fairly  eteudy  employnieut  throu^liifut.  iw  jn 
and  ftM  a  cliwi*  are  wiill-tu-do.     Th<ty  nlmont  alwayn    wiirk  Ut 
and  §ot<Iiim  have  aay  wares  for  sale  or  aitend  fnirn  or  mark 
Thoir  vrouiPD  do  not  add  nnythin^  to  lUo  family  earDiufr^. 

CopjxT  and  tiniM>  W(irkin)r  in  carried  un  in  all  tkr  lart^er  rilL 
Th«  workcnt  are  Tainlrau  and  Ki&&r9,  of  whom  ihuro  are  'm  i 
about    seventy-fivo  families.      Tlio   inirtat   conira    in    tiboots 
Bombay  by  rail  to  Vuni  tiKirt^liantM  ohJeHy  in  Jalgiion   and   DbnE 
Ueri»  it  Lt  l>ou^ht   by  country  copjteramiibs  and  laJctm  by  thrmL 
*thpir  homes  to  work,  or  it  is  boni^nt  by  a  metal  doiiler,  gvDeraUyl 
Miisiilman  Hohoni,  lux)  nndvr  Iho  cHai^  of  an  ftp.*i>t.  seut  ijy 
to  market  lowua  and  faint.     l*be   raw  metal  ^nerally  kvUh  at 
9d.  to  Is.  i&-S  anna*)  a  ponnd.     Tbocopporsmilhe,  many  of  wl 
buy  thu  raw  metal,  work  it  into  caldrons,  \»t»,  and   mug^,  «« 
tbem   at   the   rate  of   It.   9d.   to  2s.  (14  aunaa-&e.  1)  a 
roprosonting,  for  a  tiirly  steady  worker,  a  daily  wage  of 
{6  annat).     Thoy  work   from    eiuH    to    ten   htmrs    a   day. 
ornamental  nmper  work  ia  made  in  Kbiindeiili.    [tut  ibe  cvijjperauit 
of  Songir  in  Dbulia  and  of  Faispur  in  8avda  have  a  n&aio  for  tf 
Hkill  iu  mnkin;;;   f^i>ir^   nnd  bulb.     Tho    bn«iuvss   is  mo^t   acoi 
durinf^   tlic   rainft,  when    many    ooppoi-^miths   lay   in   n   atort> 
vessels,  and   in  the  dry  season  move  from  one   market   or  £ur  I 
another,  off oriiiff  them  for  sale.     Thfir  women  ffpnt-nilly  help  in  (| 
buBinesa  of  turning  copper  TesaeU.    The  craft  i»,  on  the  vthc' 

7ro>i.  Iron-working  is  carried  on  inmost  large  villai^es  and  conn  try  towt 

The  workors  aw  LohSrs  and  Gbiwldis  or  wandoring  Uukors.     'IT 
iron  is  brought  in  Hhoetx  by  rail  from  Bombay  by  Ikiliora  Alusili 
men  of  some  capital,  settled  chiefly  in  Jalgiton,  Sindkheda,  Dhii 
and  Bhns&val.     ITicw;  dealers  sell   cither  to  village  bliK'ki^mitha 
send  agents  with  iron  to  sell  at  &irs  and  market^a.     Kiuianii 
trade  iu   iron  at  Pbarnngaon,  Pfirula,  and   Amalner.     The 
blackamilli  lays  in  a  9t<)re  of  metiU  iiboiit  twice  a  year.     In  the  rail 
he  makes  nails,  hinges,  buckets,  water  cisterns,  »ii?VM,  spoonN,  mr 
Iiatchets,  hoL-«,  and  :<cy  tbr:<,  and  in  the  fair  season  is  busied  chiefly 
mending  c»rt^  and  tield  tools.     Hia  tu-rvioos  arc  in  coiuttunt  demand 
Tltey  work  from  eight  to  ten  houra  a  day.     Tfaeir  women  help 
^blowing    the    bL>)Uiws  and    doing  other  light  work.      The   dnil, 
earnings  of  u  family  vary  from  al>out  9(f .  to  1*.  (6-8aMBa«).    In 
outlying   partH   much   of   their   wagea  ai-e   paid   in   grain, 
generally  sell  their   wares  in  their  houses  and   seldom  visit 
or  markul.H.     The  blacksiniths  of  Loh&ra,  Knsirabad,  and  Dhali^ 
have  a  name  for  special   itkill.     The  opening  of  the  railway,  t\ 
machinnry  works  at  Bhus4ra),  and  the  ateam  hwCoriee  at  Jatgaoi 
have  brought  the   blaokHniilhK   many  now  openings.     Afost  of 
chief  fitters  and  firemen   in  the    railway  and   factory  worka 
outsidom  from  Bomt>ay.     liut  koiiio  of  the  local  bInckKmiths  hav 
nK«n  to  good  poaiDons,  earning  from  £1  IOh.  to  i.2  (Us.  Ifj-Rs.  2( 
8  month.     The  class  luu;  guinvd  much  of  late  by  the  increaaed  i 


m.     But  tlii^agb  li»rdworkin>7,  thvy  an?  rallior  disaipatf  6  aoTl 

done  little  to inittrovotln-ir  ix'tidilitin.  Tin*  G liiiiiUlii:  or  tinkers, 

nud  nicud  fielii  tools.     They   have  tiitie  or   no  HtuL'k  df  imo 

ander  duriuff  the  fair  season,  BtoppiuR  for  the  rainy  months 

c  i^cutnU  town.     Tbvy  nro  gt'DAmlly  poid  in  gnun  und  charge 

iderably  lemt  than  the  regular  blacksniitlia. 

Stone -catting  is,  in  most  parts  of  tbo  tlislrict>  carried  on  by 
'<itliiirvtil--i  .nini  IMdftnt.  St«)iw!  is  g^-nynilly  ijijiirritii  l>y  r&tharrats, 
Eieir  daily  dmrfissa  ranjring  fromlii.  lo  1*.  '.*'l.  [S-ll-  linnets).  Some 
UDilioti,  m  Dliarftugaoi),  Dliulia,  and  Paroln,  have  a  name  as  ekilled 
orkmcn.  Hut  for  any  spouiidly  difHciilt  imiltrljiking,  ittonocutCera 
re  gvuorally  lironght  from  BurhdufKir.  Building  with  iUmu  and 
lortar  is  lUe  work  of  Gaiindis.  most  of  whom  are  Musalmiiit')  from 
lali^gaon  in  Nd'-ik.  Thi-ir  ('hiirgi.'a  aro  from  It.  Qit.  to2«.  (af.  12- 
Ifl.  1)  a  day.  Tliey  ai-e  woll.t4>-do  but  oxtravagaat.  Boldftnt  do 
he  coarser  work  of  layjog  mud  bricks  and  buildiujf  walls  with  clay 
nd  tmnit  or  rouffhly  hown  oluno.  Thuy  have  a  fnir  snpply  of 
mllnuka  luid  buSaioca  to  carry  water.  They  generally  undvrtAko 
orks  by  contract.  Their  nitos  ru&go  from  4^.  to  C*.  {Ra,  2-Ra.  3) 
h«  hundred  cubic  feet,  and  tlipir  avora^  daily  \iay  from  9d. 
la.  (6-8  antias).  Great  part  of  their  (Uub  is  spent  away  from 
kcir  hornits  in  placOM  whcro  their  wrvicvs  arc  in  demand.  Their 
mploynieDt  ia  rather  uncertain.  They  work  from  eiyhl  to  ton 
ours  a  day.     Their  women  add  uotiiing  to  the  family  eamiDg.i. 

Pottery  and  hrick-m-iking  go  ou  in  moet  towns.  The  workom 
Tti  ICtiiubhiin,  B«Id/tr<,aiid  Kiiubin.  lltoftnyiNgouorally  dug  from 
omc  tt»itahk<  field,  pond  bed,  or  old  village  siie.  Besides  bnckM  and 
lies,  the  chief  artiekis  m.ide  iire  eiirthnn  wat^-r  pots,  flower  pols,  jars, 
nd  wat<!r  jug*.  I'ntu-i-.i  jir<'  |«id  i-Iuetly  in  graiu.  They  do  not  work 
D  the  rains  and  generatty  c^iUirato  small  plot:*  of  land.  In  the 
»ir  Hojison  they  are  bi;*y  preparing  thiiir  wares,  taking  thom  to 
larket  iu  carts,  and  with  their  asses,  gathering  mbbiab  to  hunt 
n  their  kitua.  The  S&vda  potters  havo  a  name  for  their  skill 
colouring  their  wnrvff.  To  colour  iho  chiy  .tmall  particles  or 
rain.4  of  lac,  ilane  Uikh,  are  mixed  with  the  dye  iu  the  pro|X)r(iou  of 
wo  to  three,  and  pounded  with  stones,  till,  from  the  beat  cansfid 
ly  th(!  [xmuiling,  tho  lao  midtM  and  mixoA  with  th<-  dye.  Tho 
olonred  lac  is  then  moulded  on  the  end  of  an  iron  rod,  and  th«» 
►ot  luiatwl  and  smoarcd  with  the  liie.  The  jjotlors  ««ra  ooongh 
or  their  daily  want.-*.  Sonm  Ktithi-Wiir  Kumbhara,  of  whom  thvro 
>re  fonr  ^milies  iu  Ohulia,  two  in  Jalgaon,  and  three  in  Bhns&vsl 
re  wfll-to-do,  taking  contmcls  to  supply  tho  Public  Works  and  other 
epnrtmcnts  with  tili^it  and  bricks. 

Looilrifl  mnko  lime.  They  dig  a  round  holo  aboot  eight  feet  in 
iametor  and  from  five  tn  six  feet  deop,  and  round  1 1. s  brink  build 
brick  and  clay  wall  about  three  feet  high  and  with,  openinga 
ibout  three  feet  apart.  At  tho  bottom  <a  the  holo  they  place  a 
uyer  of  firewood,  ihcn  a  layi'r  of  white  oarth,  khaiU,  mixod 
ilh  cluircoftl,  and  agaiii  a  layer  of  firewood,  llie  wood  is  kindled 
hrough  the  holes  in  tho  wall.  And  after  eight  or  ton  dayii,  when 
he  whole  xn  thoroughly  burnt,  ihe  couleut»  are  taken  out,  and 
■  4I1-S9 






[Bonbft;  Gantl 



ClupUr  VI. 



ufUtr  «eparatiDg  il  from  the  cfaarooal  uod  sprinkling-  it  wi 
tlie  1tim>  in  ready  for  sale.     The  dniljr  (<iimiii^  of  tbe  Lonitra 
from  3l/.  to  'Ji^.  {2-6  anno*).     Buci'dus  bumiug  liniQ  sumo 

Of  induii)Tims  (,'oniiw:Iod  with  Tejretabltftn-iiiiwis,   carpent 
cairiud  oo  in  most  of  tlio  lai^r  rilla^n^.     Tlii'  u-gg^jcuj^n  an 
SotiirA  nod  others  wbv  limm  I  be  craft,  of  whom  thi-rt>  are  alt 
about    2500    fuinilies.       Most    of   the    tiiiiber    coate»    trot 
forpHtH  ill  tlie  west  of  Kh^odosh,  and  ns  a  role  boUjugn  tu 
who  eupajfc'  iho  niriH-nlers  to   work  fur  ih&m.     'ITib    wtirk    is 
steady,  briskiT  Jii  the^lry  season  than  in  the  raitu.      For  almi 
moulliH  ill  the  Toarihoy  t-arn  from   Id.  to  2".  (a*.  8-  Rv.  ]|  a 
Their   wives    iwld   imihinjj  U)  Iho  familr    earning.      Of    tho 
corpenlent,  those  of  Uhulia,   Choi»da,  Taloda  and  Fiuipatuer, 
Burh^npnr  are  thought  the  most  skilful,     Taloda  rair[ii,'nt«i-s   bd 
excellent.  cArtn,  nod  ihoiki  of  Dhulia,  Tntoda,  and  Chopda  lunko  gwi| 
boxes.  Few  of  iht-iu  bive  n  stock  of  toys,  cota,  stools,  or  lioxo*  ;  nltnol 
all  their  work  is  doDe  to  order.     They  arc  on  the  whole  u  n-oll-to-dii  I 
class.     The  turners  of  Chogxln,  SAvda,  and  Dhuliii,  hare  a  ^lod  DSdM.  | 
They  make  oxcelkint  <!r»dlo8,  cot  legs,  and  toy.i.     Very  fow   go 
to    work.     Uurhiiupar  and  other  etnuiger  tamers  ^aru   foxmi 

Sugar-making  in  carried  on  by  all  tfa»  b<^tt6rclaM  u£  culiivutor*. 
Gmat   Htone  sagar  mills,  found  in   many  of  the  Sl(tj>iida  v.  ' 
ahoiv  that  sugarcane  uiwd  U>  be  more  widely  grown  than  il  i, 
Tho  mola«ae.i  is  sold  by  the  maker  to  the  rillaoe  Khopkt-^iM'i 
tho  rate  of  from  Ijd.  to  i^d.   (1-li  annas)  a  pomd.     The 
generally  gatbent  a  coimidenibli?  riuautityand  fornanU  it  to   one  n? 
the  district  trtde  centre*.     I*impalaer«nd  Ni-r  in   Dhalia  arc 
chief  producers  of  sugar,  and  the  supply  in  graduullv  dixtribut 
among  the   district    shopVcener*   ami    travelling  ^ddlers.       T 
yearly    oiittnrn    \a   eHtimaiea  at     about    1 100     ton*.     Almoat 
clamMeH  use  it,  aud  little  Icntrcit  lliu    distncL     ilucli  i>t  imported 
rail.     Til  e  orili  nary  relai)  wric*  Tariefi  fiiuii  2(ii.  io'-ifl.  ')[-•>  aunt 
a  poiiuil,  with  a  slight  rise  anritig  the  marriaffo  mit  i>re|«iri 

dainties  tbo  rich  daas&s  mak<s   nwe  of  refined  au^,,;    i-.jayhl  fvt 
'Bombay  luid  Bonares. 

Sweetmeats  are  made  >n  most  large  rittngrit.  The  makers 
chiefly  Hindus  of  tho  Pardenhi,  Giijarfit  V^iu,  and  Uhdtia  caat 
Tbo  industry  isupports  about  100  faroilii-*,  the  women  helping  tl 
men.  Their  vrork  is  pretty  constant,  but  tlioy  urv  spociidly  basy 
in  the  marriage  aeiMODs  iiud  at  fairs.  They  nurk  from  six  to  uight 
hourji  a  day.  They  buy  tbo  sugar  and  spices,  and  offer  Iho 
sweetmeats  for  sale  in  their  shops  or  at  fairs  and  inarketit.' 
Somotiiiies  niiiterialit  are  given  them  to  be  mado  up  for  a  feast. 
The  industry  is  fairly  prosperous,  the  monthly  earnings  of  a 
varying  from  £t  to£3  (K*  lO-Bit.SO).     llie  sweotmeata  of  I 

■  Tba  b<ronrit«  ■■■«*tnia*t>i  ar*  :  iarjAJ,  pvOdt,  jitH,  taOt  y 
nSjdunnU^  plienit,  aail  gJUcur*.  Of  ibMtBnihiiMuia  •nm  buy  pMd* 
Wiv  ttrMtmiata  matt  b«  pnpM(<l  la  tlMir  Iwdm*. 






Thopdn,  Jalg&on,  and  BhnsAva!,  bav©  a  special    local  iiainc.     \'ety       Cha?t«r  TI. 
ew  leave  tbo  district. 

Comiiarnlivoly  little  indigo  is  now  grown,  aud  lbs  iuduslry  haa 
Itocal  died  out.  A coaitidcnible  quautityis  imported  chielly  by  rail. 
i  is  u»ed  by  djera  and  i^lico  prinlt-M,  Of  Ut«,  ifiiicv  tlio 
iuu)afaotareo{(i«]artltlii<lifp)lia.tcon.'>ed,  Kb^udcab  iudigo  ia  tjndio^ 
ftfl  way  to  Siirat  and  oilier  (iujarAt  warkete.  Tiu>  doak-r  gvnorntly 
iislribotea  liis  atoro  to  retail  Hhopkcopvra  or  triivdling  tradei-a, 
irbo  move  about  anioug  tliA  (litTtirtMit  faii-ii  and  markets.  'Sbe 
retutl  price  varien  from  1«,  to  Is.  6ii.  (S-12  flMwa*)  a  pound. 

Catochti,  the  thickened  juice  of  the  iAiuV, "Acacia  i-atechu,  eaton 
ny  natirix)  along  with  lidttflnut  and  leaf,  waa  formerly  made  by  Bhils 
in  large  quAutitii-a  in  the  Taloda  forests.  As  th(!  kftair  trw;  in  now 
carefully  preserved, tbomauiifudHre  has coancd  within  Hritish  limttn. 
It  still  to  a  small  extent  gi^ies  on  in  the  lands  of  tht-  I'anri  chief. 
The  juice  ia  prepared'  and  kept  by  Bhilg,  and  gencmlly  disixised  of 
Ijy  them  t'j  travelling  dwilrrn  who  aime  round  wiiii  cloth,  trinket*!, 
and  hardware  articles,  and  at  a  very  handsome  profit,  relieve  the 
Bhils  of  their  \m':,  CHti>t-liu,  and  other  foreat  produce.  Th»  dralor 
diatrilnitcB  the  stock  among  the  local  markets.  Very  little  leaves 
the  district.  The  retail  price  variist  from  SJ.  to  7i<f.  (2- 3  oiiium)  b 

Liqnor  ia  distilled  almost  aolely  from  moka,  Bassia  latifolia, 
flower*.  In  March  and  April  the  Howers  are  gathered  by  Bhils  in 
large  quanlitieii,  and  what  they  do  not  want  for  their  own  nstc,  ihisy 
RoU  to  travellins  dcaloTB.  The  dealers  dispose  of  them  to  KaldU  or 
profeiinional  diHuller.'*,  who  Iny  in  largtt  Mlon-n  in  March  and  April, 
and  distil  them,  according  to  demand,  during  the  rest  of  the  year. 
Tlw.  Ilowerit  aro  Itoitcd  in  n  <')oat-d  caldron,  uud  tlie  ^tnm  is  carried 
tliran);b  a  [lijw  and  allowed  to  condense  in  a  cool  vessel.  The  prooeas 
i»  i<o  simple  tliitl  largo  quatititius  of  liquor  uru  distiUud  amon^  tlia 
haU  \,y  the  BUiU. 

Another  important  brnnelt  of  distilling  is  tlie  preparing  of  oil 
£mm  the  foc^t  gm«i  known  as  ra»ha,  Audropogon  schoenaulhus, 
which  is  oftUD  kinds,  one  wi|]i  bluish  and  tlw  other  with  while 
DowerH.  The  oil  prv>ducie<l  from  the  first  is  of  a  green  lyiUmr  and  is 
called  iophia  ;  llnit  fiiun  the  nlhcr  i*  whito  and  is  called  motui.  Tlxo 
mo/ia  oil  fetches  a  higher  price  than  the  topkin.  Both  grimsos  grow 
freely  thmtgh  not  vrry  widely  in  many  open  hill  aides  in  west 
Khiindesb,  especially  in  Akr^ui.  The  original  scat  of  the 
uouufavture  was  I^poloer,  but  as  the  oil  is  in  great  demandj  tbo 


Oram  0H.1 

>  Doriau    Fubmary  ao'l  tli«  threw  Mkiwing  ainnUia  th«  miking  of  Mtediu,  JkU. 
niai  tlulAiur  bM^  em|it(>y«  niaoy  ini-n.    Tli«  pnK>oa^  tbovidi  mlc.   u  linipl*  and 
Itoap.    XAact  hraa<^D*  uwi-iit.   •trtp(>iil  r>f  tkiur  l«ub,  wiil  dboppod  into  thi**  w 
h  m«>;(i*.   TbvM^  iiul  inlii  iwrlliiii  iwts  foil  itf  wator,  are  boiUd,  and  tint  irattir, 
_  nu  In  shwia,  Iravu*  a   thi'dc  ■tii'xy  iltMXKiiiin.     A  pit  U  (taa  five  or  tin  feci 
jind   narrvw  «mo«]th  tii   bv  c»im>1   ■>}'  a  ROiall   liaiaboa   buEvt.    Tbe  thick 
ia  ;fcea-l  ill  III*  biaktl,  uhI  ok  it  tl^Ii^^  Ihc  water  ainlu  into  tlie  gnwitd. 
laMp^yt  til  Urn  ^ll.  au'l  Uiu  luhin  ia  loft  ia  Hic  baakcC    Tlio  extract 

sviUiag  DMrvluuita. 

plao«J  ui  Wv«a  ID  Um  aM,  and  when  dry,  aold  to  pnddlan  and 

thoaibmf  Qt 




Oram  Oil. 

Oii  Prruii-J. 


muniifttcliiro   baa   of  lat«    spread   to    Nandarh&r,    Sb&h&da, 
lllK.(la.     The  mafcon  iire  3(uitalniiins,  who,  at  the  clnnv  of  ihc  i_ 
alioiit   hv^ttpmber,   »'boii   (lie  ^n»*  i*  ri{ieiiiug,  bny    it  from 
HIiiIh,  (tiack  it,  iind  »i<t  furtiMcos  at  the  aides  of  brooks  wbure  wnodi 
water  are  plentiful.     A  large  pit,  four  fuut  lipn^  \iy    tvro  wide  i 
2^  de*p,  in  dajf,  and  a  furnace,  rAii/a,  prepared.    *Oii  t.hi»  fanau! 
pWctKi  a  (X^pptT  or  iron  raldruD,  large  onoiiRfa  to  Iiold  from  tbiTtfl 
fifty  pot»  of  water.  After  pouring  in  M>nw  water,  tlie  ealilrcm  is  fill 
tu  Die   brim  wiib  c-Wp|N>d  graxB,  and  a  little  iiioro  n-att*r  ia 
11ft  itioiith   of   tbv     culdroD   ct  can^fully   (-IriiM-d    with   an  ircnf 
ooDper  plate,  miide  fast  with  wheat  douffb.     From  a  hole  in  tb?  1 
a  nunboo  tubt-,  wmppod  in  u  piece  of  clotJi,  pWtercd    wiUi 
flour,  and  bound  with  ropes,  paaaetiiutoniieeond  closed  caldron,! 
to  ttu)  luxk  in  runiuo)?  water.     Theeteam  from  the    Rra«K 
through  tlie  pipe,  and  is  condensed  in  tbo  Mcond  c&Idron. 
when   full   beffiDs  to  shako,     Aa   soon  as  the  shnVin^   lii-^ns 
tubo  iH  skilfully  removed,  and  the  oondcaMxl   uteum  ik   poured  : 
a  third   caldron  and  stirred.     Theu   the   oil  l>eifins  to  npj     ~ 
its    t<urfnix-,  aod  18  slowly   sIcimnH-d  off.     To   uuike  ttlraufj: 
mndi^iiHed  atenui  has  to  be  dtstilltMl  several  times  over.     It  is  mil 
in    den>aud    as    a    cure    for  rheumatism  and  for  other  medicti 
piirposos.     There  were  197  Klillii  in    1S78-80,  produciofr  uliout' 
cwts.  (100  mim»).     More  than  100  stilla  are  worked  in  Naudni 
alooe,  and  the  iocrease  of  the  mannfacturo  m  pniTeiiicd  only  by 
the  iinircity  of  the  gnsa.    Tbe  oil  is  packed  in  skiuH,  and   Kent  na 
biiUovk  Itsmk  over  the  Kuuduiban  pass  to  Surat,  and  by  Dhuliu  anijj 
IklautDAd  to  }tomhay. 

Oibpressing    is   an  import&nt  industry  giving    employment 
filioiit  2U<)0  Ifindu  and  MnsBluUln  families.     The  chief  oil  seeda  »rv 
8e»amnni.  jfT'trfu  imiiidy  in  the  min-i,  and  linse)-*!,  u  i-uld  wnwther  ■ 
Oil  is  iilwi  pn-!<«.Hl  frutti  tastor  seeds,  earthnuts,  andycocoanuttt.       i 
uil-presfler  ^euerall}'  buys  the  tM.'ed    fnim  the  eulUnttor.     lie  si^ll* 
part  of  the  oil  to  the  iieonle  of  the  village,  and  sends  the  rest  in  lar 
tvather  jars  to  the  cnier  distrii'l  trade  ceutres.     The  mill  is  kept 
ooo  of   the   rouina   of  the  oiUpresser'ti  honite,  nnd  ia^orked   hy 
blindfold   bullock  driven  round  and  round  in  very  smdll  eircl 
The  mill  is  rough  and  clumsy,  allowing  wi  much  vegetable  mat! 
and  dirt  to  mix  with  the  oil  that  it  miiekiy  bft(,-<>uies  mnciil.     Of 
different  ktmU  of  oil,    ^ennitinm  auu  cocoauut  ai-e  osed  chie&y 
cooking,  ami  linseed  aiid  ci^loroil  l-ir  burning.  Of  late  the  profitat 
■  the  local  uil-preasera  hare  been  nincJi  rediicynl  by  competition  from 
M^lwa  and  the  Ninlm's  terntortra,  and  from  the  growing  use  of 
kerasine,  which  is  brought  by  rail  in  wnsideraWu  quanlitii'si,  and 
is  now  nsed  in  many  Kunbi  uonseholda  in  the  district.     On  ua^i 
days   the   uilniftn'it    wife   geuemlly  take"   some  oil  to  sell  in 
Deigbbriuring  towns.    Tbe  er.dl  is  said  to  lie  at  present  so  depress 
that  its  member*  are  taking  to  other  employments.     Thu  avenv 
price  of  oil  in  from  'Hd.  to  -t^ff.  (li-3  anHot)  a  pound. 

CoMon-spiimiiig.  once  tlie  chief  eiDployment  of  the  women  of  I 
poorer  olaescs,   had  almoat  entjiply  ceased.     The  first  blow  waa 
introdoction  of  Rieara-spno  yaJVbom  Europe,   and   of  Into   by 

oonipotition  of  locnl  and  Boinbny  Ht«ani-!ipun  yum,  tlio  band-spna 
bos  }>wn  L<imi)ti'l«ly  undersold.  Cotton  liandlixini  weaving;  hns  ^tufiQd 
by  the  fan  in  tho  coat  of  i,iirn,  sad  though  tbu  cqii'pcl  ilii>u  of  European 
and  ci^niilry  xUiam-wOTeD  gooda  luts  greatly  roduoed  pritx-e,  tho 
iodiistry  is  still  of  oon«id<'r«l)Io  iroportunce.  Tbo  weavers  arejMrtly 
Htnilu»  aud  [Miftiv'  Muaabniias  of  tlio  Momin  class.  Tito  Hindos 
belong  chiofly  to  tnc  Khutri,  Sili,  and  KosdiiicnHlcM.  They  are  found 
in  ihiimII  nuuil>eri<  in  mosC  sub-diviaional  towns,  and  In  grmtcst 
streu^^h  in  Dhnlia,  KasocU,  Dhnmn^m,  PitroU,  Erandot,  S^vds, 
Fniitpur,  Varangaon,  Pimprdia,  Nasirabad,  and  Jalgoou.  ThAgh 
many  of  them  aro  small  capitolisls,  hnndttimn  weavers  are  geitenilly 
employed  by  men  of  (»pit«l,  moat  of  thorn  V&nia  and  somv  Bohor&s 
and  Khatris,  wUo  §uppiy  them  with  yam  chictly  spun  in  local  aaJ 
Bombay  etvam  tnilb.  Thoy  aro  piiid  on  au  avurago  from  Hd.  to  9d. 
[2-6anitaa)  a  day.  Botb  men  and  women  weave,  keeping  not 
more  than  thirty  hiiliditys  in  tbo  yittr,  and  working,  except  for  ' 
about  an  hour's  rest  at  noon,  from  morning  to  night,  »o  lung  as 
they  have  tight  to  «x'.  Of  laU',  clnVfly  liy  tho  competition  of  local 
Ktcam  inillH,  the  prices  of  goods  have  fallen,  and  though  part  of 
this  reduction  i»  mi;t  by  the  gn-att-r  cbwipnws  of  yam, the  margin 
of  wage  left  to  the  weaver  has  within  the  last  ten  ytwrs  been 
towered  from  about  ijil.  toSil.  (3-2  onnuji).  Tbu.cloth  is  taken  by. 
tbc  luaater  weaver  who  advanced  tbe  yam,  and  distribulud  by  him 
tbrough  the  chief  tniAv  (x^uln-Jt,  tuins,  and  wi-vkly  markets.  It  ia 
OMtiuuiti^  that  about  nine-tenths  is  consumed  in  the  district,  and  Uio 
rest,  sold  and  resold  at  markc't^  and  fair-..',  findH  its  way  over  thu 
Ajanta  pas>>  iu  lAllock  nirt.>«  to  Iterdr  and  the  NijEAm';!  domioioiu, 
orby  rail  to  Bombay  and  tbo  Contnd  Provincoi.  Tho  chief  li  and- wovoo 
cloth  goods  nri-'  woinfn'n  rolieii,  {n^ag,  from  Erandtd,  Dharaugaon, 
PSmla,  Chopda,  PimprSia,  Kasirabad,  Fuiupnr,  .Savda,  X'urangaon, 
and  Jalgaon;  flour  cloth.'*  jiijanu,  oottoD  ebeeta  jiiiwdU,  stamped 
dirty-FM  courlets  phaiikit,  smaller  shootH  and  cuiibionfl  tMhuIu, 
from  Nandnrl>ilr,  SluOi(i<ia,  Varsi,  Betdvad,  Stndkhvda,  Cbopda, 
Jali^nou,  .Kiuiner,  Faispur,  and  Chinaval ;  long  white  floor  cloths" 
iitret,  cot  tape  ttavdr,  bulluvk  c\oiii»jhtil*,  from  N'ftHdrirlwu-,  Shdh&da, 
Vaivi,  Ktinai,  and  Ka^iMla;  and  coarso  cloth  jtAotfi,  from  Jimnor, 
SAvda,  FaiBpur,  Jamti,  and  Cbopda. 

Dyeing,  l>oth  of  oolton  cloth  and  yarn,  frivea  employment  to 
^bont  lOOO  soals,  cbicHy  Hindus  of  tho  Bh^T»nr  and  Rang^  csst«s 
in  Nundurb^rand  Sdvda.  Tlie  chief  colom-s  are  scarlet  and  blue, 
others  being  otere  tnodificatiuns  of  them.  To  dyo Mcartot  tbe  yam  or' 
doth  is  for  four  or  livo  days  altenjLat«ly  soaked,  driedf  and  aoiUcod 
again  in  yellow  sandy  earth,  lilia^i,  and  wafvr,  or  ciurl>otiat«  of  aoda, 
papad  Ichdr,  mixed  u-ith  ciiKlor  oil.'  After  final  washing  and  drying, 
thto  yam  or  cloth  is  plunged  into  a  pot  of  litgnid  Indian  mulWrry,  ut. 
An  the  dl  powder  is  very  light,  <<»  keep  it  togetlier,  C9u>tor  oi)  is 
mixed  in  the  proportion  of  one  to  twenty ;  atnm  is  added  in  the 

'  Thu  jM>v  nutJi  ia  liron^ht  Eium  Hv«r  tbka  by  1Ini4-b«r««n,  Lomirn,  and 
tioujiht  Bt  •  4»at  oI  4  WifT*  for  an  tuna.  Tbt  c*ititauta  of  loiU,  UMul  by  tbu  riahet 
ilyan,  b  nwob  mms  aerviMabla  Uiu  UiaMMbnr  outfc,  and  t*  Utftty  Uoporwd  bom 
DcctiUy  Mftoortom  Vk.  (Ba  U)  UMfBb«I  tluw  noM. 

Cliapt«r  TI. 



IBomhaj  Ouettwi 


»pt«r  VI. 


p9}portionoFfivo toonooroDe-half ;  and  the  wbolo  is  disgolved  i: 
a  caJdron  of  lioiliu^  vriiicr.  Alter  the  mixture  ban  biiili-il  tor  Honi 
timu,  ibe  prepared  yaro  is  pluopcd  iuto  it,  nod  left  (o  soiLk  fur  abtiv 
three  dnys.  U  u  IIk-d  Wii-thvd  in  freitli,  und  if  puxHiMu,  nmuia 
WAtiftr,  and  aoinetimes,  to  brioff  out  tho  colours,  lias  &o  extra  bath  i 
a  muttoro  of  gonl's  dung  and  M'uter.  Aft«r  thU  it  i»  again  vrashs 
ia  tioab  water  and  dried.  The  dyod  yam  is  sold  to  handlooi 
irearers  and  tho  vlolli  (o  rilliigo  dealcn,  the  coitt  of  dyving  r&isiii 
tha  prico  of  ram  hom  lllif.  to  l«.  i\d.  (7^-!^^  urihua)  a  poMn<i 
and  of  cloth  &oin  2ii.  to  S*.  (Kv.  I  •!{«.  I  \)  for  onclt  pit>co  of  clot 
twolvo  cubits  loQff  by  I  {  broad.  Dyeing  blue  i»  a  simpler  prooes: 
uThe  yam  or  cloth  lias  not  to  bu  vpocially  pruparvd.  Aft«r  washiti 
it  in  purii  vf^t«r,  the  yarn  is  plonged  iato  a  not  of  blue  dyo  sta 
prepared  from^two  pounds  of  iudigo,  ono  ponnu  of  plantaiD  aahw 
ouu  pound  of  cement,  and  one  pbuod  of  tarvad,  Ca^Hia  uurti^ulatx 
seed,  boiled  togetbor  and  disnolrvd  in  watvr  from  thrue  to  eight  dayi 
Aft4;r  tln'«  it  in  washed  and  dried.  The  cost  of  dyeing  klu«  in  ai  ui 
rate  of  Cd.  (4  anna*)  a  pound. 

Ho»t  of  the  yarn  and  cloth  is  need  locally,  bnt  aomo  of  the  richd 
dyers  send  thuir  wares  n»  fnr  a»  Bvr&r  and  XAgpnr.  i 

Cnlico-priuting  .U  carried  on  chiefly  iu  Faiicpnr,  Jalgaon,  m 
some  other  largo  townx.  Thv  priutKrH  nru  dyers  and  tbey  gem-rull 
print  c<jarse  haod-madd  cloth.  The  favourite  ailourH  are  durk-re 
and  dark-bluo.  Bufuro  preparing  it  fjjE  printing  red,  thu  clod 
as  in  tho  caso  of  dyeing,  undergoes,  for  fiv«  or  «tx  davH,  sevwa 
naahinga  in  a  mixtur^of  water,  carbonate  of  Nucta  or  hhadi,  aal 
castor-oil.  Next  it  is  plunged  into  a  mixture  of  twenty  pound 
of  dl,  and  eight  pounds  of  dkdcda,  Cunocarjms  Intifolia,  now«ri{ 
powdered  and  ^Kiiled  togothur  in  wator  in  a  caldron  able  to  boll 
128  yiinl«  (10  tkuna)  of  cloth.  Tho  addition  of  four  pounds  | 
myrobaUnH,  hirdiU,  while  the  mixture  i»  boiling,  giwft  tho  eloth 
dirty  yeltuw  tinge.  The  whole  is  then  dried,  sprwid  on  a  bonn 
and  printv<l  by  a  wouden  handblock.  For  printing  blue,  tbo  cloU 
has  only  to  bo  washed  before  being  stainpod.  The  red  colour  i 
n  mixture  of  alum  and  gutn,  and  the  bine  a  mtxtUTV  of  ttulphal 
of  iron,  AmifciM,  and  gum,  both  dis^iolred  iu  water.  The  woudc 
hnndblork.^  liavo  tha  pattern  deop  cut  in  their  Uu-f».  They  ax 
made  by  the  printers  themselves,  who,  in  cutting  them,  use  from  fort 
to  fifty  wmitll  .shHri>ly  pijinled  ntwl  nail-like  toc)l!<,  IHie  printor  wh 
"makes  these  stamps  generally  does  no  other  work.  He  has  a  stoci 
of  pattoms  drawn  on  a  iisiper,  und  sometime.-*,  though  rarely,  supply 
new  devices.  From  the  paper  pattern,  n  drawing  in  ink  or  otke 
colotintl  .lubittanoo  is  mndu  on  the  ftice  of  tbo  wooden  block  an 
tho  pattern  is  afterwards  cut  to  the  re<|uirod  depth.  In  the  riahe 
designii,  where  sereral  colours  are  used,  wich  colour  has  its  ow 
block  with  only  so  much  of  tho  piktiom  engravvd  on  it  as  belona 
to  thai  colour.  In  printing,  the  workman  has  beside  him  a  pai 
soaked  with  tho  colour  tie3»  using,  and  on  this  he  pt«8ses  tbl 
block  between  each  timu  l*«tamp8  tbo  cloth.  A  blue  piatonil 
the  simplest  When  more  eolours^ihanone  luivo  to  be  used,  tho  n«! 
where  tJio  Blanip  ia  uot  to  mark  ia  covered  with  a  mLxtaro  of  gui 




il  saud  which  is  afterwardfi  wa^hod  olT,  and  the  ntamping  rcpontixl 
iritli  the  othtT  bluclcM  nnd  coloui^  till  iho  whole  patl«ni  ia.nnnt^d. 
AJhvr  printing,  the  whl|l<^  <;loUi  is  uguiu  vroll  vriisla-tl  in  pure 
voter,  and  aonK-times,  to  brioff  oiu  tln»  colours,  reeeivea  a  hath  of 

ifttV  (Inng  niid  wati-r.     Aflcr  this  it  ix  ooc-ii  tnoro  earufully  washed, 

ied,  aud  t-spi'sell  fur  sale. 

SttMitii  Kpinuing,  woaviu^,  iniiaiu(r,  and  l^>llo^l•pn'$)ling,  have  be^n 
introduced  imo  Khaiidc«h  n-ithin  tJR'  Inst  twenty  years.  The  only 
Kl«nm)ipitiniii^»nd  wciiiTiiig cotton  fwttory  is  (it  Jalgaon.  This^torv 
was  iitartt-ii  iu  1H74,  under  the  uaiueot  the  Kbiiii<U-i<h  Spinning  and 
TiVeavinjjrComiwny  Limited.  It  bad»c»pi(«l  oti;75,000  (Ha.  7,oOfiOO) 
and  liiiiidiii^  iind  nuu'bim-i-y  ibat  (;o&t  ai>oin.  £1I&(I0  (II».{*5,0ltO).  lt« 
mui  bui-Dt  down  in  18"H,  but  was  re-opened  for  work  iu  Jamuiry  1879. 
It  has  at  proMont  220  ioom.-<i  nud  18,000  .tpiiidlcV,  nnd  conauitx-H 
on  an  avunig:^  HIjO  tous  (8O00  paluiji)  of  i-oitoii  a  ye»r.  It  umploj-s  a 
staff  of  ^i^  workmen,  itbout  AW  of  them  Musalmitns,  ^r>4i  .MiinitbiU, 
60  Portugwcsi?,  Pimieshii*,  tmd  Pirsis,  aud  two,  tho  chief  engineer 
And  the  epiunin^  master,  Europeans.  The  MusalnillDB,  chivHy  from 
Indor,  Bombay,  Pooni^  Saliira,  uud  Xu^r,  and  a  tow  nativea  of 
Kh&udi>!(h,  are  nkilled  wearers,  nilers,  carders,  and  spinners;  the 
Manirh^g,  strong,  sturdy  and  iniiiH'ul4jr,  from  all  ]atrt))  of  the  D«ccaD, 
art-  tabimrvrM  and  carriers ;  the  Ponuji^iieso,,  hardnorkiug  iind 
iotoUiKCut,  are  Gttei's  ;  and  the  Panlcvhii-,  peasants  from  Hoy  Bareilly, 
l>olhi,  Ayi-a,  and  Cawupiir,  nro  chielly  uie»s(iig('i-!<  anil  watchmen. 
Ono  of  the  I'firitis  iv  a  we^ljngr,  and  one  of  ihe  MarAthas  a  cardinj^, 
niaater.  Ivxceptt^  clerka  no  high  caslu  Qiudiis  arc  employed,  and 
thvro  are  no  Miinrs  or  Bhilx.  Of  th«  who Icritaff  about  onp^third  get 
fixed  wages,  the  rest  are  paid  by  •piece-work.  Of  tliose  who  get 
lixed   wages,  the  monthly  pay  of  the  engineer  is   &W    (Rs.  400),   of 

,c  (iptiiuing  mttsU'r  .WU  (Ka.  SOO),  of  the  smith  £*  (Ra.  -«),  of  the 

■icklayer  t2  (Ita.  20).  of  tJio  fittcre  from  £1  IOk.  U>  £2  (Its.  1&. 
Bfl.  20)',  and  Among  coninmn  labourers,  of  a  man  6it.  (i  anmt*),  of  n 
woman  •IJ'i.  (;iuji«u«),and  of  a  child  IW.  (2  annas)  a  day.  The  piece  , 
ratM  for  spinners  are  S^d.  (2^  aniKi")  the  100  pounds  of  yarn,  and 
tor  weavers  from  t»,  to  5».  (Ks.  2-Rs.2J)  the  huudrod  |>ounds  of 
oloth.  Tliis  repreaenta,  for  au  average  steady  worker,  daily  pay  at 
from  7{4.  to  3«.  (5  a»n«*-Rs.  1^) ;  womvD  generally  earn  from  3d- 
to  7\d.  (2-5  annru),  and  childron  fwra  3d.  to  3iJ.  (2-2i  iiattat}. 
The  wurkiug  hours  are  from  sunrise  to  auuiiet,  with  half  an  hours 
rest  from  eleven  to  half  past  eleven  for  (he  middny  nioal.  Residea, 
the  uMial  native  bolidnyH,  a  half  holiday  is  gives  every  market  day 
(Saturday),  aud  three  days  of  rost  a  mouth  aru  wanted  to  clean 
the  maebuiery.  Tlie  Cotton  most  used  U  the  long  stapled  Klutndvfihi, 
Hiugaugbal  and  DhariWir.  There  is  al&o  a  demand  for  the  short- 
stapled  V'arhadi.  But  as  in  Eliande^b,  the  growth  of  the  Varhadi 
IB  as  much  as  possible  diiicouraged,  the  local  supply  htw  to  bo 
itnpplenionted  by  imports  from  indor,  Jabalpur,  and  Gardevida. 
About  fiOOO  pounds  of  yam  aro  niatly »  day,  thu  wholesale  prioo 
varying  from  £12  to  £14  (Rh.  120-I|%l40)  a  ImiIo.  Most  of  the 
outturn  JH  used  locally,  bought  by  local  aealers,  and  distributed  over 
the  chief  market  towns  and  osvd  by  iho  handloom  woavtirn.  A 
good  deal  is  worked  iuto  cloth,  the  chief  Torietiea  of  cloth  being 

Chapter  VL 

SUim  Spb 
and  H'd 

IBombajr  OtunUs. 




tJtfjetH,  towels,  sail  clolli,  and  conno  ctotli  of  every  sort,  which  rtlfl 
vholo6nl«  nt  It,  {H  annas)  n  ixxind.  AltiKKst  thv  wkiilu  of  it  iit  liuoicUl 
by  luL-a]  (lealiTH  and  sold  in  Khd^sli,  tinr&r,  and  tho  NizinV 
domiDtuDH.  It  IB  cbiofly  usod  by  nie  poorer  clapaes  for  shirt*  nafl 
wuistdollii}.  Tboy  also  make  cotton  ropu  nnd  tnine  for  utw  in  iM 
Dull.  I 

Bcfides  the  spinning  anil  wcavioff  mJtl    ihrrv   are    elentn  sl<aM 
fttdoriM  in  Khiodeah,  throo  of  tbem  ffiouiug  fadorics   and   eigwl 
prraHeH.     Tho  ^nnin^t  r«(rtoriaa,  two  of  them  at  Jal^non  noil  iincii 
MhasAvad,  hnill  betwoon  1800  and   18''-J,  an-  fiiniished  witli  Pfatfi 
Baw-gins.     For  tbo  rnutt-nji  already  nieutioned,  ctie  dcKiructiun  of  tki 
«|pd  and  Ibn  injury  to  ibe  etaplt',  eaw-pins,  tliouRli  they  uvurk  (oniM 
eleaper  than  liMia  cirancrsunii  wi;r<.- omnt ;  18  tt*)  prulty  widt^Iy  uivifl 
hare  for  tbv  biMf  fuiir  or  tivc  yearn  lain  aliuust  idle.  I 

Of  tbo  eight  strain  oottou  proHHos,  seven  ai«  in  Jnlgaofl 
and  one  in  Dbnlia.  lu  the  Jalgann  pre»N>ii,  tlie  prvKsing  cliargfl 
■H  &«.  Gti.  (Rh.  2  as.  12)  a  bale,  with  an  additional  Sd.  i2  antniit)  £■ 
oirrifligo.  In  1879-80,  9l,iiM  balw  ngiiin«t  16,021  in  !S71.72  iir^ 
rvpOAcd  (o  haro  been  preaed.     The  siz*.'  of  (ho  b«le  is  four  :  '1 

inch   lont,',  one  foot   sis  inches  higli,  and  ouo  foot  fivo  iucli'  .J 

During  Januiinr,  FobruHry,  Manh,  and  April,  wht-n  cctt^m  cotuea 
forvrard  iu  btrgu  ([uautities,  the  prosaes  are  at  Wiirk  night  aud  dayj 
tba  men  being  paid  from  3il.  to  djil.  (2-3J  a>ina«)  on  each  liuM 
pveasud,  and  dividing  the  amount  among.  ihemKelvos.  >Soiiiotiraaq 
thfi  preeaes  work  for  a  fow  Ix^nDt  a  day  only-  Tbej  have  uo  fixaa 
lKnin>  and  tbeir  wiirkiDgutinie  dejwudit  ujion  ibo  stoijkof  cotton.  Im 
Jalgaoa  tho  presses  employ  altogether  three  Kurojieaa  engiiuvrvj 
nbout  liftcen  to  sixki-ii  pn-ssmuu,  and  thirly  to  thirtytive  biii^iuri^nd 
to  can-y  the  biilvg  from  tho  jirx'W  to  the  nwlwiiy  ^tjition.  DurinfJ 
tbu  biiity  ft'iiNon  the  ])rea»mi'Ut  who  are  chiefly  Mariitb&»  anS 
}kl iisalni&ns,  earn  from  £1  lOti.  to  <2  IOji.  (Re.  15-lU.  ib)  amoulhil 
nio  carricrit  ar«!  Di'ccaii   Mariilhiiti.     Tliey  iirp  pHi<i  from    l(i#.  ttm 

*  £1  lOii.  (Ks.  &>1U.  15)  every  hundred  IkiIoh  atvordiug  to  the  dixti^ncal 
Tivin  tho  fm-tory  to   the  ntation.     lAT^icn  the  ihssoq  is  over,  some  gol 
to    their  villagPH   to  cultivate,  otbern   auiy     in    Jalgnon    and    find 
work  in  tho  onlinury  bibmir  mnrket.      Some  hare  settled  in  Chopdn, 
Varid,  nnd  Vlriid,  where  they  bavo  bnilt  houses  and  hold  land. 
Tbe   pre!4smeu  and  carriers  are  nearly  all  Dec<(>iui  MarAtfai« 

^S&t^ra  and  Poonn.    llioy  livu  in  hnts  outside  of  Jalgaon. 

,  Cotton  carpets  arc  wovon  at  Kii.«i)d»  and  P&Idhi  in  Emndol,  a^ 
Aftodn  ill  Kiisiruluid,  aud  at  It.inola  in  Nuiidurlmr,  by  Ufaangar  and 
M&obh&T  Ilindns  and  by  Miisnlmiin  J'injaris.     Tho  industry  is   n 
small    one,    ttnpjxirting    not    mum  than   400  families.     Almost  all 
are    lidHiurera    supplied   with   cAttou   by   ^lutuilmfin   and   JljirxlUI^ 
dealers,  and  paid  for  their  work  nt  the  rate  of  Si,  to4}if.  {i-3  aiinaf)i 
a  day.     A   fairly  skilful  and  steady  workur  oumB,  on  an  &vvraf^g 
from  Gd.  to  9tf  (4-G  nnnaxjaday,     Tbe  demand  ia ateatty, britknigh 
at  times  of  faint  nnd  dullivnt  ih  tli«  rainy  weather.     Tho  men  worki 
from  six  to  (-igh!  honrs  a  day,  and  keop  about  thiriy  yearly  holidays. ' 
KxiH-pt  I'iujAri.1,  they  himily  ever  follow  any  other  muiiloyuMint,  audi 
tbeir  women  seldom  add  anything  to  the  family  gnins.     The  coloora 

6l.  ^^ 



□erally  nsed  are  red,  yellow,  green,  Aiid  black,  and  tlio  pttttonu 
ulninvl.  nlnttys  simple  eitripeii  fniiu  ouc-1«uth  of  an  inch  to  2J 
IS  bnMil.  Theae  carpets  ar»  offered  for  sale  at  moat  market 
and  religious  gittlmring.s.  TlioJr  l>u«t  nwrkct  in  ul  TtlaJiini 
tir  Tliey  *n  «eut  iu  small  (|a&iitities  to  Uerflr  and  the  Niic&m  a 

Gold  and  silrcr  thread  are  made  in  snuill  (]uantitic«  at  'Ri.-ror  in 

ivilti.     The  worker.^  are  Hindus  of  the  Son&r,  Sliimpi,  Rajput,  and 

taa^ri    castes,  and    Miisalm&iiH    who    liaro     lately    come    from 

Jnrhlinpur.     'Vhv  industry   \»  of  litlltt  iui porta nc^e,  !>u]i]ioriiDg  nob 

Bore   than   from  fifty  to  one  hundred  famiUae.     Most  o£  the  gold- 

bi-ead  makers  are  labourers  supplitilbya  Mlirviid  capitalist  with  the 

bread  and  iiivlal,  and  paid  for  iheir  work  generally  al  the  raK;  of 

\d.  to  4)d,  (1-3  annas')  a  day.     The  women  of  the  family  do  not 

oke  part   in  the  employment,   but  they  generally  e»ni  a  lit4]o  by 

abour  iu  the   tti-id-t.     The  demand,  fairly  coustiiut  throughout  the 

'ear,  is  briskest  in  the  wedding  seasons  and  dullest  dnriu|^  the  rains. 

The  makers  gi-neriilly  wrork  from  nix.  U>  eight  h'liiR*  u  day,  and  ke4p 

iboul  (lixty  holidays  a  year.     There  is  a  craft  guild  comjK^Hod  of  Bl) 

[dull  males,  but  except  enloniiag  holiday-kwping,  it  plays  but  a 

smull  part  Intheoffairsof  thecraft.     In  niakiuggold  tbnrad, a  i^ilrer 

bar  about  a  fool  long  and  one  and  a  half  inches  thick  is  covered  with 

gold  leaf,  which  by  sovoral  hcAtingK  and  hammerings  is  welded  into 

the  !>ilrer.     One  end  of  the  bar  in  put  into  one  of  many  dilT<^renb 

sized  boles  pierced  through  a  rough  iron   plate.     The  point  of  the 

bar  is  oaiight  by  »  large   pair  of  pincers,  whose  handles  are  secured 

by  a  ring  fontened  to  a  rope  or  chain  ^ing  round  a  wooden   wheel, 

which,  worked  by  threu  men,  drags  the  bar  through  the  hole  in  the 

iron  plar«.     In  {>ai(siug  through  the  bole,  ibe  bar  grotT-*  eoiuiderahly 

honger  and  thinner,  and  the  process  is  repeated  through  gradually 

diminishing  holes.     When  reduced  to  the  niza  of  wire  it  is  handed 

loTer  to  another  workman,  who,  by  working  two  small  wheels,  drags 

it  through  a  fiwiie  ])ierci(td  with  very  fine  holes.     When  fine  enough 

it  is  tluttoni-d  by  boating  with  a  small  hammer  on  a  nttiol  anvil.     It 

is  then  twisted  with  thin  yellow  or  orange  silk  and  wound  on  reels. 

When   ready  the  gold   threa<l  iit  distribiitoil  through  the  different 

narketa  and   fairs,  and   bought  by  village  dealen   and  bandloom 

weavers.   Most  of  it  i^i  used  in  the  district.  The  demand  Cor  gold  wire 

IS  wnall,  and  the  workerK  are  badly  off. 

The  chief  crafts  connected  with  animal  products  are  the  making  , 

of  lac,   clarified  butter,  the  weaving  of  silk  and  wool,  butcher's 

Work,  and  iho  making  of  leather.     I^,  produced  by  the  puncture 

of  the   female    insect.  Coccus  laeca,  on    pimpal    Ficua  religiimta, 

pa/oji  But^-a  frondosa,  and  bar   ZieyphuH  jujulra,  trees,  is  gathered 

fehieQy  by  Pim{ialner  Bhilsand  other  forest  tribes  in  April,  May,  and 

Kiftrt  of  June.     \Vhen  about  thirty  pounds  haro  been  collected,  it  ia 

feat  in  coante  cloth  bagM  from  elxveu  to  foutloen  cubits  long  and 

fcbont  twelve  inches  round,  which,  with  their  mouths  closed,  are  laid 

hear  a  hrc  and  the  gum  left   to  melt  and  uoxc  oui.     The  supply  i» 

bold  by  the  Uhil:^,  partly  to  travelling  Hi^hora  and  MArvM  aud  other 

[V&oi  peddlers,  who  give  in  exchange  cloth  and  hardware  trinkets. 

I       ■411-W 









Iflie  r««t  lA  taken  lu  markM.  lowns  nod  )k>1(1  for  money,  or  ^  -  ~~ 
oloth.  'PbodoalprecolliH-LthiilM^iuiddiBtribiito  tt  to  silk  <i 
SnrlutnftiriuidVeolaMuaalm&os.uidtoLBklii'rtLHorbr&i  < 
H>)fit  of  tlM>  cropis  naed  to  the  iliiMrirt  in  dyfiu^  /uru  u: 
in  vomi-ring  wuod.    A  little  fiudji  iln  iray  to  BtmLr  and  iJie  J^u 
duminioiiN,  itnd  some  ffuofl  by  rail  to  Bumbnjr.      'Vhv    priai  I 
consumer   ^uorallj'   \'nrtra  frura  Qtl.  to  l«.  ((J-H  annati}  a 
The   dcmiind    i^  fairly   couitaut,    but  rec<eot     furust     raatr 
liaT«  greatly  reduced  the  supply.     Imc  brvcelotH  of  mHoos 
are  made  in  DbiiliA,  Gmwiilm,  liiid  BliuiUtral  by    Jjakher^  whol 
said  lo  liave  come  froii»  MArvid  abont  a  i-eniury  a^. 

* .    Clarified   bQtl«r,    tup,    it    nutde  chiefly  ai   Dhttlia  and   Lali^l 

Almost  all  wwU-to-do  husbandmen  sell  clarified  butter,  aad, 
by  them,  a  lai^e  quantity  is  prepared  by  prufmeioaal  herdji 
the  Dhnn^ar  and  Gavli  cih<(c«.  The  wom«n  do  tho  dairy  wiiri 
hom^ttimfift  gn  to  at^U  the  batter.  Clarified  butter  is  of  tn-o  I 
one  made  from  bufFaloe'e,  the  otiicr  from  nheci>'»  milk.  The  1, 
made  from  bHlTalov'M  milk  ia  (he  lieitt,  feic-hinA-  frum  Gd.  to  U 
(4>8  iiniinir)  a  pound.  It  is  used  by  idl  the  well-to-do.  Shetf^ 
butter,  fetching  from  4\4,  to  9rf.  (3-6rtnji«)  a  pound,  ia  alti 
chiefly  by  thopoorerclnWHM  and  in  mixinjc.  Cow's  butter,  whicJiil 
used  for  mediciue,  ia  seldom  made.  The  producers  ffeut^rallywC 
to  butter  dealers,  lontl  and  MArvitd  Vtoix,  Bhatiiiii,  and  Knc-bhit, 
wlio  )iru  in  the  larger  towns  and  travel  about  {^theriBB 
supplies.  They  keep  the  butter  in  large  leather  jans,  duht'u,  ana 
<U«posa  of  most  of  il  at  their  shop*  in  market  and  other  !»r^  towiu. 
Batter  u  daritied  by  boilinfc  tt  in  a  brass  or  iron  pot.  \Vli«i 
mod  it  keeps  fresh  and  fit  for  use  from  eight  to  tifl<!un  daya.  Almoal 
the  whole  supuly  i»  mwd  in  Khiindejih.  A  little  finds  its  way  lo 
B«r^  and  the  ViEiim's  dDmiuiona.  There  has  Dot  of  lat«  been  aigr 
marked  change  in  the  butter  trado. 

Glam  bangles  are  to  a  small  extent  made  by  Mnsalmtos  of  the 

^  Uani&r  ca«:te.     Tho  vhicf  cmftHmvii  used  to  bo  found  nt  Na.'iirabad, 

Yltval,    Sakli,  I'AroU,  and  ICrandol,  and  in  Nasiriibiid  there  aru  Ktili 

from  300  to  100  of  ihetn.     Tl""y  Imrc  now  much  difficulty  in  finding 

wood  for  their  furnaces,  and  the  iiiduwtry  does  not  proaper. 

Silk  work  is  cnrrii>d  on  to  a  small  extent  in  Krandi>l  and  Pdrola. 
Tho  indu»try  euipluya  scvuml  classes  of  workmen,  sorton,  ' 
t  and  weavom,  but  it  is  not  a  large  industry  nud  dueH  not  :<. 
•  more  than  about  seventy-five  familie*.  Almost  all  of  them  afo 
Isbourt'rs  supplied  with  ^ilk  by  Gujarat  V&ni  and  Shimpi  d^ialora, 
and  paid  by  the  piece.  Tho  Hilk,  cbiuBy  Bengal  and  Chinena,  vt 
brought  by  rod  from  Bombay,  Tlio  only  silk-apiuning  is  carried  on 
by  the  Khatria  as  a  kind  of  bve-work.  Thvru  are  no  aiatiuctcliwsos 
of  silk  wearers  aud  dyera  "nie  ofaiof  colours  uHnd  are  red,  yellow, 
«i>eu,  black,  aud  blue.  The  weavers,  Salis  and  Koshtis  by  caste, 
^iellv  make  tadit,  rholkhans,  fdgotit,  and  phadkis.  Tlie  demand 
for  their  work  in  f>irly  constant,  briskest  dnring  the  marriago 
Beaaona  and  dullest  in  the  rainy  mrmths.  The  nilks  are  made  ov«r 
to  the  dealer  who  sells  them  to  village  shopkeepers  or  sends  them 
in  charge  of  agents  to  the  diSerent  markets  and  fairs.     The  retail 

■  DecciAj 



prices  of  Bilk  gooiU  aixl  2s.  to  4r.  (Re.  1.R8.2]  ayard  forturba^B;       Chapter  VL 
luid  from  -t«.  U}  £2  (Re,  2-Rs.  20)  for  robes.     Rich  pi'oplo,  BitiuoMM,  CiafU. 

Sbiti^s,  and  Gujai^t  and  M&rftnl  VAnin  use  ailk  clolb. 

Blankut-nuavitig  is  almnst  the  only  woollea  maDiiiactare.     It  ia  fifonfei 

ied  ou  all   orer  tbe  district,  but  chiefly  io  DliuUn,  Nnsirabad,  WMvutjt. 

ner,  Amaltivr,  and  Virdol.  Ilie  wenvoM  nro  almost  all  of  tb« 
Dliangur  ittnte.  Sheep  are  generally  sheared  twice  a  year,  in 
Uan.'h  and  in  November.  Tho  wool,  chiefly  bUu.-k  with  M>Jno  tbrwida 
of  dirty  white,  waiiboil  tM>veral  ttnieti  and  cleaned  wilh  the  bow,  ia 
coilfctvd  liy  tho  Dhangare,  Bome  of  it  set  apart  for  their  own  use,  and 
the  rest  taken  to  the  cluof  district  tradn  acutrcsHuil  sold  to  wool 
dealers,  also  DhuigarB  by  cft.«to.  Frinii  tlutsuy  dmlort*  it  is  bought  by 
tbo  woariiiff  Dhangara,  wbo,  though  of  the  saine  tribe  as  t^  shepherd 
Db&ngars,  do  not  rear  ehcup  but  upend  their  time  in  blanket-weanog. 
Most  of  lliem  buy  tho  wool  und  work  it  into  blankots.  Othorg, 
eoiployod  by  dealora  as  labourers,  are  paid  from  2id.  to  3d.  (H- 
2  anntu)  a  vard,  rates  rD])rcsciii  ing  to  a  fairly  good  workman 
mbout  i^d.  (3  annat)  a  day.  Tbe  weaver  wbo  woikti  hiit  own 
wool  oarna  on  an  averaj-e  about  &^  (4  aittur*)  a  day.  They  weavo 
generally  in  the  oixiu  lur,  and  rain  forcea  iht-m  to  stop.  They 
work  from  aix  to  eight  honra  a  day  and  keep  about  tlurty  yearly 
holidays.  Tboirwunion  and  children  help  in  spinning  the  wool,  and 
tho  men  generally  apin  when  it  is  too  wot  to  weave.  The  blankets 
are  offered  foraafe,  eitherby  the  wearersthemselveaorby  Ihelmdnr 
wbo  has  employed  them,  at  all  fairs  and  markuts,  and  in  the  shopjt 

rofmOiSt  large  villitgtt.*.  They  ftrn  in  dt-maud  among  iiH  the  lower 
clawes,  and  almost  the  whole  local  produce  ia  used  in  Che  dtxtrict. 
A  little  goes  to  BorAr  and  the  NiaUn's  provinces.  But  the  quantity 
imported  from  &tilr\-^d,  ShoUpur,  and  Fandbarpur,  i#  gonnnilly  more 
than  what  leaves  Hhe  district.  Thor«  is  a  considerable  sale  of 
t  Eoglisb  blankets  in  Jalgaon,  Bbnaltral,  Dhtilia,  and  ni<arly  alt  the 
larger  lown-s.  Blanket  weavers  have  no  guild  or  trade  ansociation,  , 
There  is  a  good,  and  on  tbe  whole  a  gTx>wing  demand  for  their 
wares.  A  blanket  generally  moaaures  from  three  iv  six  cubit«,  and 
oostg  from  It.  to 'da.  (ani»i«s-na.l().     Almost  all  aro  plain. 

BiitcherM*  work  in   of  two   branches,  the  kilting   of  cows  and  AtfrS 

buffaloes  and  the  killing  of  sheep  and  goats.     Tho  butchen  of  tho  *'*"'^ 

brger  animals  are   Kiut^f,  ami  of  tbe  Hmnller  Khitika.     Butchers  A 

«n»  found  in  nlmosE  all  market  towns,  but  beef  is  uaed  only  in  placen  *  I 

where  there  is  a  large  Hnaalmiin  popilntion.     Tho  indnstrv  aupporta*  M 

from   200   to   800   uuniliea.     The  cowx,  oxen,  and  bn^oes    are  | 

generally  brought  by  culdvators.     As  a  rate  they  are  old  animals  I 

pasi  yielding  milk  or  doing  work.     Somtt  cultivators  and  many  of  ^^1 

tbe  liindn  town  tndorn  used  never  Co  sel!  their  cattle  to  tbe  but4;her.  ^H 

Of  late,  it  is  said  the  practice  haa  become  mneh  commoner.    The  ^^M 

demand  is  pretty   constant,  and  tho  bntchen  lead  an  easy  life,  the  ^^M 

women  doing  a  great  part  of  tho  selling.     As  a  claes  they  are  well-  ^H 

to-do,  charging  U'i.  (I  aniMi)  a  pound  for  cow  beof,  and  SJd.  (])  ^H 

emnaa)  for  goat's  Sesb,  prices  that  leave  them  a  good  profit.    BaSalo  ^H 

meat  is  rarely  used.    Mnsalmins,  except  the  poorest,  and  even  these  ^H 

00  their  three  or  foar  chief  holidays,  eat   both  beef  and   mutton,  ^H 

(Boinbaj  auaRM, 

ppWr  VL 





amuntf  Hindus,  Ahir  Shuupici  eat  ^at's  flesh  pretty  constoatlf, 
and  Kitut)i»  nnil  Bhita  wbea  they  can  afford  it. 

Leather  making  and  wurlcing  ba»  Itvo  ljivn<-heitj  t&mung  anj 
ahoemakitig.  1'anniDg  goes  on  in  almost  all  large  vUlag«B  ui 
tonHB.  Tod  worlcmon  nr?  cfak'fly  Mdngs  nnd  ChAiubMrs,  and  Uie 
iudUBtry  supportti  aI>oul  100  fnmilu^tt,  Tlic  liidt^^  »rv  ^nerall; 
(lajred  by  village  Mb^  and  partly  dried  by  them,  and  lut^d  ro  ni«t 
the  wnntxof  vUlagore  for  U-athor  ibonga  nnd  ropve,  or  they  are  taken 
into  ihti  larger  tovma  and  »old  to  hide  dealent  wito  nre  mo«iIy 
Husalni^s.  The  bide  dealers  export  some  of  them  by  rail  b) 
Bombftj,  but  moet  are  soot  to  bo  drevsed  by  local  ChinibhdrB  and 

Jkl&ngs.  They  firot  put  the  hide  in  water  for  two  or  threw  dayi, 
atid  «Fh«n  it  ia  irashed  and  has  had  all  the  hair  gcraped  off  with  ircD 
kcuTea,  they  nt)ply  limo  and  thi-n  fiild  iiud  keep  ibc  bidofonbiw 
diiys.  After  this  it  is  again  washed  and  left  for  nearly  DinrtMii 
iajt  in  the  cxlrat^  of  larvad,  Ca«Hia  auric-ulnta,  bark.  Then  it 
w^hedand  laid  In  pure  water  (or another  fiftH-ii  dayaaud  then  drii 
in  the  shade.  Tanners  work  about  eight  hours  a  day  and  ki 
DO  boltdaya.  Thoir  women  and  children  take  no  part  in  the  tro: 
Moat  of  the  leolhor  it  sold  to  Kh^udenh  sboemnkerR  either  at  hun 
or  markets.  '£he  tanners  of  Dharangaon  in  Bhus&val  and  of 
Jalgaon  in  Dhulia  have  a  eiwcial  local  Dnmo  for  skill  in  their  craft. 
Litue  leather  Inircit  the  district.  The  demand  is  coBHtonl  and 
the  cmft  fuirW  prosperous.  Shoemnking  goes  on  in  moAi 
large  village*)!.  The  workers  are  Mochis  uu<I  ClittmbhtirH  nnd  lb 
industry  Mupport^  about  100  Mochi  nnd  1200  Ch^bhdr  families 
The  leather  is  bought  chiefiy  from  local  tanners,  and  as  »  mie  the 
shoemaker  works  with  leather  be  ba^  himself  bought.  Mo«t  of  the 
Mochis  and  Cbiimbiirs  are  both  tannera  and  ahoeuakera.  They  are 
paid  from  1'.  ti/<|jr.  (a«.  8-Rs.  2)  for  a  pair  of  slippers,  repnaeoting, 
to  a  fair  workman,  from  3d.  to  6J.  {2-1  annav)  a  day.  The  demand 
for  his  work  i»  st«ady  thn>ughimt  the  year,  lie  works  about  eight 
hours  n  day  and  takes  no  holidays.  The  women  of  bis  family  help  in 
tbe  lighter  parts  of  bis  work.  He  nuikv:)  Mhovw,  Kandab,  buckets, 
Bod  wat«^r  ba^s.  The  shoemakers  of  Dhulia,  Taraod,  Erandal, 
Cbopda,  and  Xandurbdr,  have  a  good  name  (or  their  native 
■hoes,  and  in  Dbolia,  Bhus&val.  and  Jalgaon  are  Mom«  men  who  can 
make  n«at  and  nseful  Eiigliith  shoes  and  rough  pony  harness. 
Most  shoemakers  koop  a  muuII  »lock  of  slippers  and  sandnia  foaM 
•  Bale,  or  send  them  by  an  agent  to  local  murkotM  and   fairs.     TImIV 

•n-hule  supply  i«  giiucrally  used  in  the  district,  and  small  qiianlitiea 
of  English  ^'lux'S  and  boots  are  brought  from  Bombay,  and  native 
■(k>O0  from  Poona  and  Ahmodiutgar.  Tfa«  demand ta  on  tbu  whole 
«t««dy,  and  the  businotts  prosperoua. 

Hom-gntlturing  is  an  industry  that  has  spmng  up  sincv  the 
railway  was  opened.  Near  mo»t  rmilwuy  stations  large  heaps  of 
horns  and  bones  are  collected.  They  are  generally  brought  from 
the  villages  round  by  SIbiirs  luid  Bhils,  and  sold  by  them  to 
Bohora  dealers  who  send  them  to  Bombay.  Some  aix  yiairs  ago 
boms  were  sold  at  the  rate  of  £3  (Its,  30}  a  hundn-d  and  bones  at'Js. 
(Re.  1 )  a  hundredweight.  Tb«  demand  hah  now  fnlUin  and  the  Irada 
is  not  prospi-rwus. 







Cart-making  in  aa  important  indimtry.  Wood  is  clu>nj)  i^d 
good,  and  ihe  Dondaicha,  Taloda,  C'bopda,  aod  Navdpur  earta  are 
•0  marked  aii  iiDprovotnoat  on  tho  old  cnrt  tlutt  tbey  have  become 
mosl  popular.  The  mnnufacture  llourislieB,  the  price  liaving  been 
iWMcf,  without  lowcriD)^  the  demand,  from  £'2  to  £4  {Ha.  20- 
tU.  40).  Tliey  nrv  madt^  bv  Dv«hi  iiiiil  Purdt^hi  SutArs.  Tliv  iron 
parts  are  the  work  of  local  blackHiaitlis,  ths  material  being  supplied 
from  Bombay  tbrongli  local  sbopkeepvrs,  BohoHi8j  Viiniiij  and 

TliD  making  of  salt,  gunpowder,  paper,  and  opium,  are  do  longer 
prftcli^cd.  Formerly,  on  account  of  toe  oxp^pae  and  risk  of  brinj^ng 
n  frt>ra  lh*»  eiismt,  uttlt  p»(>d  tobeUkndc  by  stcmping  «irth.  In  milch* 
tho  samt?  way  nilro  was  extracted  aom  earth  and  gunpowder 
made.  When  Captain  Briggs  came  to  KhaDdeeh  in  181H,  he  found 
that  gunpowder  wiw  nmdv  in  ulnio«t  ovory  town  in  tho  diatn<H. 
When  the  district  wae  brought  to  order,  the  demand  for  gunpowddF 
oeasod  and  tho  workmen  bei'amo  limo-bumors.  Gunpowder  is  stitl 
made  is  small  quantitioH  for  fireworks  by  Kome  Mugalnulns.  Cuarm 
paper  QR«dto  bo  (1861>)  manofactared  at  Erandol  and  Yiival.'  The 
ruimi  of  ptiiier-niiikon^'  houwwareatillsiH'ii.uudaTory  §matl  qcuintity 
is  still  made.  Of  the  decny  i^f  tho  indigo  and  o{iiion  maimiacturea 
•omo  nctwunt  has  been  given  in  tho  chapter  on  Agriculture. 

Cloth  and  turban  wearers,  oil-oxtraotors,  hosbandnioti,  bangle* 
makers,  car]>enter8,  barbers,  potl^Tii,  goldimitha,  washermen, 
tailors,  dyers,  and  dt-sellers,  hare  caste  or^nisations  which, 
(o  somu  extent,  lake  the  place  of  craft  iriiilds.  Euoli  casto  has  a 
nnmher  of  Itsiding  men,  mahiijan*^  subii'rdtnate  U)  a  limd  luudor, 
chattdhri  mahdjan.  ilia  olKiw  is  hereditary,  and  in  all  matters 
coming  bcforo  him  Lo  coQ«ult»  men  of  iK'knowlud^ty]  reputation  in 
the  caate.  From  three  to  nix  members,  including  the  president, 
ehattd/iri  mahajan,  can  give  an  anthoritatiro  docision  affecting  the 
interciitit  of  the  whole  frutemity.  llieHe  decifiouH  relate  chieSr  to 
marriages,  re-maniagtin,  and  questiona  of  caste  rules.  They  have 
no  direct  connection  with  the  crafleman's  work,  except  eo  far  as  any 
special  line  of  condiiot  would  be  a  broitch  of  csMtu  rules.  Finos 
recoveriKl  &<om  defaulterfi  form  a  fund  from  which  caste  carpeta 
and  cooking  and  drinking  vessela  are  bought.  The  practice  of 
approntiut!0bip  prt^vails,  the  appr«ntico  getting  neithor  pay  nor 
allowaoces.  liilrikes  are  almost  unknown.  IVelre  years  ago  the 
barbers  atrack  and  succeeded  in  raising  their  wages  from  fd.  to  It''..*' 




>  Bom.  (iav.  M.  XCUI.  307.    Tha  p*p«t  ira*  Jafcrior  to  tUt  iuBiiui>ctUT«d  *t 


•  n.a-lSOO  A.D. 



The  oldest  Klitodeiiil)  I(>g(^»d»  bctoiii;  to  tW  hill  FnrU  of  ^qq)^ 
ttnd  Aairjrad.     Tbw  M^|iftbluLrat  meptjoiia  YuvaiiAsliya.  the  niif r  of 
•  TarafflSa^^  fi^'hTin^  with  tho  CfcndAVK,^  and  Asirgad  aa  &  pkcQ 
of  worship  of  Ashvuftliiima.*     Acwirdiug'  tn  local  Uaditiuu,  Asirgi  ' 
vra.H,  fi-oni  ttbout  1600  B.C.,  the  bead-quarters  of  a  Bajput  chief  wh< 
sncieatore  cam«  from  Ondh.* 

In  CMirly  time!*  KhAndi^Nli,  like  the  rrat  of  tlio  Deccan,  wan  probably 
ander   gr^at   vassals,   ma/iiifnai)(fttfe#/irars,   and    hewMlitary   land- 
holdors,  paligart,^  Betlltrtl  at  Asir^'ad  in  the  oaKt,  Pdtna  in  tbv  &outh 
NA.iik  in  tho  vf09l,  and  lialiiig  in  the  centre,  all  und<;r  thv  control 
the  orerlorda  of  Tagar  and  P&ithan.* 

The  rock  terfjjlw  of  PJlalkhora.  N^Jeik.  and  Ajanta  show  that  in 
the  second  and  first  ijeuturiea  before,  and  during-  tbo  fir^t  thrc« 
ceotiiriea  aftar  Christ,  KbAndceh  wsb  nnder  rulors  who  patroDioed 
Baddhitini.  aomo  of  whom  lived  at  Paitbau.^  Tb«  first  dynasiy  of 
whiofa  distinct  rooord  remains  are  the  Andhrabbrit yfc^  or  ShitaviUuma, 
whose  capital  wae  Dbanakat,  purlwips  Uluirniki.t  on  the  Krishna  in 
tho  Madras  diatrici  of  Unntur.*  Thu  diii«  ii(  ilitjir  riw)  to  poww  is 
uncertain.     According  to  tho  mout  recent  eatimatcH,  their  founder 




'  The  cibi«r  owunHitiona  te  thi*  ehaplar  m«  tbN«  p*jp«'*  on  K]iiiid«di  Uitw/, 
HMratdv  prepared  lij  Mr.  W.  Runiw,  C-S.,  Mr.  A.  CMw|n-Bo«v«r,  &&,  uid 
llr.  J.foU«n.C.S.  ' :^r  J.  aUouIn  ia TMm.  Kaj.&t.Soe.  L  78. 

■  AahTstthlaiii  is  (till  wnnibipii«d  kt  Aalrgsd.    CHiitnd  frovincf  (iui'tlotir.  9. 

'tinuil  DatI,  ISl     Tb*>  Cliohln*.  ninniw  other*,  cliuui  tn  htm  nilml  kn  Anr^ii  ia 

Cfaialoric  tinM*.  Tml'*  Anna)*,  II,  4W.  Kfalji4Mb  Mcmi  U  onii  tiioe  ta  hsvs 
I  tnclnilvJ  to  thacoonliyof  VijbtfUk,  whamuoM  ramaui*  in  Rnlu- which  tatj 
ha*«  tiMD  tko  Midont  o»pit«L  Ttdarbh  mu  aC  varimia  poriixU  «  lorritory  oE 
oonnidonibjo  •xtonL  and  uownr.  It  ii  monticiiiod  in  tli«  Rimiyui,  the  U*hitbli4rati 
and  tita  Ponltti.    H.  H.  WlUon'*  Worka,  ni.  Ifi«. 

*  lamva't  Iti()kMh«  Alt«itliiin)aknndc,  TV.  K7. 

*  Aa«wlr  <<*3S0  a<'.  Tacaria  aaid  (fl rant  Duff,  II)  tubsro  bonn  itnportaot  ononrii 
*  to  attract  Hnptiaa  morchaat^     Ita  ponitinn  Uan  not  fM  b«a  Sxad.     It  h»«  Ululy 

•(/oar.  BooiTBt.  Boj-.  At.  Soc  XIII.  V)  bMii  Ulimtifiad  with  Jntmarr  in  Pbona.  But 
Jnanar  data  not  agrM  with  the  acouiint  of  Tajcar,  Klrmby  tho  anihorot  th«  Perlnjiia 
(SIT  A.f.l,  whopLaoM  it  ton  dajii  eaat  u(  I'nttbaii  (*ee  McCrIii<ll<i'*  Pnrlpliia,  125^  120). 
OraatDaffa  pontioo  tHivtoir.  U)  ■  liltln  to  tbo  norlh-*Mt  <■(  the  nawim  town  of 
BhicMema  moat  prohahU.  The  rr^ark  in  tli*  pMriplu*  (McCrindle'a  cditioo,  ISS), 
MuitMMiywttoholwoa^tintaTagiir  ■  fnon  lhejiartoa)ongthaooa«t,'waTe*Dnt  ont^ 
wagoaa  to  Broach,  aeema  to  ahcw  that  Tagar  waa  In  ccmraunluatinn  with  the  Bay  it 
Bongal.  Pattbaa.thourittradilionaltyfouiuMbrSh&livihaniiiA.n.  Ttt.waaaplacoof 
noportanooMtartrBalha  tUid  ooatinry  Ka     B(Uu  Piji  tn  Jonr.  Bum.  Br.  Roj. 

'  Fbiguaoen  and  Barren'  Care  Temples,  lit.    The  oarlieal  oT  the  KhAndfah  ea' 
hraploa  ia  orobablj  one  at  Pilalkhora,  dated  about  150  jlC.    The  earlieat  Ajauta 
NiJk«a*MareabontlOOa.c     llitto.  lfi$  and  178. 

*  Traoa.  See.  Inter.  <:oi^t.  3t!X  The  auM  Andhiabhritxa  or  Aadhrii'  aqrraata  is 
•apyoaad  to  ihow  that  bef«ve  they  bMama  iadBpeodcot,  ibBj  were  lubjoot  to  tb» 
mynatagfia  of  PUaUpntra,  tho  roadora  Pitaa, 




Sliiprak,  SindxUt,  or  Shishnfc,  lived  before  the  cioeo  of  tho  Mrd 
^utury  B.C.'  Thi*  wmild  plin-w  Krislinw,  the  m-coml  of  ihe 
adhnib1irit,i|*il«,  vflio  is  lueuliiined  in  one  of  the  N^ik  eaves,  early 
^in  tin-  itecond  oeiiturr  before  Christ.  &  da(«  to  some  i'xt«nt  snpportvd 
by  the  old  forms  of  tht^  It-ttvni  used  in  the  cave  inscription.*  Th© 
^ADdbmbbrit.N*^  seem  to  have  continued  to  rale  in  Nfeik,*  till,  in  the 
utter  p&n  of  the  fir«t  wntnrj-  of  llio  ChHxtiau  era,  NiUuipdu,  a 
ikythion  or  Parlhiaii  oC  thu  S&b.  Satray.  or  KshaiiartHnWniU^ 
.  twrth  ludia,  drove  them  ^Rom^aMK  und  Kb^ndciib,  oau  also, 
it  would  eeem,  from  Piiithau.*  'lln-st'  Kilh  rulers,  originally 
Bobordinutv  ti>  »ime  overlord,  seem,  after  thou-  conquest  of  the  norta 
,  to  hare  mada  theuiKclftt  ini]e|HiDdeut,  and  ruling  fronl' 
wa,'  to  ha^  cliowtii  Nitfilc  an  (he  local  seat  of  goverunienl.* 

Tbrt  H^  kiii^  aeem  to  have  held  N&sik  and  Kb^ndesh  Cor 
ftbont  fom-  years  only,  whi-n,  lietwcon  121- and  18&.  Shitnkanu 
fGautaniiiml ni  n»Um-d  tlifc  Aiidbral'lirrtviU.  earning  the  title  of  tba 
•ticrtroyer  ol  hiiaks,  Yavana,  and  Palhavs.'     Aboot  forty  yeara  later 

■  BUn  lli}i  i4o»t.  nam.  Br.  l!oy.  A*.  Sw.  VII.  118  oaA  VIII.  210)  pLkc«  Sliinrftk 

ilfcofMrth  MDturybnIonCtirtat  iBtut^rlil  IndrAji  tJuur,  Ikmn.  Dr.  Kov.  Al  Soc 

nil.  310),  *houl  210  B.«. :  FnnMp  (Bu>yi  II.  Uacfal  T>)il«  H)  uid  BhimUrkv 

niiB.  8P?.  Inter.  Caag.  3s£)  ID  N.b  21  i  Wiiroril  (A*.  Um.  IX.  101).  betwwu  Ui« 

■tUHl  UiinlfOBtBrica  ;   uid  WibonlTliMt.  ninil.  I.  68).  u  Utcu  a.i>.  192.     TIm 

OSS  of   lite  ]imt  dklTcrisocc  m  the  Mtimnte  ol  ilstca  in  the  doubt  whatbM'  Iha 

fdTiiMrtla*auall<Micdlii  tbcFuTtii«M(oIkn>ingt)iuUMirrA*|315-n3B.c.),  nicotwltd 
Ot»»»DoUM3.  Ol  ru!«l  At  tbewmelutMiiLdiliDrgat  MrUu(  theooantxT. 
'  TMiu.  Sfc.  lotcT.  Cong.  3G0.     FtorgHMon  nod  Borgon'  Cbt«  TcmplM,  263,  2TS. 

*  N*jilk  Ckn  XIU.  hu  u  intoripticn  with  the  nune  of  Ae  grort  lUktiiiri  wIhm 
pDlwUadttoukboMt  SUn.c      FwgnNMa  uul  Bnigan' Ckt«  Tenplo^  163,  HH. 

*  Koithar  tlie  atitm'  oar  (be  dat«  of  the  ^np  king*  hu  faccD  nrtaialy  lUad. 
flf^vtuD  (Joar.  Bom.  Br.  Rnjr  As.  K<kl  J.X.  6)  tdouKht  tlify  ir<<rc  PArthiiui*,  and 
llAMB  (Ind.  Alt  IV.S3)  thought  that  lh*>b*l<>uiiiul  to  th*A|il"Unii*  trtW  of  Viwtolii, 
>  Ut*  (thy thuo  oonqneKar*  o(  lodikhi  IIih  nen^iid  vunlnry  bcfmsCbiial.  Thftt  tbcy  «er* 
Iter^Snen  Eton  tb«  aurth  ia  ihowii  tiy  tbo  Orock  motto  on  tbdr  omb*  (Jonr.  Bom.  Br. 
iJUiJ.  Am.  f^oe-  IX.  ti>.  Though  il  b  *till  nnccitun,  th«  fUh  Uav*  probably  lUtcd 
fbniu  tho  rtluk  cm  (78  ii.D.i.  >viUiuit<«l,at  IcMt  tD[9Di«nlt.  tlH  3£8  «.■>.  (Jour.  Bom, 

[  Kf.  Itov.  Ai.  (<«:.  VII.  28,  iinri  'IVtin*.    8m.  Intor.  Cong.    392-303).    Newton  IJoult.      . 

Ikno.  Bt.  Boy.  Ail  Imv.  L\.  T|  oaUa  that  the  iBicriptiona  nUtiiig  to  I\'kha|>iii  in  the 

Jf AiiV,  Kdili,  amt  JuiuiiU' oftvi-i  mabtuUi  nvo  |>ainta;  l.bcwu  riihor  a  li'ng  uraa 

I  oAocr  of  (onMi  iHMmiI  noiiiircfa  ;  '£,  liii  rule  wi  wu)o«fM«id,  inducing  much  of  tho 

ISmobh  I  3,  ho  ma*  totvigiwr.  fmiiixUy  a  Parthian  ;  4,  U*  danfbtct  hjul  a  fliTida 

r.BMM  and  w*«  iiu>rii*<l  to  a  KiihIu,  ttto  con  uf  a  fliiula  ;  i,  hia  daaghter,  loti'Ui'law, 

and  tnisiiiter  wrre  Bnddliuta. 

*  Their  cupital  oocbu  at  one  tiaw  to  kav*  bMD  a  town  aome  war  aontli  of  Vjaii^ 
Bcntioiied  ai  MioAiiaia  b.v  I'u.laniT  and  in  the  Poripliu,  bat  a'A  i^olifiod. 

*  Trma.  Sk.  Intur.  t.'«ng,    iM.'    From  Ntiik  and  othor  ova  insiTriptiniit,  tli«  8ih 
rnlna  Mwiii  to  luivc  btcii  voir  (nc  tii  tbdr  poata  botb  to  Brahtnana  and  Baddhiata,  * 
Tho  uaEKvtancv  of  Ihe.Nlaik  and  Ajanta  HMniaataMa  ha*  iaduied  CoL  Yulo  (lad/ 
AiA.  IV. St)S)lo|>Lu€)lha   Tabard,  Plokanjp'a  taoe  ol  M0«4i(a>  in   Khiudaah.     8m 
BwtiiM'  naltmy.  -Jia. 

'  tfrn-hnc.  Inter.  t:«nc.  311.  0■l■tamiplltra^i  date  itepand*  on  tha  dato  lixad  tor 
Ilia  baidaiAig  o^th«  Andhnclynaatr.     BUndirkar  {Tnat.  Sec.  IqIm.  Ooug.  311), 

'  fisBig  Uaba^BDiui  of  tht  Andhn  dyiiM^  at  a  Utile  bofon  tha  Chrialiaa  «r«  and 
OautHniMtn'a  date  at  3lff.  oiTei  th«  Slh  Ung^  of  Kialk  a  period  of  abntil  140  jaata. 
Hie  aridanea  from  tha  wriluiR  and  OTDamonI  in  tba  caeca  aia»i  eoafli«ling.  Tte 
alphabet  aaad  1^  UahaTuliu,  Uio  Hoond  iWih  ruler,  diffeia  rf>r;  alightly  flora  that  awd 
br  (iauUiiii[<]tra.  At  the  aann  line  ih«  pillar  capilala  fa  HahapUi  the  Ant  8th 
ruUr'a  >-.avo  |Xo.  Till.)  am  m>  arawh  battar  thaa  tboM  ia  tha  varandah  of 
{hotaaljiiitn'e  <*vo  (No.  III.),  thai  Oantanripalra'a  •ami  to  Mnuit  to  a  much  latar 

',  Mflod.  IFargnaton  and  Burgoaa' Cave  Templaa,  266).  ftolamT'a(lf>0)>Dantia«iof  Bti 
Kbnaioa  ai  r«Uii«  at  i^thaii,  *«  £*r  a*  it  goca,  anppuvt*  Um  liaw  that  Sih  raU  did 
■Mt  teat  over  forty  yean.  Sri  Colemku'  na«N  corfaapoadiag  with  Polimat,  {^luuavit, 
(«  Fuduouljn,  tike  aon  and  auccetMT  ol  0«itanl|nln. 


Early  Hindi 

ipter  TIL 




Rtfdrft  Diaaia,  n  Siih  king  of  Gujiir^l,  ftgwin   n-duood  tho  An^lir^ 

Kwer.  BOt  li  does  Dot  ai>pear  that  te  conquered  any  part  of  the 
icc&n.'  According  to  tDfl  Vivbnn  Pnran,  th«  restored  A ndlim- 
hliritydit  continued  to  rule  for  Diunty-Heven  yvarf  afti'r  iho  close  of 
Gautamiputra's  reign,  that  la,  accordintf  to  the  calculation  accepted 
•bore,  to  about  2w  a.d.  At  ibis  tim<^  Khiindegb  was  on  the  hieli* 
way  of  eomuifirce  bvtweeu  the  coast  trade  centro  of  Broach  and  Uie 
inland  marts  of  Paithan.  and  Tagar,  ten  days  to  the  east  of  PaitbaQ, 
till)  f^rontost  city  io  ilm  land.  The  goods  wore  carried  in  wagon*, 
and  tbuugh  much  of  tbe  country  was  wild  or  desert,  it  was  in  placea 
oxtromcly  popnlous.* 

Of  the  Bucccaaom  of  tlin  Andhratibrityd«  no  record  remains  on' 
early  in  the  fifth  century  (41  pj.  an  inscription  shows'tLat  Xa«ik  wi 
Kovcrni-d  liy  Virwcn  an  Aliir  kiijg.'  fhoiigli,  awonling  to  i. 
Purin*,  Abir  iuiiependence  lasted  only  sisty-seren  years,  the 
Ahirs  are  of  coDgidiTabk>  importance  in  Khandesh  history.  Their 
chiefs  for  long  boUl  ibn  lending  forts,*  und  thu  ]K;opl«  atill  form  one 
of  the  main  elements  in  its  population. 

In  th«  fifth,  or  early  in  tho  sixth  century,  a  Yavnn  dynasty,  the 
^'J'  '^ti**  er  VAkfitakatt.  nrobably  nnder  the  Guptfa.  stretching 

fr^j  lu  and  central  India,  held  parts  of  Kb&ndesh.     Thejr 

cea     I 


have  leit  thoir  rocord^in  »omo  ot  tb«  riohost  of  tho  Ajanta  cavew.' 


■  Jour.  Bon.  Br.  Itoy  Ab.  Soo,  XII,  203.  Bnrgca'  Arrbnolngiail  Snrver,  KAthiAvir 
ftnd  Cntvli,  131-13.1.  Sftli  |>owur  Uxtpd  ia  Gii;&tlt  loSM.  Iliat  la.  onlcuUlin^- on  Uie 
Sliak  (M.  U>  A.u.  32S  (Jour.  Bom.  Dr.  Roy.  A*  Son.  Vlt.  SS),  In  thv  OimAr  inn'rip- 
ti'iti  Rudn  Mmu  (ITS]  lUtra  thnt  thongb  he  twiov  cimqiicrvii  8bit>kKiii,  (roni 
tbcic  DdU-  tdatUtiuhip  he  diJ  oat  dcBtio;  iiim.     lad.  Ant.  Vli,  362, 

*  HcCnodl«'>  P<T<|>tii>.  1S5. 

*  Ttma*.  See.  Int«i.  Coug.  351.   It  «*&■  (omu'rijr  tbouohl  (Ktliot  iu  Jour.  Hoy,  At. 

IV.  4-7)  tbat  ihc  Ch.Unky^  b«]d  KhioJcdi  during  tli«fouHh  mitii^  |3M).     Uii« 
infonuBtion  iccmi  to  niaxn  tlu>  unlikely.     |S««  bvlov,  y.  341).     Coius  b^ve  (IS70) 
bfcn  (oond  nt  Nlaik  ■u[>iKaod  to  belong  to  the  end  ot  the  fuurtb  century  a.u,     .TIi< 
hins'e  lunie  hu  been  reiKl  Mliiia*  Nriim,  but  rothiii);  of  hiio  i*  koowti.     Bhla  IM. 
ia  Joui.  Bo«n.  Br.  Kny.  Aj.  .S>t^  IX.  vx.  and  eir. 

'  4hift  *"*  ■><■■■"">■>*  >■>  NJiiih,  ftiid  ill  Kbiixl«li  muij  irtlMn  oUmm  w* 
tw»  divialoD*,  *lmp1a  and  Abir.  Id  (onin  vUbM  tha  nrijtinal  Mitle 
to  hava  been  mppteincnted  by  a  complete  Ahir  ousunuitit)'.  Thi 
Abbira,  vlin  Arc  utilt  fouad  In  the  y<nth.Wo*t  Protincea,  BeiigoJ,  Oentral  India 
Mid  tliu  ('i^Dlral  PraTmece,  and  in  Dombiy.  in  Cul^b  and  KitkiAwir,  toem  to  hiTD 
oriuiiiHlly  b>Ioni[*d  to  tbe  north-wat  of  India  (Vivien  de  St.  Miutii).  Oeo);.  Gr«c. 
ct  Lalui  d*  rinde.SSOl.  In  Plalrmy'*  timo  (lAO)  their  cogniry  (AbiriaJ  waa  nppcff 
*  Sisd  (Hartiua*  Ma|i  X.];  a  hundred  ycara  later  1347)  they  wcra  in  lover  »ind 
4alW"l  trtini  .^nraatrenn  (MiH.'riudlo'a  I^iplui,  113)  i  and  acccirding  to  the  PuTlni 
)n'ar<r*  Hlndna,  IIL  490,  and  Wilforda  Aa.  Itca.  Vlll.  336).  their  coantry  lay 
liMwean  the  TCpUaud  DnvRail.  (!4m  Bird'*  Mititi-Ahmadi  8,  and  Eliiol'i  Itaoaa 
N.  \V.  P.,  L  3).  Of  the  origtu  and  aoalbsnTd  maTtmcDt  of  the  .^hin  there  n* 
two  tbeorioi :  that  they  are  □(  Skychlan  doaccnt  and  teprem-nt  tho  AbAn  who 
moqnerod  tbo  PanJ^tb  in  tbe  neoond  eeatxttj  belors  Chriit  tCunnlngham'a  .\r:h,  flep. 
II.  S3>3>1),  or  ibat  Ihoy  are  an  older  lodian  raee  who  were  diircn  ■oath  and  cait, 
b«(or*  and  ainaaa  the  diSerent  tribei  o(  Ind^Skythiau  inviidet*,  Oimpate  C«n(. 
Prov.  <ka.  IxiiL 

*  Jour.  Bom.  Br.  Roy.  Aa.  Soo.  VIII,  StS.  One  ot  IheM  kin«  daHncd  to  kar« 
eonqnored  BcIAri.  Sraial;  UJain.  JraxJi ;  Coromandel,  Haling ;  ChhMiigad,  Kotiat ; 
Jnanar,  Triiur ,-  Broa«h,  tdl ;  aiui  Tetingan.  AnMra,  CenC  Pror.tiai.  Iri  Tha 
^uiMof  th«kiDnaltieVikltak  <1yua*ty  an  Vindhyaaliakti  <400  A.i>.k  PrararMts 
I.,  Dmsco,  Rudraatn  I.,  Pritk*iMn,  Rndnuen  II..  IVavanata  II-  MD  ot  PrabhAvali 
QuMa,  danebter  of  the  great  kinj;  uf  kin;?  Sliri  Dev  Uapta,  j>«th«M  at  tbe  and  uf  th* 
filtb  ar  bc^uumig  ol  tho  Mxtb  oMtury.    FtfsuaWD  and  Bni^cM'  CaT*T«Bi|>lM,  30tt 

•l    «V»-i 




Towards  the  cloee  of  the  fifth  century,  th©  ChAJnltTfa.  un^r 
Piitakoshi  1.  (-189),  piisKinif  iwutfa  from  Gamnit.  conquered  tba  Deccan 
and  established  their  power  iu<  lur  mrutti  u»  Biul^mi  in  Kslfidffi.' 
Under  the  ChAlukyis,  probably  during  the  sixth  century,  were 
cut  tht-  hunilfiiinc  nick  loiupica  of  Ghak^tkach  near  Jinj^a,  nine 
miles  £n>n)  Ajanta.'  The  next  dyiiiisty  thiit.  hiw  l«*ft  (tocph  in 
KhAndesh  and  X^ik  wtks  a  race  of  Yidava  in  the  latter  pan  of  the 
eighth  i^Dtury.*  Thoeu  Yudavs  f^vg  placo  to  the  lUthods  or 
BAahtrakuUa  of  M^hed  near  Uiiidiintlmd,  wbot  conquering  the 
Deccan,  Konkan,  part  of  Gujar&l,  and  Central  India  up  to  the 
Vindhyw,  reniaiiiud  in  powor  till  overthrown  by  the  Ch^lnkys 
Taitapa  about  970.*  Of  the  ninth  and  tcuAi  couluriex,  lite  only  ■ 
relics  are  two  small  Jain  excaTationa  to  the  east  of  PAtna  near 
Cliolisgaon,^  and  perhapM  »omv  of  thu  Jain  cares  ut  Ankai  new 

Of  the  lowd  rhif fa  who  at  this  time  (80O-120O)  rated  KhSndesb, 
the    nv^ord    of    two     Faniilies,    the     T6k»    of    Asirgad    and    the/^   i 
Nikumbharanahfa  of  P&tna  pyr  pl|lrtffjjffl^B5i]5iii-r     From  iho(^/ 
bepinnin^  of  the  ninth  to  the  close  of  the  twelflh  century,  Aairsad       ' 
in  AAiA  t(i  liiLVf-  boun  Ik^UI  by  u  fAiixiu:*  fninlly  of  Tiik  Ititjpiit«.*     The 
standard  bearers,  Tiks  of  Aair^fad,  are  several  times   mentioned  by 
the  pout  Chand  a«  li^'httng  Cor  Cbitor  against   Musalm&n  invaders/ /I  i 
lo  the  itouth,  tho  Nikuml)l|yTmnh|fci  frf  Piltnn-  fmm   lOOO  to  12\6,[vf\.' 
rtded  IttOO  Khitndosb  villages.     Thev  would  seem  to   have   been  \ 
worKhip]H>rs   of   Shir,  and   one  of  tuom,   Sonhadadev    (1246),   is 
Diontioned  as  endowing  u  college  with  money  and  land  for  the  stndy 
of  (he  astronomer   Uh&skarAchirya's  works.      Fi-ohi   the  epithelM 
'  devote^  to  his  master ,'    '  strongly  devoted  to  his  suzerain,'  lbs 
dynastyf^'  would   «eem    Ut    have    been  subordinat<!  to  nomo   great 
power,  probably  at  first   the   ChAlnkyils,  and  in  tfie  twelfth   and 
lhirtw>nth  eenlurioB,   tho  Y^jdava  of   Devgiri.'    Tho  Join  caves  of 
^Ij^U^r  near  N'tsiimpur  and  ot  ^koLneiir  Mnnmrid,  and  I  he  Brahman 
cares   of    PAtna  nea>   ChAUsgaon,   probably   date   from  tlie  time 

306.  AnuthfT  inKTipUm  (AjiUlU  C>v«  XVI.)  niMitioui  *oae  nhiafii  jf  Ayhmftt  of 
vhoMiaalhi*}!!* known.  'k'Utj  an  EtluitsrMrtni.Hsri  t<*cnbatiit*<)ii.,  K«faftip4l Swari 
Bamln  hia  K>n>  Upanilngupta,  *nd  SkiK'lu  bii  *un.  Fnipunuu  ■tiil  Burgcn*  Otra 

■  tuivo'*  IfidiMbx  AltcrtbunukuHdH.  IV.  (H) ;  Hrat  In  Ind  AnL  VU.  S47.  It  »u 
fonnprly  Uimiglit  (hat  lli'.i  brknch  of  tbe  CbAIiikyiu  wu  vatAlillnlioil  la  tlm  Diircan  in 
Ui«  founli  caolary  HH,  Elliot  in  Jour.  B.  A.  ^w.  JV.  4.7),  and  liad  in  tlm  fttib 
ODDtury  (i>roMl  iti  sat  norlJi  to  OujiTtt,  aad  wm  j47:!|  in  jiuMOMtiui  of  Bm«cli  (Inil. , 
Ant.  VI  1831.  Bui  th«  Utnt  ojntuon,  Ur.  FUatV,  U  tlut  th«  Onjarit  Cliilliikyl>« 
«(  th«ti(lh  o'Uliiry  Hers  tlivn  un  their  my  wiuUi,  and  diil  ikot  nnter  tha  Ptcc«D  till 
Utrj  »(rr  M  by  f'lloliaihi  I   (4S9).    Ind.  AnL  Vlll.  12. 

*  Fctigumun  Hiitl  ButvcM*  Cfv^  Tifiiii>)f .  Mfl-MT. 
'  I  aiTT It'll  luditohu  AlUrt^raoBknnda,  IV.  190. 

•  lod.  Aal.  VI.  60.  •  rorsanon  and  Sargw*'  Oav«  Tcnpla*,  492-493. 
'  Cantnil  Pf '•iuc  Ca»tiM«,  377. 

'  To<l'i  Kft)«thua  (Kd  IS73),  1. 05~0e.  Tfma  TUu,  vho  luTa  dia*»ncan>d  iu  modara 
UlMa,  are  bcbcvMl  by  Tod  to  haT«  bo«n  Um  boada  of  a  mat  SkTHiian  mva«OD 
wliidi  *w«pt  over  fodia  about  600  &&  Oa  iko  oroaiul  that  boUi  Taktlutk  and  Sig 
NiMn  nako.  Tod  would  kUotily  tke  T*k*  with  the  Nig  tribM.   Ditto.  T.  411. 

'  Thu  pedignw  ia  :  Kriihuiu-iis  L  tail""'  lOOU).  Govan  I.,  Goiindnlja,  Qoran 
U..  KrlibnariH  IL,  Indmija  luinnipd  Shridnvi  •>(  the  Sagar  race,  ivgont  afler  hia 
ilMtb  1153|,  doi-au  IlL,  Sunhadwlev,  )lMna'Ii<l«v  (l^lli-  12IT1.    ti^  Ant.  VOl.  3«L 

•i<rut.  Roy.  A».  Soc.  I-  411  ;  Ind,  Aiil.  VIII.  39. 

=£ :^^^£l=: 

IBoBibHj  0*Mtt 


aiapter  Vn. 

Ruly  Htoaiu, 


Q%  this  dfoiuty.     Aft«r  the  hi)  (1216)  of  the  Kikonit>hartin«IiJ 
Kliiiiidtwh  wm  {n-filMiiily  amlcrnn  olSiMM' of  Uk>  YhHuvm  of   Devgrti 
by  whom  most  of  tb«  old   temples,  uoudi>,  luid  wells,  known 
Hi'niiidpmili  or  cf  Gauli  Tiaj,  wc»r«   biiiit.'     At  Afiir,  proljaltlv  in 
beginutDg  of  lUt  tliirttt^mh  i-cntHry,  llic  Tiik«  v,vro  driven  out, 
their  place  takeu  by  CholiuPB.  who,  accordiug  u>  tiadiliOD,  came  i 
Kh&ndeHh  from  Gulkutida.*_ 

TowiirdH  Ibo  oliii'ti  of  l\\v  thirieonth  century  fl2ff5),   AU-od-' 

Khiiji,  the  ue]>hew  of  the  Delhi  Emperor,  suddenly  appeunnf;  b«f<   

uovgiri  dufuntfd  Rjim  Dcv,  the  ^  udnv  rnlor,  and  (on.-ed  him  to 
pay  tribute.  Khaiidegh  wiw  n(  tluit  lime  held  by  a  chief  styled 
*  the  Itttjiv  of  Khandfsh  who  would  seem  bo  have  been  theX^li<  ijiiti 
nilur  0?  Awirtfitd."  Avcurding  to  one  atvotinl,  on  hia  way  back  to 
Ihtltii,  Ald-nd-din  orerran  Khindesh,  taking  AsirRsd  and  dratroying 
kU  the  ineiidifni  of  the  chief's  family  vxcvpt  <ino.*  'lliia  iuvaRi^.n 
was  little  more  than  a  paA.tiufc  raid.  For  Home  years  no  Musalmrin 
tfXwpH  vmrv  i-turioned  in  the  Decicau,  and  no  trihut*'  wo!»  r^v.ivcn'd 
from  Htim  IJev.  !n  1806.  when  limdy  estahlixhed  at  Delhi,  Alii>ud- 
din  sent  his  jreneral,  Malik  Kiifiir,  to  re. impose  his  tribute  on  Ham 
Dcv,  and  to  von']uer  the  other  kin|fs  of  the  south.  Malik  Kiifur 
•  stopped  for  wome  time  in  8ult(>upur.  But  making  no  impressiou  on 
the  local  chiefs,  he  determined  to  march  on,  and  atrengtheued  by  a 
force  from  Gnjariit,  advanced  against  Devf^ri.  Unable  to  resist  the 
Mnaalmdn  aniiv,  lijim  Dev  nulniiilted.  He  wm  taken  to  Delhi, 
reooived  into  hi^h  favour,  and  on  doin^  homage,  w«a  itivestod  with 
the  governiiient  of  a  larfjer  len'itory  tluin  he  formerly  held.'  For 
the  next  four  years  Itam  l>ev,  paying  a  yearly  tribute  to  Dvlhi, 
coniiiiiti'd  to  govern  in  peace.  In  131*2,  his  son  SImnkal  Dev, 
withholding  hiit  tribute,  wait  dfifuatvd  uud  slaiu,  and  bevgad 
the  centre  of  Ulnsalm^n  rule.' 

In  the  disorders  that  followed  Ahl-nd<din's  dcatli  (1316) 
Marnt,hi'i.<i  revolted.     The  revolt  was  put  down  in  1318,  and  )f  tuiailHi 

5owor  r^.^tabliHhed.'  Two  year  hiter  ( 1 820),  on  the  murder  of 
Tul>nrik  Kbilji,  the  Mardthas  again  threw  off  their  tUlegianco. 
Gheias-ud-di»'s  ftml  attempt  (1.322)  to  bring  the  country  to  order 
failivl.  A  second  expedition  (lUi23)waa  more  ancvi-Ksfal,  and  under 
Muhammad  Tughltkx  (]32.*>.  1351)  strong  rule,  the  Deccan  was 
thoroughly  subduod.*  In  1338,  the  revolt  of  his  nephew  Kur^hasip 
brought  the  Emperor  to  Devgad,  and  its  position  and  tureugrh  ao 


'  HcmMpMll,  their  bnitilvr,  «u  embalily  the  minuter  of  Ualidder  (liMO-l' 
tbe  fonitii  nl  thv  Yh^Iat*  of  Dav^in  lUur^w  ia  Iml.  Aot.  VI.  360).  The  ) 
tnvJitional  i(lmttHcat>"B  OS  Ui4  Yiilim  willi  tlic  Gaali  Riijte  or  dMptiMil  Vxa^ 
woul'l  tiHiiii  to  tliDW  tbal,  aa  wiui  the  caso  in  KilliiAinlr.  the  YAdvM  aail  Alun 
wcrs  vmj  oliiwljr  connm'tnl.  Sonw  of  tli«  nuuninB  liKall)'  known  >*  HhoAi}- 
pnnli,  th«  n<ak-li*wii  ratun-oir  in  Soxdr  fort,  tlio  waUi  of  Tanwall  fort,  sod  ttia 
r  Tunioinil  Uko  Atimt*  *l*o  (ud  iu  Iw  lli«  trorit  of  tha  i>uiit  GorakluMtfc,  arc  prgl>aUjr    , 

tDiKii  uI'Ut  llisii  III*  Yiitilni.     iMslivlou',  'HDwiilianti.'  ^m 

^  •  Tod'K  Ai.uj.lii.  II.  111.  *  lirigg.  FerialiU.  L  307, 300.  ^H 

*  i'qtiird  I'ri>TiDi«  Oajwtbiw,  9  and  377.  ^^ 

*  Ktiu  ttev'a  ii>ir  teinliiry  iMnai  to  hava  inttudad tlw  ooMt  dialrictcf  HiLim  anit 
Buret  u  Ux  iioTtlt  aa  tli«  T4ut),  ulueh  had  (ontxrlv  bsca  poll  ii(  Ouj»t*t.  Sm 
ericgi-  ftvi-liU,  I.  36».         •  ftrign-  Fehahta,  L  ITS.      '  BeiK*'  Cambta,  1.  389l 




it  lh«  captlAl   of  ^^tn 

Be<i  liiin   cbiU   liu   dotormioed   to  mako 
apii*.'     Itiit     tbe    (linorilcrs    cnuu-d    by 
prcvfutod  the  scheme  from  auccecding. 

A  f©«  yearn  later  {13+7)  Devgiri  was  seirpd  by  the  rcbct  noblcn, 
and  finally  (IS.'d)  puMNsl  into  the  himcJK  of  Uaaan  (>ati|fu,  the 
fonnd'-T  of  the  '^^iSjU^'  dynasty,  lender  Muhammad  'I'uifhlilc'H 
govfirtimcnt,  Kh^nOMUwaa  portof  tbe  charpp  of  mi  ofti<rr  stotitmi'd 
at  KlujyjuuaJjurir.'  On  the  revull  of  the  IJi'i-nia  uoblefl  in 
134C,  Imid-ul-MulK.  jyvgnior  "f  j^'''''^''  "^fd  KhApdoah,  abandoned 
^%i)t  prr*vmce  and  retifea  to  Naadnrb^r  (lien  in  Unjartt.*  Th«  Bohu- 
offlwTft  joini-d  thi)  iDsurfienG'^n^i^JH^fWlr^Fas  in  the  end 
iuccessful,  and  c)ie  indciwndciHce  of  tlio  ilalunaai  kings  ws8' 
acknowledged  (I3A1),  no  pari  of  Ebindeeh,  except  llio  wniitprn 
diatrjctii  of  Nandnrbfa-  ana  Snlt^npiir.  romaincd  niiiU-r  tho  Delhi 
kingR.  'Wa  pi)wpr"'or  ilJo  flahTiiiinH,"'lli'MijfE'  ita^liniifs  afeTiot 
clearly  laid  down,  Roomn  to  hwvi-  ini,'iudi>ii,  in  the  weai^  Ahoiodwigar 
and  noatb  Ndsik.  and  in  the  pftst^mvt  of  Uer^r.  B^-lvrtH-n  tiu-SL-  two 
points  bahoiam.fttlT   di^^at.^pipm  ty-,Jigyo   pe^tf'cd  _north  of  _the 


1399  •ITM 


to  lave  been  a 

a   line  of  indepenrt 
The  cast  waa  nnder 

Iba  wegt  w»a  io  tbe  banda  of  tho 
Thua  nrMttenreinainen 

Ilia  iTiert*  wonTJ  socm 
fs  at  Odlnn,  A  »tur,  and 
■■  tirfuf  JHS^j^  fljief,  and 

1^!  ilu^iln. 


given  to  tbo  Empror  Peros  TnehRI 

the  dintricta  of 

Frontie r,  were  ^rant 

liigh   family.*     H^talili.tiiinii'   inmseT 

i,  in  lyirard  for  timely  Vilp 
ID   a  Gnjar^t  hunting   party, 
^  on   the   OujarAt-Kbandesh 
Ftoiki,  a  yonng  Arab   of 
in  nTrTmal!    dixtriot,  Malik 



1370- ISsi 

ijii  wont  ttjniinst  RAja  Bharji  the  Bdjjl&p  obit;f.  luid  forcing  him  to 
pay  yearly  trib;itr  In  Delhi,  wiil  thr  Kii"|ieri>r  noino  clg phant,«  covorod 
with  goId-<?mbriiidt!red  vtilvel  housings  and  sovt-ral  winud-liioda  of 
Khnnde»b  muslins  and  other  maniiftirtoros.  in  reward  Malik, 
wttk  th(>  tillo  of  Khiindo«h  Cominandvr-in-Cbief,  ^i/miA  taltir,  wan 
ntised  to  the  command  of  8000  horse.  Ue  wwi  »oo6  able  to 
mutter  1 2, (K)0  cavalry,  and  his  dowot  was  foil,  and  liis  friendship 
aougbt,  aa  far jeftWt^* jBurit^faandla  in  the  Ontral  Provinces. 
Before  SErtP^BjPiP^ra^TRettfale  of  KhSndosh  was  very 
wretched.  For  years  without  any  reffulargoveniiiienl,  it  had  lately 
been  vi^iu?*!  by  a  (amino,  so  seven',  thai  nol  more  than  two  or  Ihree 
thonsand  BWUnnrl  Kolis  Mm-ivcd.  The  only  proii[»Trous  part  of 
thn  district  ■.';.-  \.<  u-  Asirgad.  whore  Asa,  a  rich  Ahir,  had  during^ 
the  fitminii  ivi  diTTPopIorrom  bis  gniin  atort-s  and  bnilt  many 
great  work:),  among  tliom  the  walU  of  Aairgnd  fort.' 

'  Origin'  P^mfcl..  1.119.       •  BrigK"*  F«rt»lilfl,  IL  287.      •  iWgw'  FanikU,  IV.  *87. 

•  BrijiijV  JVntlii^  IV.  201.393.  Crmt  Ttaff  |MMitli»  ITUtiwy.  SSf  yiutx* 
Mal'Anwiij  ill  ihii  Darlh  of  tlm  Ehhiiixtl  JlfttiUiiiiMu,  (otncwboro  iiBftr  DIioiIr  in 
KhURISC     F*ri()ita'B  (Brigg^  H'.  :ii'.>i  l||U|[a|j|L  mmu  to  l)«  tlm  tract  bttwocn 

"  rJi.».l.iig  fo  TPoriifit.  iBrics^lV.  2M)  th*  tamity  cUiaod  do«oiH  from  th« 
K  -.Upti  i;nur  I^Arok.  Hu  f»t£w  Chaad  Jehiu  wm  >  niiawtor  a<  AU-ad.iiui 
Kl:ilii'»  cniut. 

'  Hilittpi'  PeriAK  IV.  287  i  Olndwin'i  Xi«.i.Akl««ri.  II-  M  ForithU  moiitwo. 
(Pat^jw  iHlilioD)  that  wImd  Firm  lUrUk  w  Tugblik  (IUI-1386)  ImuiI  oi  Am* 

[Bombay  Qiuett«er, 



»pt«r  VIL 


j\.ft«r  tbo  deolb  of  Firoz  Tu^hlik,  Malik   R&ja'a  uuportanoe  wad 
(1^90)  ittcreased  b;  lite   marriage  of  his  son,  Mitlik  Nasir,  to  Um 
dau^htor  of  DilAvar  KhtUi   ihe  iadupoDiluiit  ruI«;r_ofMiilwn.     800; 
aftur  (l3M)i    '(uatTulIin^    willi    MiniiifiiJ'  Sli^b     wlio   had   latel 
diK-tai*d    hiiUM'lf     imiopendeui     ia    Gujarat,  Malik    Raja  iriTaJf" 
b^jjk^jywrandNjuiiiiuJj^r.     Adviuicinff  oy  forced  mwrcbrs,  Miiwifn 
doft-ak-d  hini,  drowliim  back  on  Thjlliior,  and  laid  si«g«  to  lUa  fort, 
lluiu^h,  iw  bii  V.IU*    uQxiuus   to  be   on  friendly    terms  with  him, 
be  did  not  farther  press  his  advantage.     During  tho  n,'iii»iQiiij 
Bixypsra  ofhis  riilv  (l394>1399),MiUik  lUja  made  no  frexh  attac! 
on  (iujanSt  territory.     The  rest  of  hia  life  was  syeni   in   prorootin, 
, architect ure    and    imiiJ^Yin^  ajn^culture.'      Malik's  spiritaa)  giiido 
and  bMctii-r,  SWikh  Ztiiii^iid-ilin  of  DuiilntitWl,  protttiitt-d  hiui  with 
a  robe, '  the  garb  of  desire  and  asRect,'  and  tliia,  so  long  as  the 
dynasty  lastoa  (I37O-I0OO),  waa  carefully  bunded  from  rulor  to 
ruliir.     Before    his   death,    Malik     R«ija    invwlcd    bin   older  son 
Malik  Nasir   with   this  aacrcKl  robe.     Of  his   two  chief  forta    he 
beqnenthed  [.aling  to  his  elder  son,  and  "Qiahier  to  ilalik  Iflikhiln, 
ttio  youn^-r  brol  hor.     Ho  died  in  I39y  (ApnlSo),  and  was  burii 
a  haudnxniti  uiinb  at  thu  town  of  ThiUner. 




father,  and  had   in   luany  ways   helped   to   estabUsh   hia   power. 
Writing  to  Am,  Malik  NiMir  voinplninvd    that  ho   wtw   hi   f^at 
atraits.     'Hie  chiefs  of  B^^aa^AatvinagdJ^ghrla*  were,  he  eaid, 
riainf;  a^iust  him,  and  Lalmfrjiisonly  Ibnms  unsafo.    Hn  prayod 
Asa  to  (nki!  charge  of  h  11^  family,     A»b  B|^w(d,   and  shortly   after 
2U0  covered  littora  wert?  bmupbt  into  Aairgiul.     The  women  weral 
well  received  and  visited  by  Asa's  wife.     Next  day,  another  trooprl 
of  Iitt«r8  arriTod;    Asa  and   his  sons  went  to  meet   th^m ;  buti 
instead    of  women,   armed   mvn   rushed  out   and   alow   tho  chtetJ 
and  all  hia   sons.     Ijoaminiar  of  thv   success  of  bis   achcmc,    Malik 
Ka»ir  came  to  Asir^d,  and  stren^lhening  its  defences,  made  it 
bin  head-qnarters.     Shortly  aflw,  Snejkh  Zoia-nd-dio.  tbp  itpiritual 
gaide  of  the    family,    camo  to  congratulate  Malik   Na^ir  on  hia 
BiicctMts.     At  bi«  advioe,  two  cities  were  built  on  the  Titpti,  onu  on 
the  east  bank  callud  nftvr  h J m Kel f  Zf i iia Im^ ,  tho  other,  afterwards 
the  capital,  on  the  we-it  called  BurhAiipiir  after  Sbeikh  Burhtln- 
■  nd-din   of  Daulatabad.     A  few  years   latEir   (1417),  Malik   Ntuir, 
"jealous   of  his^yonngcr  brolhor,  with  tho  help  of  the   Sulliii  of 
"        and  kept  hia   brother  pri»*iner  in  Asirgadn 
>uItAn  of  &1dlwa,  Malik  Nasir  uiodA  a  joint  at  tack j 

Mftlwa,  took 
llion,  with  tJio 

V««llb,  h*  vn>l«  to  the  oortimtfT  tit  KIiAnilMb  raprimanduig  lii&i  (or  aUowtDg  nob 
pomr  la  >prinj(  np  uIom  to  him. 

'  Daitng  tL»  tarav  last  y«u«  of  Malik'*  rviga  muI  ttir  Bnit  nioa  T«v>  «(  hi* 
mOotMor*))  tba  tMiiuiu  Duryrhteri  fsniinr  Uiil  tb«  D«coMi  waitp.  iSm)  GtKal  DalTi 
HMtoty,  !!6).  Nosijvoiiil  r^fnnw  to  tJio  (utTcrinBt  m  Kh&nilrah  hiu  b^Hn  tnMd. 
'.  MMnu  prubabtv  that  tbiiina  tb«  EkmiDS   wfaich  ForUhW  pU««il   tbiity  yam 


'  Kfbria  U  in  iMol  in  tbs  Centnl  rrovioow, 




on  SuHrtnpur.  Ahmad  I.  of  Qajar^t  took  axHre  roeasuraa  to  m^t 
ilietn,:iitci  Malik  Xiuiir,  womtcd  bv  tliu  Gujarfit  gcnornl,  was-redncied 
to  «xtreaie  distress.  Retiring  mt«  TbiUaer,  ha  tiiitdti  ovcrtiinjs 
to  Ahinad's  ministfirs  with  such  huccobs  that  his  presents  were 
ftC«'pt«<i,  and  with  the  titlu  uf  Kh4n,  h«  nx'civod  tlie  whitd  canopy 
and  HCftriet  pavilion  of  tin  independent  rnler.'  Some  jwirn  l«tcr 
Mnlik  N'asir  aiorried  his  dauj^hter  to  the  son  of  Ahmud  Shilh 
Buhnintii.  and  iog^-thfp  thpy  inado  an  attack  on  Gnjarst.  This,  like 
pr<-viou»  atu>nipt,    failed.     Home    time    aft«ri  ui^d   by    his 



Viaa-  1T60. 

ItoU  Natir, 

ditu^ii tor's  complaints  of  her  bushond'a  condnct,  and  incited  by  tlte 
Gujnrdt  kiup,  Niisir  KhiJn  iggadod  tho  Bahmani  tvrritory  (1437).  At 
first  be  n»»  mil  iixtly  eucfcsafnl  nad  had  the  pin;]ic  pmycrs  read  in  his, 
name,  'i'hen  foi-tune  changed.  Na^ir  Khan  wa»  defeated  by  the 
Bfthmani  ffenera!,  and  unable  to  rally  his  troops  Uurhfinpur  waa 
fatkyn  ami  w^kwl,  and  after  another  dufrnt  ho  was  (tlint  ap  in  lAliOg 
and  (lied  thtre  of  vexnliou  iu  1437. 

Mir&n  Adij  Kltto  ( 1437  - 1441 ),  bis  son  and  succeeaor,  with  the  help 
of  a  Gujarat  anny,  forced  the  Dcccan  goacral  to  miae  the  aiege  of 
1^1  in^  and  rutire.  After  a  reign  "f  about  four  years  ho  waa 
aHNiMHiimted  at  BuHnitipur.     HiasonandfliicceHSor,  Minin  Mubiln'k.ft 

aoiet  king,  after  a  peaceful  and  nnoventfnl  reicu  of  seventeen  ye*rs, 
iediu  1  (t>7.  Minio'esiicoesstirwait  hitt  i>oo  Adil  Khan,  who,durin{f 
n  long  reign  of  forty-six  joars  (I-157-l.'>03),  (freiitiy  iucrt^ii^^od  tbo 
aO«ni;rth  and  prosperity  of  hia  kingdom.  lie  npread  hia  power  over 
the  neighbouring  chiefs,  forced  Gondvan  aud  Garha  Maudla  to 
BcknowlfdRo  hia  snpnfmBcy,  and  clc«TOmmTJfnR!S(!r^f  Bhil 
and  Koli  nil)lK<r«.  Ue  strengthened  ABirgiul,  forti(yi:ig  the  strong 
outwork  of  Malftigad,  built  the  citaael  of  Burbiinpnr,  and 
raised  mnuy  handsome  pnlaOM.  Amnming  Uio  title  of  Forest  King, 
£)7tiiA-t-/A<ii'it!)>i/£,  he  withheld  tribute  from  Gujardt,  and  doclarod 
that  he  owed  its  moimrch  no  allegiance.  His  pride  brought  on  him 
the  strength  of  Mahmmi  ^'"/*J  l^i^'ydw  (1459-1511),  tho  gr(.<«tost 
of  the  Gujarat  kmgs,  who  [^tV'Si),  ilriving  the  Khiindejih  anny  beforo 
him,  laid  wanto  the  country,  besieged  Thiilner  and  Aairgad,  and  did 
not  wilhdraw  till  all  tribute  arrears  hud  t>Pen  pai<l.  ihroo  yeara 
later  Adil  Khan  died  and  wn«  buHi'd  in  Iturhiinpur  near  the  pahico 
(if  the  l>«ttlat  Maidiin.  Adil  Khan's  suoceasor  was  his  brolhin- 
D&ud.  During  his  reign  of  eight  years  (1603-1510),  DAad  planned 
an  attack  on  some  frontier  Ahmedoagar  bnwiui.  Bofom  Ins  piiin  wu 
oarriftd  ont,  the  Ahmcdnagar  king  marched  (1507)  into  Khittido»h, 
and  IMud,  forced  to  retire  into  Aeirgad,  waa  relieved  by  the  king"* 
of  Malwa  only  on  agreeing  to  acknowledge  hiro  n«  hia  overlord. 
Obit«!>i  Khiiii,  Oiiud'K  .■>on  and  successor,  was  murdered  by  ono  of  t]ie 
U'lTiliwa  few  days  after  he  had  boon  chosen  ruler.  The  sucoeasion 
was  now  disputed  between  Alain  Khan  who  was  supported  by  the 
Ahmcdnagar  king,  and  Adil  Kh^nwho  waa  supportt^^d  by  .Mnhmnd  (  j 
Bcgada  of  Oujanit.  By  the  efforts  of  Mahmud  Begada,  who  advanced 
into    Khinde«h,   and   gave  him  his  gmnd-daughtor   in   marriage 

>  migtii'  Famhta.  IV.  m.    Aiwohllaii  to  Abiil  ful  (Aia-i-AktAri.  U.  C7I,  Hm 
giuit  olwU  titio  wa*  the  otigia  of  tli«  ii>m«  KhAndMh, 

Mirdn  ilmUrS 

AM  KMn, 


tsos-isio.  ' 


TfiombBy  Gutt' 



i'jsti  iTua 

ftud  a  fium  of  £20,000  (Rh.  2,00,000),  Adil  Efaftn  IL  was  efitablts' 
ncBurh^Dpur.  Though  threatened  by  si'veral  coii»i)ir8icip9,  by  his 
own  rigour  and  by  tho  hvlp  of  Muulfar  II.  of  Unjariit,  Adil 
Khiin  tnnintnim'^  h\*  pii«r«r,  and  w»s  able  to  levy  tribulo  from 
the  (i^iiia  ciiii-f.  a  tributary  ot  AbnM^^lnagar.  Afl*r  serving  with 
(tifUuctiou  iu  the  Malwa  L-ainpnigii  andvr  his  fathrr-iu-luw  Uu^fitr 
Shah,  ho  died  ill  i:i20. 




lukmumad  H., 

Adil  Khiin  li.'i*  successor  was  bis  son  Mir&o  Muhammad  Kbjn 
{1620-iri3&).  Joininpf  with  the  BcrJIr  king,  the^  lOTgllt  against, 
but  were  defeated  by  BiirliAii  Xizilm  of  Aliim^niigiir  {).^26). 
Babfeiur  Shiih  of  Oujar&t   Ilien   c»m*>  to  their  aid,   and  adTaucin 

» together  into  AbmecfiugM',  they  mH  with  no  niinstAnco  ani 
Bahfidor's  guprenmoy  wm»  i»dmilled.  Kight  years  later  (U>3.1),  Mi 
Vftut  with  BfthiSdurduringhiBde^t  hv  thgEjjjDgjgjt^jjiyjjiiu,  who 
but  for  hia  sudden  recall  to  inoet  Bhir1sEnti^TiimHYui^-ould  ha 
ovvrrun  Khdndosh  tm  wd]  na  Gnjantt.  A  JU-r  HumiiyunV  withdraw. 
UiMn  aid(.>d  Bahiidar  Sh^  in  drisnitt;  his  oniemrt  outof  MiUwa.  ITo 
was  with  the  QuiarSt  army,  when  (Ib'-ib)  the  news  came  of  Bahadur's 
death  at  Diu,  and  was  chosen  his  sucetwHor  and  crowncJ  nt  M^nd 
bat  viokentng  in)mi?<ii.itoly  uftor,  he  digl.  within  nix  wenltn,  Wfu 
reachiug  GujnrAt  (-ith  May  15!}<>).  Mir^n's  successor  was  hk 
brother  Mubdi-ik.  At  tba  request  of  the  Gujarat  nobles,  be  ga 
up  Muhammad,  ncm  of  Lntif  Kb&n,  the  broUior  of  Bahadur  Hb'iib,  w 
was  token  to  Giijanit  und  crowned  {1&30).  A  party  of  Oujard' 
nobles  favouring  Mnbitrik'x  claim,  be  ndvaneod  into  Gujardt  to 
inpport  it.  and  ibcnigh  drftiiit-d,  gained  the  Taluafale  cesaioii  of  J. 
dytricLs  ijI  S[iliiliut(|i-  and  XyidurMr.  In  l-5i>l,  a  Moghal  cbi 
Pit-  Ikfutiatnmad  Khttn,  peGsing  through  Mnlwn,  entvrod  Kh^ndc^ 
and  with  the  gronteet  cruiOty,  Uid  wnxto  the  country  and  sitck 
Burbdnpur.*  As  the  &[cybals  withdrew,  heavy  with  eipoil  ai 
debnuchcry,  they  wore  surprised  by  Mubdnk  on  the  Narbada  banks, 
and  defeated  with  great  low.*  After  a  ruign  of  thirty-two  years 
Mnl>4i-ik  died  in  150C. 

Miibiirik's  enoceasor,  bis  son  Uirdn  Muhflmmad  JT.  (1566>lfi7i 
was  in  the  first  year  attacked  from  Oiijurat-     Bat  with  tbo  help 
the  Berir  chief  tlie  Guiarit  commander  was  defeated  and  (orcca 
fly.  I^earniog  that  a  party  of  tbo  Gujtudt  nobles  favoured  bis  ctaimi 
to  the   (inisrAt  crown,  Miriin  atlvanoed  towards  Ahrnedjibnd.     But' 
mcctinp  with  n  seriouH  defeat,  he  waa  forced    to    retira    to    Afiirgiid 

^  with  the  lo«a  of  bin  elephants,  artillery,  and  royal  eqnipage.  Shortly 
afler,  Kh&ndesh  wa»  overrun  by  the  h\xr/-Af,  the  eousias  ot  the 
Emperor  Akbnr,  who  l»id  it  waate  and  left  betore  a  force  could  b« 
brought  ngainxt  them.  The  district  suffered  agaiA  (1671)  at  the 
hands  of  Mortiza  Kiz^m  Shtih  of  Abiui-dnngar,  who,  enraged  at 
Himn  for  helping  his  rival   the  Bcrir  chief,  sacked    BurMnpur. 



>  Hu  iqkIo  ft  rsiil  ialo  KliiadMb,  vekod  BoilLLDpaT,  iJnuf  htwed   tbouoopk  nott 
unnierdtully.  aait  currieil  ulT  imiMtiiiHi  txiotj.     BlnchBiaiin'*  Ain-i'Alitttri,  ].  3S& 

*  Ompu*  T>)Mk>l-i.Ak)drl  in  KlUot,  V.  37<l    Pi'  MoljMiuniuI't  harm  «•*  Ulh 

by  aoiBcl,  add  bo  WM  Uiroun  into  Ihe  w*tar  And  tlmwneiL     '  Ky  waj' of  wat«r, ]_^ 

wcatio  tat,  and  tb«  tiflM  of  or^ihuii.   noor  »r«tch«e,  ud  opiiT**,  ut(l«d  bu 

buHMM.'    Badtani, 

at.   foot 




Aod  blockailing  Aflityitl,  hftJ  to  Im>  bought  nff  by  Uiu  paTnicnti>f 
£40,0W  i«,O0.0O0  muta/ariM).  Two  years  later  {1570),  HjnUi  da-d 
of  fcv*«r. 

On  Mirdn'ti  d««t1i,  na  faia  sum  Uiuiaiii  Kliitii  vrti»  a  minor,  liia 
brother  ItAja  Ali  was  cbo:i«n  sucopsaor,  A.  tnan  of  ^reat  tatenl,  juat, 
wise,  prnd<?ntl7  nn<l  hrsw,  RAjn  Alt,  seeing  tlmt  Akbsr'a  power  tDUBt^\ 
becomo  miprerae,  slrcive  U>  win  hia  fiivour  by  si-iidiiig  him  ripht^/' 
prefieiita  and  admilliup  his  snpr«inacy.  In  a  dispote  betiveea 
AhmcdnikgAr  and  fririr.  ShIiUhiI  Khiin  the  Bcriir  jiorernor  w.-w 
wonti^d.  Kctiriiig  l'>  Biirhiiiipiir,  he  prayed  li&y-i  AH  to  bolp  htm, 
but  OS  he  ^ot  no  cvrlain  promise  of  help,  he  ^uriicd  Kurbsnpur,  and 
retreated  north  toirnrds  Agm.  On  tho  way  li<!  was  ovcrtnkcn  on* 
the  Narbada  by  lUiH  Ali,  and  di-foated  with  the  loita  of  many 
elephanta.  On  reaching  Afrra,  &iUbal  Khin  was  received  into 
favour  and  siippliwl  with  mcnns  (o  wajfc  waron  Ahmi-dna^r.  Rdja 
Ali,  pri-awd  buiU  by  the  Delhi  and  the  Abmednagwr  gi-nei-iild  to  join 
tJieir  parties,  finally  aided  with  Ahinodnagar,  wid  thu  Mu^'hfd 
Bcnontl  was  forefid  to  rclrwiT  Thoiijfh  on  thi-t  Oi-cmion  h"  alliud 
himself  with  the  Deacanis,  KAja  Ali,  cbietly  tbroui^h  the  perana^'ion 
oi  the  £han  Kh4uriin,  ehortly  aftor  declarctl  biii  aiU-giniicc  to  Akbar. 
Coin  wiM  airuck  and  prnyent  read  in  Akbar'a  tiami;;  Ehi^deftb  was 
given  aa  a  grant  to  lUja  Ali  Kh&n  ;  and  be  was  enrolled  araonfif  the 
nobles  of  5IJ0O.'  In  llio  next  pxpodition  (1591),  for  thu  coii(]ui;«t  of 
thu  DoLVaii,  hu  xided  with  thi'  M(^hali>  under  priuix-  Miirad,  and  in 
the  great  battle  of  ^PP4j>t  on  the  Godivari  l\^ii7),  leadinc  the 
attnck  with  jrrent  l)nive^7°^  ^^^  killed  by  the  cuance  exploBion  of 
a  jiiiwdor  tuinbriL' 

BahdJur  Khin  (159fl-15W).  R4ja  Ali's  son  and  auoceasor,  built 
the  fown^  BiihAdnrpur  about  wven  miles  puhI  of  Qurluinpur.*  Bv 
npgbHrting  to  piiv  n-H(iect  to  Ak^lrar'a  representative,  prince  D^nyiU, 
and  by  «biilting  uimsi-lf  in  ^tirgadand  laying  in  stores  fur  a  siege, 
he  brought  on  himsolf  tho  lull  wt-ighl  of  llie  imperial  nrmA.  Akbar 
marched  in  mraon  to  carry  oti  the  war,  and  arrived  at  Burlidnpur. 
Ue  overran  KJiandeshand  blockaded  Asirgad.  Tbesiege  was  pressed 
vrith  vigour,  and  in  spitu  of  its  ntri'^ngth  and  the  abundance  of  its 
storftt,  the  outposlM  wei-e  taken,  and  the  garrison,  w^Akoned  by 
disease  and  by  Ualiiidiir's  inismanageineni,  anrrendered  in  150'J 
(10<iS   H.).*    fiabtUlnr  waa  sent  m  a  pri«>n«r  to    GwflTor,'  itnd 

(K......  ,....,  »'>nd<.!rfully  rich  and  well  peopled,  yielding  in  places 

great  abundafipe  of  grain,  cotton,  wool,  and  sugar,  with  great 
markets  for  'try  fruit«,  yarn,  prints,  c-alicoes,  lawns,  brtss-ware^ 
aruH.  and  di-ug.t.*     It  f<n-uiud  a  province  ISO   miles  (70  kta)  front 



BuJUrfor  JTJ 

•>m<ton.  TI.?4I. 

•  IkiKito*  KitttthM,  il.  -2741  III.  309 :  IV.  334.       ■  PcnahU  (F«niaa  SdLX  H.  5W. 

*Tli<)>ii'-'    il.^  :>  ritliwlunaiiii'i  Xiu-i-AkbMi,  I.  337)  Mtiil  tofaivebam  arraafad 

*Tba  lr.t>Jkiit    uccd  FUcfa   ud    Kowbtfry  (1985).  Jangigny'i   Ud*.  304,  and 
Stdxiak  (ICOI)  lu  Hwiw,  1.  e& 

f  Bombay  QuttUtr, 



!h&pl«r  Vn..    e^t  to  west  and  100  miles  from  north  to  south.     It  wm  boundi 
con  (HI  n  oil    HurK^fwoe 

M.l'M^  t. 


I2W- 1760. 


U    of 

jrere  aaaata  owr.     It 

BUD-aivisionw   j^ipldin^  a  yeitrly   reveuuo  of 

HitHi(lt<»    IliPito,  tho   Kandarbir 

£7&,8Mo    (l,'2«,17,O0i    tungaha}.*       _ _     , 

dislJHct,  with  soven  sub-divieionB  and  an   area  of  007, 2v3  acres 

(o,01,62,2oO 'Mm*),  and  furniah<>3s00o«V(ilry  and  6000  infantry.  Tl^B 
winter  waa  tempeiuto,  the  air  delightfal,  and  the  rivers  «ml  >itiviin^^ 
abundant.     Tfao  thirt}'-twoJial><d)viKionK  were  all  in  high  cultivnlion, 
«The  husbandmen,  KuiTbiA,  Uhils,  and  (iondH  wviv  dutiful  gubjc-ct-s 
and  very    hard    workers.     The   chief  product  was   Indian  millet, 
jcari,  which  in  »ev«nil  |)lneott  jieUli-d  thri«  crops  a  year.       Rice  vnut 
excellent,  the  Tegetsblee  remarkably  fine,  betel  leaf  abundunt,  an 
Bowers  and  fruit  plcntifnL'     Of  manufactures,  there  wei-e  differc 
kinds  o(  finw  and  onlinary   c«t1on  doth.'     Ofeitips  there  wei«? 
Burh&Tipur,  a  large  city  ioliabited  by  people  of  all  nations  abounding 
in  hanmcTafta ;  Afiir,  a  large  city  at  the  foot  j4  the  fort ;  Chopdr " 
K   largo    town   well  pitoplud ;  Damburni,  a  populous   town ;    a: 
Bdlabad,  m  good  town.* 

On  its  conc|ue8t  by  Akbar,  in  honour  of  prince  D&oyAl  wh 
was  choaen  ilt*  fftiTertior,  the  name  of  tlie  province  was  changed  to 
Dinde^.*  For  the  first  thirty  years,  though  without  much  n-giilar 
fighting  or  oymn  opposition,  the  district  was  unsettled  ami  di>cliiiing. 
In  1609  (February),  the  English  merchant  Hawkins,  travelling  from 
Surat  to  Bnrh&nptir,  even  with^  nn  cncvrt  of  abont  eixly  Path^a 
hor»e,  wa»  Kttiiekeii  by  n  troop  of  outlaws."  Svxt  year  (Jnuiiary 
Februaiy  1010),  the  Viceroy  had  been  defeated  by  the  people  of  ihi 
Peocan,  and  the  country  was  disturbed.  The  roads  were  not  si' 
for  bodiiia  of  less  than  1000  hono.  The  Doccsnis  made  inroada 
the  Tiipti,  plundnrinu:  tho  people  and  sacking  Kitvvr  and  »th 
towns/  The  places  mentioned  arc:  Niwimpur,  a  large  town  under 
PralApshah  uf  UAgliin ;  Dnyta,  ngrent  town  in  it  fvrtiic  soil  ;  Badnr, 
a  filthy  town  with  a  manufacture  of  maha  wine  ;  Saler  and  Muler, 
two  fitir  cititts  where  utahmitdin  worth  about  l«.  were  coined ; 
Nandurb^r,  a  city  with  many  tombs  and  hou&ea  of  pleasure,  a  eaatle, 
and  a  fair  pond  ;  Linga),  a  beaxtly  town  with  thievish  pooplo  and  a 
dirty  castlu;  Sindkhoda,  a  great  dirty  town ;  ThUuer,  a  fair  town 

>  ilB^tAkllMaJI^Sf)^    TtMmb-dividonawMt^  Anr,  AtrnL  Krunlol,  Pu 
Bibgni.  t^irmAl  (to  tlw  wtat  <J  BuhAnptir),  ParmAl  (to  the  ■oath-aut  o^lhirh 
*.  *,  BhiUniir,  J^mod.  Jiair.  ChiUiiliir.  J>lod,  Jnr«»,  Otocn.  Ddntri,  Kivci.   Itn'iua- 
par,  Sivda.  Mlhil,  SoksdgBiia,  ?<ebitd,  Nuir-SbMiuUd,  Loliiig,  ijjiadarli,  Kdltbad,       . 
IiOhUa.  MU)jni<i,  itDcl  KMir«b«d.  ^H 

*KUiido*h  ii  n'<'"^'ly  montuticd  «■  oae  of  tlw  Iwtt  mango  dJMrictt.    Bloeh^H 
ntian**  nia-i-Aklaii.  fis.  "    •  jf        ^^ 

*  Fiaeataff  called  a6(ll<(A,lUld•^rdin»ryc«tto«  cloth  knonn  a>  drij>n/u>d  iMnian. 
Sm  Blodiantn'*  Ain-i-AkUri,  I.  M.         •  (ilBdwio'*  Aiit-i-AkUti.  11.  fil  -M- 

*  AkbM  colled  it  Medeab,  «  ooiupoaad  ot  DinyAl  and  Khtiuloxh.  BlooliiiiMUi'* 
Ain-l-AkbMf),  L  336.  Copp«r  coiat  oftlkd  Dicpuu.  ciiiaod  ta  Snthiapnr,  ««r«  (a 
1818  «iU  tonaa  in  Kktodcah.     Mr.  CravIoyBoorcy,  C.S. 

*  Korrt  Voyagei,  Vm.  229.  f  Piadi  ia  Kcn'«  Vojrsge*,  MIL 




riUi  a  castle ;   Chopda,  a  grcnt  town ;   Kiiror,  a  cotititr]>  yiUage ; 
.  Jival,  «  largo  town  wjtli  good  caMilo  ;   and  Uarltdupur,  a  rory  largo 
bat  beftstly  city,  witJi  a  fine  gai-deo,  banquet  bouse,  and  cASlTe.' 

Ten  Tears  later  (1618),  Sir  T.  Roo  found  thu  country  quite  as 
unsettled.  Tnivvllent  wben  they  stopped  for  the  Dighl  inndu  a 
i^n^  fence  of  their  carte  Hnd  pitched  tlifir  tunt«  tnEido.  On  any 
"iuitpiciim  of  Iho  lowil  governor  tirovidttd  n  spDciiil  guard  of 
horse.*  The  dititricts  were  full  of  cattle,  tlie  east  miserable 
and  barren.  The  towns  and  villaj^  woro  bnilt  of  mud,  and  even 
BorhAnpur,  tbcmgb  with  trade  enough  to  ntlraot  an  Kngli^h  fnctory, 
and  deacribed*  '  as  very  great,  rich,  and  full  6f  people/  wiva,  except 
the  houses  of  the  V  iceroy,  tbc  cominander-Jn-cbieF,  auQ  a  fow  others, 
entirely  of  mad  cottugOM-* 

Soon  after  the  beginning  of  ShAfa  .lab&n's  reigo  (1629-1630), 
Lbiiidesh  suffered  from  the  twofold  calamity  of  war  and  famine. 
ban  JahAu  Ijodi,  fonncrly  governor  of  tlio  l)ec«»u,  nujipcctiug 
he  bod  !oKt  ibe  truHt  of  the  Emperor,  fled  from  Agra  witb  a 
ii^e  body  of  troopAi  and  made  bis  way  to  thu  T>i.>ccAn.  The 
imperial  power  waa  much  reduced,  including  only  eaat  Kh&ndefth 
anil  purt  of  Benir.  So  serious  wms  the  rovolt  tliat  Shtih  JabAn  took 
the  iield  in  poreoa,  and  balling  at  Biirhinpur,  sent  throe  annieis 
into  the  b»xtib>  territory.  A  detachment  of  8000  horse  under 
&ja  Abut  Haaan  waa  sent  to  take  Xasik,  Trimbak,  and 
Saogamner.  They  passed  the  rainy  sensou  in  the  vilhigo  of  Phulia 
near  Laling  fort.  After  the  rains,  they  wore  joined  by  Sher  Khitu, 
aTCTDorof  OujanSt  with  26,000  men  who  attacked  Batora  near 
'hftndor,  ravaged  the  country,  and  returned  with  great  spoil. 
WhiU*  Sbor  Khi'iT)  wiik  engaged  at  Oiunilor,  Khiija  Abtil  Haxan 
itered  lUglilu,  aud  finding  that  oil  tho  people  had  Kit  their  rillagea 
ad  fied  to  the  billi,  rtent.  tmnps  after  tbotn.  Corn  and  other 
iiDce-«Karies  were  c<iitecced  and  many  of  tbu  enetny  killed  or  takea 
Orisoners.  In  the  east  Darya  Kh&n,  one  of  the  rebel  nobles,  passing 
ito  Kbitndo'^h  by  Chtiisgaon  ravaged  Krandol,  Dharangaon,  and 
_tber  ptac«s.°  These  losses  were  followed  by  a  total  failure  uf  rain 
orer  the  whole  country  From  Abmednbad  to  Daalatabad.  Landa 
acd  for  their  richne«  were  utterly  l>arren.  IJfit  was  oftirrwl  fora 
oaf  but  none  wouhl  buy ;  rank  for  a  cake,  but  none  cared  for  it ;  the 
Orer-k»untcoTi8  Iiund  was  stretched  out  lo  bog,  aud  the  rich  wandered 
in  scjirob  of  food.     Dog's  flush  was  sold,  aud  the  pounded   bones  of 


7V  UoghaM 

■  Pincb  in  Rorr'i  Vajag*^  VIH.  279. 

*  Terry'*  Vorasn,  UV2.  H/hi,  whoM  chkplab  Tarry  wna,  nMlcn  that  vhM  thty 
•tapped  ki  Cli«]iaii,  tbinr  t«nU  wars  (UAnleiJ  by  thirty  koiM  aud  tirtiity  iIhiI  for 
fear  (■(  tbnir  bcmit  attMskod  by  robb***  (ram  Ihv  mounUiia*.    K<tPr'*  ^'vyw**,  IX,  356. 

•  TcriY*  Vo;*!^.  SO. 
«Rncin  Kerr'*  Voyagcc.  IX.  236-'J5T.    Oflhcmrd  p^rU Tarry  (Voys^M,  ITO-IW) 

rrlt«B :  The  vilLiffmtAni]  very  ttiiok,  but  tli«hoii*nar*ii;«B«r>lly  v«rypwr«tiilbM«. 
LlllbeseiwDDtrydirolliagiiArvMtclaM  toK>lbcTi  noue  «(iukI»  Rlajflj' sdiI  iJimm.  8oom 
-a(  tbc  hnoMi  have  tkrtb  wall*  mixcii  with  irtntw  ml  uu  Jnst  altiir  tlxi  nkiu,  aod 
baTiag  fe  \«ag  niMia  to  dry,  >t*ail  firm  ;  lh*y  am  hiuk  lnw  mid  laany  <J  tbam  flat. 
Winl  iif  thnr  nrliaiinrii  miiwsUy  ^i,  hub.  uid  Ixum,  btiilt  uritli  i'i<ry  litlla  ciiarsa. 
Ml  on  witli  uicki  talhar  diw  tunbcr,  la  t^at  It  thay  cbHiKH  t»  tire,  ttny  nuj  lor 
very  little  tM  re.edtfi«l.  ■  BAdaUh  Nima  bi  E2liot,VIl.  Ir),  li.aad  17. 

■  411-83 

fBombar  OtHttMf , 


Chapter  VII. 




tbfl  dead  were  mixed  wiili  floar.     The  Sesh  of  n  son  tm  pr«f« 

to  htB  Isve.     The  dying  blocked  the  roads  mid  those  who  sun-ived 

flud.     Food  bonsoH  woro  opened  nt   Hiirhanpur.     Krer?  day  soap 

Aud  br«ad  n-eri:  diHtributed,  and  each  Monday  £000  (R*.  5000)  von  i 

given  to  the  desorvitig  poor.     The  Emperor  and  the  nobles  maflri 

gri-^tit  rvmissioiiH  ui  rovonuo.' 

In  IGSi,  Kb&ndofth  wiw  nudo  into  «  aubha,  kd 

Ber^  and  the  nreacnt  district  of  KhinntBB!n&  far  aou 

The  district*  oi  SnUdnym;  ^d  jjiandnrbAr  haJ  FormerTv  beenjofi 

to  M&lwo.     The  country  Koutb  of  Khwdeah,  ns^far  im  tho  Shi 

part  of 

iug7.ob.     Nest 

was  made  into  a  aepafate  ttifcAa,  of  '^M"''  T">'!"''-'' 
Bolh  g(>vermiieutHwena'in"lC36  " 

year  the  Mo)«hal  power  was  mBcb'ntoK.-  ;iriiiiy  eaiauJiaTurd  in  Niisik 
and  west  Khhiide«b  ;  NagJk,  Tnmbak,  and  aorenJ  M  tiio  Ciiiiudiji:  hill 
forts  were  taken  or  siirroudi-'reil,  antl  ibe  ^jf^foT^Q^I  wax  forc^cd  to 
pay  tribute.'  Doriug  the  years  of  pence  whii^  followed,  Shiih  Jahin 
introdiiood  into  KhiindvNli  T-nIiir  Mill's  fi.mous  rc'votme  8«ttloinf nt. 
The  land  was  measured,  the  prvtiucftor each  Inglia  ascertained,  and  tho 
proportion  to  be  paid  to  fj^vemment  sellJect  for  each  field.  Thia 
asJWAiimvnt,  lonj;  known  in  Kbandesh  n»  tankha,  cuiitinned  tliu 
nominal  tttamli^  till  (lie  introdntrlion  of  British  rula  At  tliiH  time 
and  till  the  close  of  the  Boventcenlh  century,  the  presence  of  \nifC9 
bodicH  of  troops,  and  of  tli<?  courts  nf  llm  Kniperor  and  many  of  hi> 
chief  nobles,  lofjjothcr  with  the  centering  of  trade  along  routes  tliat 
led  throU{;}i  Khiindi^sb  to  Surat,  greatlv  eiinchi-d  iho  proviiiCH,  Iq 
1860  it  yielded  a  revcnne of  moroihan  £2,700,000  (R».  2,70,00,000). 
Few  parts  of  tho  Mt>ghal  Kmpiro  wcro  so  rich.  Hie  ways  were 
fafely  Kuarded  ^nd  it  was  full  of  villages  and  well  peopled  towns. 
Probably  no  part  of  India  was  richer  in  cotton,  ric<-,*  and  indigo, 
and  in  many  places  were  tiugni'canu  plantatton)^  with  mill!!  and 
furnaces  to  make  sugar.  At  flnrbaupur  the  cloth  trade  was  as 
gi%at  as  in  any  part  of  India,  Tho  costly  white  duths  used  by  ilio 
rich  »«  veils,  [■corf.*,  iind  kcn'iiitrfs,  w(^ro  in  Mpwial  favour  from 
liie  beautiful  bleading  of  i-ilver  and  gold;*  prodigious  '(oaiitities 
were  sent  to  Poisia,  Turkey,  Poland,  Muscovy,  AnUiin,  and  (irand 

The  middleof  the  seventeenth  eenttiry  was  the  time  of  KhAnde«h'» 

highest  prosperity^     A  few  yoars  later   Baw  the  beginning  of  tho 

•    jtartitfaa  exactioPB,  from  which  tho  district  contiutnil  to  suffer  till 

•  fffTwiqnoarCyllie  British  in  1818.     In  1670,  after  hia  Sttoond  sack 

»  EUiot.  VIL  fij.  57,  ■od  8ft 
It  wu  mull  and  whitf  m 


)  BtdihAh  XAOH  in  Hiiot,  Vtl.  94-^ 

*  Thir  ri<^  grown  st  KavApur  htd  ■  >p*aial  valat. 
and  bad  >  muk-likv  fcont.  „ 

•Tli««ii)t'»  Vor»g[w  lie«C).  V.  212,  216.  Tavomiw  (tMO-IfifiO)  in  H»rTi»,  Tt. 
.laa  The«e  rq^HU  o(  tbe  gnmt  riclinMx  of  KlutBdah  protwhly  loillv  rafar  i>i>ty  to 
tbewell  vtitand  WMtaod  to  tlietiirhTdutt  v^Uv.  (hiiliijr'i  I16T0)  woouDt  <.\Uu, 
V.  236.->3H),tkit.tlio«8lipl«auneiu](lfruiUii1uaM'tliaTip<l,  Kbiadeiii  wu  »  niMrt 
nkrta  li»rrtn,  nnvhoJoMOM,  twkdj-,  aad  liry.  wcnu  mor*  likely  to  be  corrert.  Erta  m 
tllvHcli  paria,  acMiriiiw  t«  ^rnier  (L^tten.    Ranhav  fiditloci.  UI.  71).  tao  sround 

wttttohnlly  poor.     It  »■«   no  tmatl  Uiing  wtm  tb»y  bad  whcnmfiUi  t«  Uva  and 
«t«th*  tlt«BNatvM  aarrc*);. 



o!  Siir&t,  SUirdji  )Missed  south  throafth  Klillnd«s1i,  uid  n  fejv 
tuontJift  lat^r  sent  an  officer,  Pnitiipi'ilv  Oiiftfj  "n*'  for  tbe  6rst  time 
dcmani1('<l  the  p«vra«nt  of  ono-foarlh  oi  tiie  rereniie,  ehauth,  aad 
pluudered  several  \arao  towns.  Moropont  Trimal  took  tho  iniporUint 
tortroBB  of  ^jlbflr  in  Biiglfa.  comiiianding  ono  of  tlte  f^*'*^'  foada 
uCo  GujarStTT^m  this  time  the  west  was  often  di^lurbod  by 
"aritlin  and  Moghnl  cnnflift'',  iitid  by  the  cxactiims  of  a  (rwebooter 
_  kmod  Kbniidfrrav  IMbliAde,  wlio,  hostile  alike  to  tlio  Sloghals  and 
Mai'£t)iii3,  managed  to  support  himself  among  tlio  w(!«lem  hills. 

Tn  1()72,  tbo  Mogbals  under  Mnhdhnd  Kliin  besieged  S^lher. 
Shivilji  sent  a  foi'cu  to  rsi)%  the  siege  which  was  attacked  by  i)\o 
MophalB,  but  after  »  »rvtn<  nctif)n,  the  Mojfhali;  v,ei<:  dcfi-ated,  and  . 
the  w'^v  raised.  In  IGTTj,  Shivaji  pltindered  KhaDde-ih,  sackingaiid 
burning  the  great  marts  of  Chopda  and  fjliaranmop.  two  of  the  mnst 
flourishing  plncos  in  the  dixtnct.  Hi-i  ilealh  in  I08O  did  Utile  to 
feaLore  peace.'  Four  years  later  (168i),  the  Kmperor  Aurangzcb, 
entering  Kh^ndesh  with  a  grifit  army,  aiVcr  a  fierce  n-tfi»lanoo 
gninud  the  forts  of  Ch<tnil»r^  n^|[|i|^[[^^  j^l^'tf-  ^°^  paased  to  tbe 
south.  No  sooner  were  the^iogbaia  gone,  than  (1685)  Sainbhiiji 
overran  and  plnndorud  the  whule  dintriett  took  Qmjj^miu^  and 
retired  ravaging  the  country  along  the  has©  of  tnoSatmaU  hiUa 
towards  Nil«ik.  For  _twontv  yuarn  the  ktru^o  wont  on,  Forta 
wore  tiiken  and  retakenj  and'froin  time  to  time  the  Uar^ttiU  spread 
over  the  country,  burning  and  pillaging.' 

AtUfr  AnrangzeVs  death  (1707),  disorder  still  further  increased. 
In  1708,  ShAhu,  ShivAji'a  grnndfton,  gaining  his  liberty,  mixed  a 
body  of  troops  in  the  west  of  KhitndpHh  and  plundered  the  country 
from  8^^a^.  to  Uurhitnpnr.*  In  17i;{,  a  dispute  iK'twixn  Hu«iin  All 
Kh£n«i>d  Ddad  fehdn.  two  of  theleading  Delhi  nolijes,  endecTiwar 
Bnrh&opar  in  a  fierce  bnttia  in  which  Diiud  Khan  wax  itlain.* 
Believed  of  his  rival,  Husain  turned  hi-i  attention  to  suppress 
Khaodertv  Dabhade.  tho  Maratba  kader  who  held  the  west  of 

*  Ome'a  IIwtorie±l  FtmtrnMiit^  H  1*% 

■  Sambh<li  [«)l  D{><iii  Biilmiiiiriair  obniit  «nfn  dijIm  *a*t  ot  ButhAnpiir,  *  riirh  plu« 
wilk  nuuiy  luuilwni  ond  morvliaiiUL  J«f>(1j.  money,  uicl  c<m1«  trom  xlt  inrUut  Iha 
^Wild  were  fonlwl  there  in  ftbuiiiluu^o.  Hx  lurrotilvlfil  3bA  at(,ick«>)  ttii«  pliir^  wid 
•  BnollMir  towti  called  ll«Jdk|iuiii,  wliicli  wiu  i>tilcii|«  rif  Ibo  (i<riilScMii>n<,  kliil  hi* 
wl  v«a  ao  mdiUu  and  BiioxjioctMl,  Mjieritlly  ujxin  lUli^urfiar,  tlut  110  ona 
|m«  able  U>  UTo  a  Mm  or  a  Jiram  oI  liii  nraiwrty.  ar  a  tiast*  eoo  of  hia  wivnt  and 
L^ildirn.  ThoJEnprmlBBncfml,  Kikar  KUn  anil  tiia  inea,  MWtb*  moke  ad  IbctowB 
Itiabg  to  IIm  A.J,  but  «-M  aot  atrong  enon^  to  attuk  tbo  plsncleKn  i  •»  he  ihnt' 
111 i ma  If  '■pvithinBariManiu'widlooVod  after  th«  ae«ari(r  of  rta  yatei  aad  dofcBoca. 
f  Smi:!!!-?.!!!  oUior  pliH<«8  M  note  ia  tbe  Bcis)it»tirliaad  ol  tbo  city,  all  woalthr  and 
1  (liiiii-»tuii^,    wvr«   utnodered  and  banit.    Muatakhalf-ul-lDbdb  iii  l^bot'a    Uiitory, 

VII,  JMi;, 

'In  liiST.KibaSiaJia  and othn officer* »(  Rltn  Rij»,  cnUvIng  Kbindob  from 
tbo  vfttK  uiih  an  ana;  at  SOOO  horto,  drfvxttd  Ihn  MualntiD  cnmmander  Bbmui 
Ali  KhJm  and  cilorleJ  £1S,UOO  (Ke.  1 .90,000)  trnuj  TbJilnvr  an'!  tho  couiitty  RiODd. 
•nd  KUpM  (Ri.  I.4O.00O)  (roDi  Naiwlur><ir.  MoaUkh»b.<>I.|uUI>  tn  Klliot.  VU. 
'MS,  3(3.  11  the  headmen  eaww  nut  aad  ur««d  to  uar  a  e«rt»io  tarn,  lb*y  w«n  l«ft 
]unole*l*a  by  tbe  MaMtha.    EDiat'*  Hlalory,  VII.  4SC 

*  ElUot-a  lUnon,  VII.  300. 

*  Tbe  cause  of  t£U  dimttta  wedd  ■«»  to  have  be«n,  th:U  th*  R«pM«r  Vamkahor 
bad  privately  ineited  PCnd  Khla  to  racial  Uomid  Ali  Kbla,  tJM  OMniaal  aovMiut. 
BUA-a  Hiilofy,  VIL  t51. 

Chapter  TI 




TV  JToaJUfi 


PBombay  Qi 



pt«  vn. 


1099- ITW. 


KhJindtMli.  naaain's  sUctnpt  fAilod.  The  foroo  sect  to  thd  irea 
ftoa  -lurprised  amoa^  tUo  liiUs,  surrotiuded,  and  out  to  piooos- 
Shortly  after,  HuEsra  findio^  he  wus  wanted  at  Delhi,  made  a 
treatjr  with  the  SfarAthfoj  oeding  thnin  the_oiJi'-fyiiiilK  chauth,  nnd 

M.    Tins  treatT  th< 

one- tenth,  Kar3e*itm<al 

I  roTeuuoa. 

treaty  the 

Emperor  rufHaod  to  ratify,  and  thu  war  wunt  on  till,  in  1720,  under 
the  loHaence  at  li^litji  Vishranfitb,  ~ 



{SeTfenns  were  ngrfcd  to. 

Not  long  after  11720),  Chinkilich  Efa4n,  better  known  as  tl 
Nimm-ul-nmlk,  wh«,  after  the  murder  ui  tVroksliir,  liud  been 
AppOllited  governor  of  M&lwa,  revolted,  and  crosAiiig  tbe  Narbnda 
at  the  bead  of  12,000  men,  31  ■iiiodB  urban  pur  and  Aairpad,  and 
dcfoiktiiig  lh>!  imperial  forces,  first  at  ilurbftiipur  ami  tbeii  ut  Billitpiir 
'  in  Berdr,  reduced  and  annexed  the  ivholo  of  Khilnde§h,  and  made 
himselC  almost  suprx'me  m  the  DeccaiT  Aims  so  opposite  as 
fche  Ni}!t(ni'!i  and  the  Mar^thjia'  soon  led  to  a  collision.  A  nbort 
campaign,  ending  lather  to  the  adranlage  of  the  Mar&th4a,  waa 
followoil  hy  an  agreement  mider  whit-h  Khiiudcvh  was  to  bo 
respected  by  the  Mar^th4£  in  their  passage  to  and  fnim  M^wa,  and 
nothing  but  the  usmtl  tribute  w»k  to  Ije  levied  &om  tbe  Deccan. 
Thi*  trwty  remained  in  force  till  Chinkilieh  Ebiu'i*  death  in  \748. 
Four  years  later  S^^iatJangi.  bis  eon  and  6ucce&s<or,  waa  attack  &d 
by  tJie  MardihM«iaol>ng5rt«  anrroodor  moat  of  Khtodeeb.  and 
aiier  twelve  year*  (17dO),  the  Mai^tba  victory  was  comp1et«d  by  the 
fall  of  Aairgad 




Next  year  (1761)  the  Nixiun,  taking  advantage  of  the  ruin 
that  fell  on  the  Marath^s  at  PfiDjiat,  msrcbed  on  Poena  aud 
compelled  the  Pcshna  U>  re^itore  the  InColy  code>d  parts  of  Kh^deab. 
Hie  suocfJW  was  KhorUivcd.  *  On  bis  way  )mck,  overtaken  and 
defeated  liy  the  Uar^tbAs,  he  was  forced  to  restore  the  toi-ril«ry 
tlie  Peshwa  and  confirm  his  former  cessions. 

After  a  short    tenn  of  p«^to»,  di.-sscnsions  broke  ont  amongst  the 
Hartithii*,  and  in  the  di.M>utes  between  tbe  Peiihwa  utid  his  uncio 
HaghimiithniT    f ^7<W  - 1 7Hi1.   Klmndesh   wns  often    the  scene  of 
dinorder    and    war.     In  1774.  after   defeating    ibe   army  of   t! 
Brdhman    minist^-rs    at    Pandbarpur,    BagnnAtbriY    amrched 
^BrhAfpar  I'Jl'*  'hwPP  to  JJ^llw^,  and  then,  to  gain  followera 
Gajar^t,  rooved  to  Thilnor  and  gnrrivoned  it.     But  the  fort  waa 

soon  after  rediiwHl  by  the  Peahwa's  troops. 

In  1778  (February  6-25),  the  English  Brst  appear  as  a  military 
"power  in  kb&ndcsh.  Colnnel  OoddariT,  on  his  march  from  Qentnu 
*India  to  Sural,  found  Kbilndeah  most  prosperous.  Ikfany  of  tb<» 
grain  carts  collected  at  TfurhiUiimr  weiv  left  behind  by  the  speed 
at  which  the  army  moved  (!)00  miles  in  nineteen  days),  and  the 
troops  had  lo  depend  for  provisions  on  the  villages  along  their  Una 
of  march.  The  .-xippty  wu«  abundant,  aud  the  people,  industrious, 
happy,  and  humane,  did  not  liy  from  their  villages,  but  voluntarily 
offered  prorisionn  nnd  gniin.  For  cifflity  mili-s  west  of  Btirhanpur 
the  cotintry  was  full  of  villages,  fertile,  proap^-rowa,  and  well  tilled.' 


Anuiut  ot  BomUy  11781).  280,  390. 





In  1705  (13th  Matvli),  after  his  dofMit  at  K^da.  fbc  Nn&m, 
MDongfSCfivr  territory,  cwi(-<i  to  Uie  PesEwiiliiB  Kh^udcAh 
pORsetuions.  From  tliii«,  aft«r  luakJDg  grants  to  the  great  MaMtha 
chiefs,  eepcvinlly  to  Holkiir  and  Siniliii,  tho  part  Ivft  to  tlto 
Po»hff»  watt  (oriDod  into  a  aejmrato  char;^,  tuhha.y'  I'he 
distarbaoces  which  followed  the  dcnth  (1796)  of  Poshwa  MidhaTrfiv 
II.  wuri>,  two  ytiara  tutor,  incrcnaod  l>v  the  dispuies  atnon^  the  W 
aons  of  Uolkar's  general  Tukoji.  Kiishir&v,  the  eldest  legituoate 
eon,  was  sapportod  by  Sindia,  Bad  MuDuimiv,  the  itix-ond  son,  hy 
his  iltcvitiniaie  broiliors  Jasvantr^v  and  Villiobft.  Malh^rrfiv  waa 
killed  oy  tiindia  in  u  trpncliOToits  attack  mado,  it  was  miid,  at  Ibv 
instigation  of  Ki'uibinir  who  had  im-ilvd  SiNiiia  to  tLo  deed  hy  a 
bribt'of  £3&,00(}  (lU.  A,bOfiOO).  Enraged  at  Kfishir&v's  ancoess,* 
JaBvaPtrtig  broko  into  rebellion,  and  gathering  a  band  of  fro»* 
bootcrit.  laid  »nWo  tha  Khindesh  Narhada  districta.  ravaged  the 
hi)!  country  between  tho  jJarbada  and  the  T^ti,  took  Inaor,  and 
succeeded  in  driving  K&sliirnv  iutu  «xiIo/  Next,  joining  in  the 
titriigglo  botwem  UiulatntT  Sindia  and  tbe  tvo  widows  of  MiJh^d&ji 
bindia,  Jasvanir&v  attacked  Diulatr^v'a  forcus,  plundered  their 
camp,  and  drove  them  from  Kb^udeHh. 

The  new  century  (1800- 1W3)  had  worse  evils  in  store  for 
EhandMh.  War  broke  gflt  Miyy^  TTrJltur  an.l  Sii..1i».  and 
Sindia,  advancing  hurnealy    firom   I'oona,   waa   (1802)    mot    and  ^ 

_  iefeatod  by  Holkar.  B<tfor8  thoyoar  was  over  (October)  this  defeat 
WB--*  rfvpngrtj,  mid  K'likar's  army  wa»  routed  with  the  Iosb  of  ninety- 
eight  guDs.     While  Sindia  inarched  on  Ind»r.  Jaavantrav   Uolkar, 

'  ntheriDg  hia  acatiorcd  foreea.  advanoBd  ag^^nqt  T'oona.  Passing 
irocn^b  weitt  Khfade/ih,  without  pity  or  fuvtinr,  bo  utterly  niinud 
and  laid  it  waste.  His  aat-coss  at  Poona  (18021  forc«d  tbe  beat«n 
Pe»hwato  wick  British  ai3^  The  treaty  of  BMwei*  followed  (SIst 
December  1802],  and  tbe  English,  marching  on  Poona,  made  Uolkar 
retire  and  ro-watt-d  Biijintv  as  Pewhwa  (l.tth  May  IdOS).  Passing 
throDgh  east  Kb^doshon  his  way  north,  Uolkar  rained  it  as  utterly 
aa  he  had  before  raiued  the  west.  A  few  months  lator  (23rd 
Sept«mhtir  1803)  tbe  battle  of  Ab^jito  broko  the  power  of  Sindia 
and  of  the  Rrija  of  N^por,  and  tbe  Keglisb  entering  Khdndeah 
took  Burluiapur  and  Awrgad  (21sl  October  1803).*  After  Lho 
farther  defeat  at  ^X.lL'itfin  (28th  November  18^3)  Sindia  waa  forc«d 
to  sue  for  pencil.  Under  tbe  terms  of  the  treaty  then  made,  part 
of  his  lands  iu  Kb^dcah  were  rentoreil  to  Sindia  and  part  given  1o  . 

^^bo  Pcfrhwa  War  was  continued  against  Holkar,  and  his  share  ot 
}Cb^adc-^h  waa  on-iipiiid  by  Briliith  troopw.  After  a  protractod 
stragfflc,  tarnished  by  CoI.>ncl  Manaoo's  retreat  and  by  the  failure  of 
the  Bbaratpor  mb^i-.  Holkar.  aoing  for  poaco,  reveired  back  all  his 
lands  Bonlh  of  the  ChamEarflSOgT" 

Khindsflh  wa3  now  in  a  nii«crabla  plight.     Oo   Ihe  top  of  the 
rnin  wrought  by  Uolkar  came  a  failnre  of  rain.     Xo  harvef^t  waa 

Chaptar  TI) 
V   Bl«t«ry. 



>  Th«  *aUa  bobxUd  Oifais,  KUBdcali  proHi,  Menir,  lUJJfid,  Pi]  KmuUL  and 
nixUa.     HmbIIMi'*  1>«Krlpt)tm  of  aiadatUD,  IL  9& 

■  Tb«  mvM  of  «aiBD  b^Eii))  ufficitn  who  dud  in  tbii  ciwpusn  uv  ibn  tkown  at 
KkT*ApMU  In  Jiauier. 




(l)omU7  Oaiett«ar J 

reaped,  the  whole  stock  of  cattle  perished,  and  the  people,  dying^ 
o^  Bjiog   to  Gnjarni,   left    manj   pnrts   of  the   district   dteoiatQ. 
The   Bhil.t,  who  hml  licforc   livt^d  with    thu  othtir  iiiliuliitaiil4,   and 
bad,  aa   villas^'  wati'hnieii,  been  the  great  instrameais  of  police, 
retired  to  thu  hills,  and  whon  tliv  famiiw  was  over,  pillap^d  the 
rich  plain  villagf.4.      ^gaiuat   such    an    encniy    do   MciipniiN  wen 
thought    too  cruel  or  too   baw.      At    Kopargaon  jlStH),   BAUji 
lAksDnman,  tempting  frtiin  the  billti  a  lurgu  body  ot  the  Cbttndoi 
BhdM,  iiurrouiidc-a  and  masmcred  them.     This  treachery  only  mad< 
the  BbiU  fiercer,   and  tho  Mariitha  officers  rvtuliatod  br  most  cmi 
BHwaacro  al  Ch^lisgaon,  Dbaraiijaiftqti^  atid  Amur.     Tbcno  aava; 
punish  m  en  ta    did    lilllQ    to    rpsto  re 'order.       Uoaltlo    to    proteo: 
theoiHclvfH,  thi!  oliiffn  and   Inrgci  In nd holders  called  in  tho  aid 
Arab  nierceoaries,  and  these  foreigners,  nol  Ws  frugal  than  warlik 
soon  rose  to  ponvr.     Saring  their  pay  and  giving  it  oat  at  intorostr 
they  became  the  chief  moneylendent  of  the  diHlrict,  levying  large 
soma  both  from  their  employers  and  from  tho  general  body  of  tho^ 
pooplu.     Besi<Uw  from  Bhil  pliindertTS  and  Arab  n^nrfra,  the  distriol 
•offered  from  the  exactioas  of  its  fiHeal  offict-ra,  who,  farming  th' 
rerenncs  for  a  year  or  for  a  short  term  of  years,  left  no  nieoiA. 
untried  in  their  efforts  tu  wring  money  from  the  people. 

In  1816  a  now  enemy  fell  on  Khindesh,  ITie  I'endhfiris,  undi 
the  guidanco  of  tho  MnsitlniAn  Bliilx  iif  the  ea.stern  hilts,  entere' 
by  ihrt  Aairgnd  paaa,  and  with  no  troops  to  hara^^s  them,  pluuderci 
at  leisupo,  causing  more  misery  than  «ith(.T  Bhils  or  Arabs.  Their 
power  was  soon  broken.  In  1817.  as  part  of  l>:)rd  ilii.iting.i' 
complete  and  eucccs^fid  mCMurcit  ugninst  tho  Pvndliiiris,  Lieutenant 
3)»vic«,  with  a  body  of  Iha  Niziln's  lionie,  dii*pers(Ml  nnii  dixjvo  th 
from  Kh&ndesh.  Still  the  district  was  in  grr^t  disi^riler.  1 
fiu^ions  in  Malh^rlir  Holkiir'x  conrt,  and  Ihw  mnrdur  of  the  MAlwa 
miniittor,  added  to  the  greed  and  misrule  of  their  Khiiiidctfh  ofhconc.